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A NEW HISTORY OF 

STEREOTYPING 




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A NEW HISTORY OF 



STEREOTYPING 



by 



GEORGE A. KUBLER, ll.d. 



NEW YORK, N. Y. 
1941 




Copyright, 1941, 

by 
George A. Kubler 



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PRINTED FROM SILVERTYPE PLATES 

PRODUCED BY THE 
SILVERTONE STEREOTYPING PROCESS 



Printed Letterpress in the United States of America 
J. J. Little & Ives Company, New York 






OTHER PUBLICATIONS BY THE SAME AUTHOR 

A Short History of Stereotyping. 1927. 

Historical Treatises, Abstracts and Papers on Stereotyping. 1936. 

Wet Mat Stereotyping in Germany in 1690. 1937. 

The Era of Charles Mahon, Third Earl of Stanhope, Stereotyper. 1938. 



FOREWORD 

In 1927 I compiled "A Short History of Stereotyping," of which 
an edition of 6,000 copies was printed. The major part of these 
copies was donated to individual stereotypers in the United States, 
and the remainder of the edition was sent, upon special requests 
only, to schools of journalism, trade schools, public libraries and 
printing craft clubs throughout the world. In the course of the past 
ten years I have received a great many requests for copies of the 
little volume; however, none are left and thus to my great regret 
I have not been in a position to comply with these requests. 

More than a decade has passed by since the book was published, 
and vast has been the number of new inventions and improvements 
in operating methods and of all kinds of innovations that have 
appeared during this span of time. Furthermore, research into the 
history of stereotyping has been continued and many new interesting 
facts have been unearthed. In the light of all these events the 
fourteen year old book may be regarded as antiquated, and for 
all the reasons cited I have undertaken the task of revising and 
augmenting the contents of the 1927 "Short History of Stereotyping." 

In the preface of every one of the books I have published on 
this historical subject, I have stressed the fact, which I now repeat 
in respect to the present volume, that in writing the records I am 
writing solely as a compilator of historical facts. This present book 
is intended primarily for the erudition of stereotypers practicing 
their trade in newspaper plants or in job shops, and also for all 
other persons who may be interested in the history of the art. 

I have added a few additional chapters to this volume that 
were not contained in the former book, and also, on request, have 
given a more detailed recital of the history of writing; I have 
furthermore gone to greater lengths than before in recording early 
American newspaper history; in doing this I have quoted passages 
from "The History of American Journalism," by James M. Lee, and 
"Printing in the Americas," by J. C. Oswald. Also passages from 
E. S. Watson's "History of Newspaper Syndicates" and from an 



article by the late W. Bullen in the "Inland Printer" of 1922. I also 
wish to express my thanks to Alexander Bradie for his aid in 
correcting the proofs and preparing the index. 

As on former occasions, I again repeat that if this book will 
serve only one purpose, namely to instill in the American stereotyper 
the conviction that stereotyping is an art born thru centuries of 
hard, unceasing toil and research on the part of eminent men, and 
that in doing his daily bit he is carrying on the traditions of a 
craft and thus take additional pride in his daily task, I will feel 
most amply repaid for the time and labor I have spent in gathering 
and compiling the material contained in this book. 



Geo. A. Kubler 



New York City 
August, 1941 



£*1 



CONTENTS 

CHAPTER PAGE 

I. Writing and Printing 1 

II. Invention of Stereotyping 23 

III. The Papier-Mache or Wet Mat Process .... 75 

IV. A Short History of the Newspaper 93 

V. The Dry Mat or Cold Stereotyping Process . . . 135 

VI. Stereotyping in North America 147 

VII. Machines 227 

VIII. Inventions for Eliminating Stereotyping .... 279 

IX. Rubber and Plastic Stereotyping 299 

X. Auxiliary Newspaper or Syndicate Services . . . 317 

XI. Present Day Dry Mats 324 

XII. History of Stereotypers Unions 335 

Index 359 



A NEW HISTORY OF 

STEREOTYPING 



CHAPTER ONE 
WRITING AND PRINTING 



There are, in the history of human intellect, three fundamental 
stages, and each one presents a tremendous advance over the preced- 
ing stage: Speaking, Writing, Printing. Through the gradual progress 
made by means of speaking, writing and printing, man became more 
and more qualified for that which is his particular privilege and 
which is the fundamental condition of his superiority, namely for 
the communication of thought. 

Before entering upon the recording of historical data pertaining 
to the art of stereotyping, a short compilation dealing with the ma- 
terials and implements used for writing throughout the ages will 
doubtless be of interest to the reader, as will a short recording of 
the history of the art of printing. 

It is well nigh impossible to enumerate all the materials and 
objects which since the dawn of history have served for the reception 
of written and engraved figures and characters, designed for com- 
munication between human beings. At one time or another almost 
everything possessed of a surface adapted for the reception of 
written symbols has been used, either by necessity or often even 
when the necessity did not exist. 

The most ancient samples of writing were found in Mesopotamia. 
These were the Chaldean tile tablets, dating back to several thou- 
sand years before Christ. These tablets contain a great mass of 
commercial and legal documents, such as bills, receipts, contracts, 
and so forth. They also have brought to us the knowledge of an 
entire literature. Herodotus, the Greek historian, mentions a letter 
engraven on plates of stone, which Themistocles, the Athenian 
general, sent to the lonians over 500 years before the birth of Christ. 
Lead, however, and similar metals being less difficult to write upon, 
and more simple and convenient, afterwards superseded the use of 
such unwieldy substances as brick and stone. 

Many centuries ago, an ancient book was discovered entirely 
composed of lead. Not only were the two pieces that formed the 
cover, and the leaves, six in number, of lead, but also the stick 



inserted through the rings to hold the leaves together, as well as 
the hinges and the nails. It contained pictures of Egyptian idols. 
There were the Roman military diplomas, which were written on 
two bronze tablets. These were bound together through rings on the 
long sides, then wrapped in wires and the ends of same were kept 
together with wax, in which the seals of the witnesses were pressed. 
Lead and silver tablets with inscriptions were very often placed in 
the graves with the corpses. Even today stone tablets are used in the 
form of school slates. Another method was the pressure of engraved 
seals or signets into gold. 

At an early period of their history, Greeks and Romans appear 
to have commonly used ordinary boards. These boards were written 
upon just as they were planed. Later on these planed boards were 
covered with wax. These wax tablets were carried in small bags, 
attached to the girdle with a string and took the place of today's 
notebooks. The general use of such wax tablets continued until 
1500 A.D., and even up to 1783 such tablets were used in salt mines 
and monasteries. 

The Arabians used the shoulder bones of sheep, on which they 
recorded remarkable events, carving them with a knife, and after 
tying them together with a string they hung these chronicles up in 
their cabinets. In the library of Ptolemy, which is said to have 
contained 700,000 rolls, were the works of the Greek poet, Homer, 
written in golden letters on the skins of serpents. Thus stone, metal, 
wood, ivory, bones, skins, tiles and many other materials were used 
for writing. The use of planed boards, and boards covered with 
wax, were in some measure superseded by that of the leaves of the 
palm, olive, poplar and other trees. A record of this custom may 
still be found in the word "leaf", which we continue to apply to 
sheets of paper, when sewed up in the form of a book. The mode of 
preparation, after cutting the leaves into strips of the length and 
width required, was simply to soak them for a short time in boiling 
water, after which they were rubbed backwards and forwards over 
a smooth piece of wood to make them pliable, and then carefully 
dried. Bark cloth, formed from the bark of a small tree or shrub, 
called the paper mulberry, which grew wild in the southern provinces 
of China, Burma and in India, was also used for writing purposes. 

Before the art of paper making was known to the Chinese, they 
appear to have cut pieces of silk to such sizes as they wished to 
make their books, and thereupon painted the letters with pencils, 
the silk first being steeped in a kind of a size to prevent the color 

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from running. But such material was liable to decay, and various 
animal substances of a more durable nature were afterwards em- 
ployed. Skins were principally used, after being tanned, but bones 
and even entrails were also made use of for the purpose. The 
transition from these mostly stiff and rigid writing materials to others 
of a more flexible nature and permitting of a more extended use, 
was effected through the adoption of parchment, papyrus and paper. 
Hitherto all of these different writing materials could not be em- 
ployed in the making of books in the present sense of the word, 
because they were not flexible and pliable, and durability was missing 
and their volume was too great when tied together. 

Papyrus, from which the term "paper" is derived, is the name 
of a historical plant, once extensively used by the Egyptians for 
making various articles of utility, such as baskets, shoes, cordage and 
the like. This plant, once so useful, and for ages in Egypt so com- 
mercially valuable, has totally disappeared and is unknown to 
modern botanists. 

With respect to the period at which the ancients began to make 
a writing substance of the papyrus, or of its originator, nothing 
definite is known. 

Papyrus was described as a flag or bulrush, with a triangular 
stem that could hardly be spanned, and which grew to a height of 
ten feet, or even considerably more, in the immense marshes occupy- 
ing a large part of the surface of Lower Egypt, a leafless wood, as it 
were, a forest without branches, the bare stem being surmounted 
only by a head of long, thin, straight fibres. The epidermis, or skin, 
being removed, the spongy part was cut into thin slices, which 
were steeped in the waters of the Nile, or in water slightly imbued 
with gums. Two layers were placed one above another, carefully 
arranged in opposite directions, that is, lengthwise and crosswise, 
which, after being dried, were finally smoothed and brought to a 
fit surface for receiving writing by being rubbed with a tooth or 
piece of polished ivory. The durability of this writing material 
is one of its best qualities. It can, in some instances, be rolled and 
unrolled after a lapse of many centuries without detriment to it. 

So great was the importance of this manufacture at some periods 
that Firmus, who raised the standard of revolt in Egypt against 
Emperor Aurelianus, boasted he would maintain an army solely 
from the profits of his paper trade. The Egyptian paper factories, 
which were highly taxed under the reign of Tiberius, were very well 
installed, and during that period were already run on the principle 

01 



of systematized distribution of different kinds of work. Thus there 
existed the Glutinatores (derived from the word "gluteum" meaning 
glue), who were pasters or gluers, then Malleatores (derived from 
"malleum" meaning hammer), who attended to the hammering. The 
ancient Egyptians called the papyrus plant "natit", but the Greeks 
named it "papyrus'' after the word "papuro", meaning royal or 
regal. For the inner bark of the papyrus plant the word "byblos" 
was used by the Greek poet, Homer, and later on by the Greek 
historian, Herodotus, and from this word the term "byblon" was 
coined designating a written roll. From this Greek appellation the 
Romans constructed the word "biblium" meaning book, and finally 
the designation "biblia sacra", i.e., holy books, and from this our 
word "bible" was born. The papyrus paper industry automatically 
ceased to exist when, during the days of the Crusades, the Arabians 
brought Chinese hand-made paper to Europe. 

The invention of parchment has this historical background: 
Eumenes, King of Pergamus (197-158 B.C.) appears to have en- 
deavored to form a library which should surpass that of King 
Ptolemy Philadelphus at Alexandria, which is reported to have con- 
tained over seven hundred thousand volumes. In doing so, Eumenes 
so enraged the Egyptian ruler, Ptolemy, that he immediately pro- 
hibited any further exportation from Egypt of papyrus, which by 
that time was coming into very general use and thus effectually put 
a stop to Eumenes' emulation in that particular. It may be, how- 
ever, that this prohibition was not solely occasioned by jealousy, 
but by Ptolemy's fear that his dominions, which were so much im- 
proved in arts, sciences and civilization, since the discovery and 
adoption of the papyrus, would be again reduced to a state of 
ignorance for the want of it. The plant sometimes failed in un- 
favorable weather, while the supply invariably proved unequal to 
the demand. The people of Pergamus, therefore, were obliged to 
devise other means, and the manufacture of parchment was the 
result. The manufactured article was brought on the market under 
the name "Charta Pergamena", i.e., pergamus paper, and later on 
was designated as parchment. 

In the manufacture of parchment only sheep, goat and calves' 
hides were used, never donkey hides. The latter were used for making 
drums, and pigskins were used only for book binding. The pre- 
liminary steps in the manufacture were somewhat like those used in 
tanning — cleaning of the hair and flesh sides of the hides, then a 
thinning through scraping and rubbing with pumice stone. The 

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finest parchment was made from the skins of unborn lambs and 
were designated as virgin parchment. The rolls of parchment were 
read in the following manner: One began to read by unfolding, 
and continued to read and to unfold until at last one arrived at the 
stick to which the parchment roll was attached. Then it was turned 
around and one continued to read the parchment on the other side 
of the roll, folding it up gradually until the reading was completed. 
The materials used to make paper were consecutively cotton, 
flax, then linen, rags and finally woodpulp. Paper is a Chinese in- 
vention made under the reign of Emperor Han-Ho-Ti, by the 
secretary of agriculture Tsai-Luen in the year 95 A.D. The Chinese 
made paper from vegetable matter reduced to pulp and carried it 
to a high degree of perfection. They employed the barks of trees, 
especially the mulberry tree, and occasionally from other substances, 
such as hemp, wheat or rice straw. The most ancient manuscript 
on cotton paper seems to have been written in 1050, and in the 
12th century Egyptian papyrus seems to have gone into disuse. 

The next step in the perfection of paper making was the use of 
rags, the paper being called rag paper. It was invented in the 
Seventh Century A.D. The historical background of the invention 
of paper is as follows: 

The war between two neighboring Turkestan Princes, one of 
which called upon the Emperor of China for aid, caused the Gover- 
nor Zijad ibn Sahib of Samarkand to start a war against this 
Turkestan Prince. In the month of July, 851 A.D., this prince 
was defeated, his army was forced over the Chinese frontier, and 
many prisoners, among them Chinese, were brought to Samarkand. 
Among these Chinese were papermakers. Since the raw materials 
used in China for paper making were not extant in sufficient 
quantities in Samarkand, and since there was no raw flax, this 
plant not being cultivated there, these papermakers took the fibres 
from used textiles, woven goods, i.e., from rags. From Samarkand 
the Arabians who had adopted this new method of paper making, 
introduced it via Puchara and Persia to Bagdad, where in the year 
794 rag paper making was taken up. When the Arabs wandered 
from East to West, rag paper making came to Spain, where the first 
European paper mill was established in Jativa near Valencia (1154). 
Then it was introduced in Italy, from where it wandered north to 
Germany, where in the year 1290 the first Central European paper 
factory was opened. 

In Nuremberg a paper factory was established by Ulmann 

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Stromer, who wrote the first work ever published on the art of 
paper making. Stromer seems to have employed a great number of 
persons, all of whom were obliged to take an oath that they would 
not teach any one the art of paper making, or make it on their 
own account. A short time afterwards, when anxious to increase 
the means of its production, he met with such strong opposition from 
those he employed, who would not consent to any enlargement of 
the mill, that it became at length necessary to bring them before 
magistrates, by whom they were imprisoned, after which they sub- 
mitted by renewing their oaths. Two or three centuries later, we 
find the Dutch in like manner, extremely jealous with respect to the 
manufacture of paper, prohibiting the exportation of molds, under 
no less severe penalty than that of death. 

From the fifteenth century to the year 1800 many improvements 
in the manufacture of paper from rags were made. For centuries 
paper had been made in sheets by hand. In 1799 the first paper 
making machine was invented and demonstrated by a Frenchman, 
Louis Roberts, a native of the little city of Essonne. The machine 
made paper in an endless roll. This invention cheapened the price 
of paper immensely and rendered the use of same possible to hun- 
dreds of purposes hitherto prohibitive. 

In 1845 a German, named Gottlieb Keller, invented the method 
of making paper with wood pulp. During the eighteenth century 
a great amount of paper was consumed and a great dearth of rags 
started. This, together with the resulting increase in rag prices, 
brought on Keller's idea of a substitute for rags in the art of paper 
making. Keller had observed the work of the wasps, making their 
nests from wooden splinters. Examining the nests he found that they 
were like paper and he got the idea that one might use the fibres 
of wood to make paper. Although Keller had no knowledge at all 
of the art of paper making, he experimented in defibering of wood 
and finally hit upon a method of defibering wood with an ordinary 
grindstone. He tried boiling the resulting shavings, taking a small 
part of the putty-like mass out of the pot and spraying it on a 
table cloth. After the textile had absorbed all the dampness, a 
cohering flat cake remained, which proved to Keller that this ma- 
terial could be turned into paper. After years of patient experiment- 
ing and labor, he finally in 1845 sent a batch of his ground wood 
pulp to a paper factory; there this pulp was mixed with rag pulp 
and paper was first made from wood fibres. The invention of 
so-called "cellulose" or wood pulp treated chemically, was made 



shortly afterwards, as was the manufacture of paper from straw 
and jute. 

The instruments employed by the ancients to write with, and 
those employed in the Middle Ages, varied according to the nature 
of the materials on which they wrote. They may be divided into 
two kinds: those which acted immediately, and those which acted by 
the assistance of fluids. Of the first kind were the wedge and the 
chisel, for inscriptions on stone, wood and metal, and the stylus 
for wax tablets. 

At first, the bare wood was engraved with an iron stylus; over- 
laying the wood with wax was a subsequent invention. The stylus 
was sometimes made of iron, sometimes of gold, silver, brass, ivory, 
or even of wood. The iron styluses were dangerous weapons, and 
were, therefore, prohibited by the Romans. The historian, Suetonius, 
relates that Julius Caesar seized the arm of Cassius, one of his 
murderers, and pierced it with his stylus. He also tells us that 
Emperor Caligula excited the people to massacre a Roman Senator 
with their styluses; and the Emperor Claudius was so afraid of 
being assassinated that he would scarcely permit the librarii, or 
public writers, to enter his presence without the cases which con- 
tained their styluses being first taken from them. The stylus was 
pointed at one end to form the letters, the other being flat, for the 
purpose of erasing them by flattening the wax. The stylus with 
which the letters were engraved was usually worn in the girdle as a 
prominent ornament of dress. As the stylus was too sharp for 
writing on parchment and Egyptian papyrus paper, and moreover, 
was not adapted for holding or conveying a fluid, a species of reed 
was employed, split on one end as our modern pens are, called 
calamus. Persons of rank and fortune often wrote with a calamus 
of silver. 

From ancient authors, as well as from drawings on manuscripts, 
we learn that they used a sponge to cleanse the reed, and to rub 
out such letters as were written by mistake. Also a knife for mend- 
ing the reed; pumice for a similar purpose, or to smooth the 
parchment; compasses for measuring the distances of the lines; 
scissors for cutting the paper; a puncher to point out the beginning 
and the end of each line; a rule to draw lines, and to divide sheets 
into columns; a glass containing sand for blotting and another glass 
filled with water, probably to mix with the ink. 

The Chinese used pencils made of hairs for their writing. In the 
Seventh Century quills of geese appeared, afterwards quills of 

192 



swans, pelicans, peacocks, crows and other birds came into use. 
Such quills remained in use until the year 1796, when Alois Sene- 
felder of Prague invented the steel pen. He first used it to write 
upon his lithographic stones, and made his pen from a piece of 
hardened steel, from a watch spring. A short time thereafter steel 
writing pens were made on a manufacturing scale in the steel mills 
of England. The first mill for making steel pens exclusively was 
established in Birmingham in 1820, and in 1826 Josiah Mason, 
the owner, invented and put into operation specially constructed 
steel pen manufacturing machines. Up to ten years ago, the old- 
time Egyptian calamus, or reed pen, was in exclusive use among 
the Mohammedan peoples of the Orient, the name for the calamus 
in Arabic being "kelam , \ 

The Boustrophedonic (ox-plowing) order of writing alternately 
from right to left was originated by a Greek scribe who saw an ox 
plowing and liked the motion. Later a left-handed Greek changed 
to our modern direction of writing, left to right only. 

The composition and color of the ink used by the ancients were 
various. Lamp black, or black taken from burnt ivory and soot, 
from baths and furnaces, according to the historian Plinius, formed 
the basis of ink. The black liquor of the cuttle fish is said also to 
have been used for ink. From old manuscripts, from an ink stand 
found in Herculaneum, in which the ink appears like a thick oil, 
it is certain that the ink then made was more opaque, as well as 
encaustic, than that used now in modern days. Black ink was the 
first in use; afterwards inks of other colors were used. Gold ink 
was used by various nations. Silver ink was also common in most 
countries. One kind of ink, called the sacred encauster, was set 
apart for the sole use of the emperors. 

In Rome, copies of books, records, speeches, etc., were readily, 
rapidly and cheaply multiplied by slaves, who were educated to 
serve as copyists or scribes. Thus the books of those early days 
were called manuscripts, from manus, the hand, and scribere, to 
write. 

A word about booksellers: The booksellers hired the number of 
copyists they deemed necessary for the writing of certain books, 
1,500 or more. A reader, or prompter, dictated, or read, in a loud 
voice word for word that which was to be copied, and thus the 
number of copies was quickly produced, enough to cover the ex- 
penses of the number of copies that were necessary to meet the 
demand. The Greeks alone composed over 3,000 tragedies and 





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comedies, of which only 44 in the original state and in Roman 
imitations, have been conserved for posterity. 

Ancient books were not commonly disposed in a square form, but 
were rolled up. Hence the word "volume," signifying a roll. 

Writing of books by hand continued to be the only method 
practiced throughout centuries until the great migration of peoples 
was ended. The surging, driving ahead, the clashing together of the 
many different European peoples with the assaulting, onward storm- 
ing tribes out of the East lasted for several centuries, and out of 
this turmoil there emerged a new European state formation. In 
this epoch of brutal might and endless battling, culture and scien- 
tific pursuit found but isolated havens of refuge. The remnants of 
learning and erudition took flight to the monasteries. Even the 
art of reading and writing, in the early Middle Ages, was known 
only to the clergy. The monks, almost exclusively, undertook the 
reproduction and multiplication of all spiritual and worldly statutes, 
bibles and other manuscripts; it was they who wrote the public 
documents. 

The monks did not content themselves with simply copying; 
they developed it to an applied art. Some did the writing (scrip- 
tures), others compared and corrected the scripts and provided 
manuscripts with headings (rubricatores), and set them out in 
columns. Those possessing artistic skill painted initial letters (illu- 
minatores), marginal adornments and miniatures (miniatores). The 
results of all this painstaking labor were pieces of veritable fine 
art, which were often bound in satin with covers of gold and silver, 
studded with precious stones. Cloth, linen, silk, parchment and 
vellum were used to write upon. Vellum, the skin of very young or 
abortive calves, was exquisitely stained in tints of rose, purple, 
yellow, blue and green. King Henry the Second was influenced to 
enact a law that of every work published in France one copy 
should be written on vellum and sent to the Royal Library, and this 
kingly order laid the basis of the splendid collection of vellum 
books in the Library of Paris. Books in those times were scarce 
and costly. Only the rich, the monasteries and the universities had 
libraries. The Countess of Anjou bought a book of Homilies, paying 
for it two hundred sheep, five quarters of wheat and the same 
quantity of rye and millet. The Cathedral of Notre Dame in 
Strasbourg was famed for its splendid collection of five hundred 
volumes. In Oxford, books were put in the pews or studies and 
chained to them. 

C133 



The invention of stereotyping was one of the advance steps in 
the art of printing. It, therefore, seems that a few words dealing 
with the origin and development of the art of printing, before 
entering upon the data pertaining to stereotyping proper, will be 
of interest. 

Printing is the art of reproducing a written thought, set up with 
the aid of movable, mechanically multiplied types, applying ink 
to this set up form of types, and making therefrom an indefinite 
number of impressions on a press. 

It is difficult to state at what period the germ of the art of 
printing did not exist; some forms of printing were practiced at the 
most remote periods of antiquity. Cicero, the great Roman philoso- 
pher, has passages in one of his works from which the hint of 
printing was taken. He orders the type to be made of metal and 
calls them formae literarum, the very words used centuries after- 
ward to describe them. 

Coining money, by making copies of an original in gold, silver, 
copper or other metals, was also practiced by the Greeks and 
Romans several centuries before the Christian era. The Romans 
were acquainted with the art of printing. Agesilaus, king of Sparta, 
by strategem to animate his soldiers to battle, wrote upon his hand 
"nike", Greek for victory, and then by pressure imprinted the same 
word upon the liver of the slain victim, and the letters thus im- 
pressed became in the eye and imagination of the superstitious 
multitude a pledge of military success. We also learn of a Sultan 
who, on signing an edict, dipped his whole hand in blood, and then 
impressed the paper. The children of the Romans were taught spell- 
ing with the help of small tablets having elevated letters, which 
they combined in words. 

Before its invention in China in the eleventh century, printing 
with the aid of a pigment was not known to have been applied to 
literary purposes. The Chinese were the first to impress upon paper, 
or similar substances, the reversed transcript of engraved characters, 
through the conjoint aid of ink and pressure. Each page was very 
neatly written on thin transparent paper, then glued face downward 
upon a smooth block of wood. The plain or white parts were cut 
away with most wonderful rapidity, and the drawing left in relief. 
Both sides of the block were similarly operated upon. The en- 
graved wood was then properly arranged upon a frame, and the 
artist, with a large brush, covered the whole surface with a very 
thin ink; he then laid very lightly over it a sheet of paper, then 



passed a large brush over it, lightly, yet so surely that the paper 
was pressed upon the raised figures, and upon no other part. One 
man printed ten thousand sheets in one day! The Daimond Sutra, 
printed in China by Wang Chieh, now on exhibition at the British 
Museum in London, is the oldest book known, the date is given as 
May 11th, 868. It consists of six sheets of text and one shorter sheet 
with a wood-cut, all sheets pasted together so as to form one 
continuous roll 16 (!) feet long by one foot wide. Each sheet is 
2y 2 feet long by one foot wide, indicating the large size of the 
wooden blocks used. However, the printing of the Chinese appears 
never to have advanced beyond the style of wood-block books. 

Block printing: The next step towards the invention of printing 
was the impressing of plates made out of one single block of wood 
upon which was engraved in relief the matter one proposed to print. 
In our days this would be designated as a wood-cut. Towards the 
end of the fourteenth century, the wood of the linden and of the 
beech tree was used, the matter carved with a sharp instrument in 
longitudinal sections; images of the Saints and playing cards were 
the first products made from such wooden plates. Great were the 
inconveniences experienced in the employment of these wooden 
plates, engraved in one single piece. It was necessary to make as 
many of these wood-cuts as the book had pages, engrave as many 
letters as there were in the copy, none could serve elsewhere than in 
the plates wherein it was fixed or engraved. The letters were without 
uniformity and the mistakes made by the engraver could be 
eliminated only by inserting in a solid block smaller wooden strips, 
which very rarely had the same stability as the full block of wood. 
These wood-cuts were alternately wetted with pigment and dried 
again, became bent and cracked, and were not of long service. 
In due time and through long practice, the wood engravers ad- 
vanced to the stage where they carved entire books, primers which 
were called "donates." Donatus was a Latin grammarian. 

Printing from these wood-cuts was not accomplished with a 
press; the paper was placed upon the form, the latter blackened 
with an earthy color, and then through application of a soft dabber 
the paper was printed against the picture or text. The back of the 
paper could not be used; these prints were all one-sided and a 
sheet printed only on one side was called Anopisthographic. In 
order to bind these loose leafs into book-form, two pages were 
printed side by side on one sheet of paper. This sheet was folded in 
the middle and the inner blank margins formed the back of the 

CI53 



book. Even long after the invention of the art of printing, this 
kind of printing from wood-cuts remained in practice, and took 
the place of modern stereotyping. The wooden tablets for such 
pamphlets, of which several editions might be required, were pre- 
served and used when needed. By the middle of the fifteenth century 
the art of reproduction was thus far advanced, and as intellectual 
life flourished, the craving for art and for the products of classical 
literature became more pronounced. Momentous questions pertain- 
ing to matters of the Church were the order of the day and awaited 
their solution. The time for the discovery of the art of printing was 
ripe, and it was, as soon as it became a necessity, not long in 
arriving. 

From printing from movable, one-piece wood-cuts to the idea 
of printing with movable letters is indeed only one step; if one 
visualizes the printing block cut up in single letters, it becomes 
evident that one can assemble these letters to one's liking in other 
ways and thereby form a new text. The principle of the printing art 
does not consist only in the idea of assembling carved letters to- 
gether, but in manufacturing metal letters mechanically, casting 
them in matrices, and to mechanically multiply with the aid of a 
press and ink the form set up with these letters. In one word, the 
invention of printing is bound up with the inventions of type 
casting, type setting, building of presses, press printing and printing 
ink. The invention of printing therefore was not simply a happy 
inspiration but the result of long search, laborious drudgery and 
oppressive worries. 

Many are the cities who claimed for their sons the honor of 
having invented the art of printing. The Dutch city of Haarlem 
put forward Laurentius Koster, Schlettstadt in Alsace claimed the 
honor for its son, Johannes Mental; Peter SchoefTer of Gernsheim 
in the Palatinate, Pampilio Castaldi of Feltri, Italy, and Johannes 
Fust of Mainz on the Rhine, were convinced that they were the 
first discoverers of the art, but if casting and assembling of movable 
types are considered as the basic principle of the invention, then 
the honor goes to Johannes Gutenberg of Mainz, Germany. 

Gutenberg arrived at his goal in the year 1452. His reflections, 
leading to his invention, seem to have been the following: 

There are in the alphabet twenty-six letters, and the same 
letters are used over and over to spell many thousands of words. 
In a page of words portions of the alphabet are employed numbers 
of times; after printing has been accomplished with the solid 

[163 






liBi^ft -«'. 




5. A Parchment Maker. A. D. 1420 

C 173 




V*1 



wooden block the carved letters are lost. If, instead of engraving 
the whole page on a solid wooden block, small movable blocks 
were used for engraving each letter, then the same letters could be 
used any number of times. The letters would have to be carved in 
wood with small handles to them so that they could be taken up 
and placed together as if one were spelling. The result of this 
reasoning was the birth of movable type — the keystone of the art of 
printing. Out of a piece of hard wood, Gutenberg sawed some 
thousand tiny blocks, a few inches long and very narrow. At one 
end he cut a letter in relief, and bored a hole through the other. 
After having thus furnished himself with a number of the letters of 
the alphabet, he placed whole words together, arranged them in 
lines on a string, until they formed a page; then he bound them 
together with wire and so prevented them from falling apart. 
Gutenberg then blackened his wooden type with ink and taking up 
the whole together, he pressed it upon a sheet of paper. It was the 
Lord's Prayer with which he made his first attempt at printing 
with movable types. 

Instead of holding the type together with cord and wire, Guten- 
berg's next step was the invention of a frame with wedges to keep 
the type in place. Thereupon he constructed the press to imprint 
with; it was a simple wine-press, a common screw press. Ink softened 
the wooden type, injured the shapes of the letters and necessitated 
frequent renewal. Gutenberg first tried a method of hardening the 
wooden letters, but did not succeed. Then he and his associate 
Schoeffer experimented with lead. This, however, was too soft and 
would not bear sufficient pressure to print. They then tried iron but 
this metal pierced the paper. At last they hit upon a mixture of 
regulus of antimony and lead. This material proved to be of 
requisite softness and strength. As to ink, common writing ink 
would not answer, being so liquid as to spot the paper with blots. 
Finally, a mixture of linseed oil and lamp-black or soot was tried 
and found to be the right thing. The ink was applied to the type 
by a dabber, a ball of sheepskin stuffed with wool. It had the 
appearance of a huge mushroom. 

Wearying of monotonous cutting of type, Gutenberg and 
Schoeffer began to make casts of type in molds of plaster. A new 
mold was required for each letter. Schoeffer thereupon cut impresses 
for the whole alphabet, cut punches and cast type with them. 

Gutenberg's first important work was the printing of the entire 
Bible. Making one hundred Bibles took six men six years, working 

[19] 



all day. His Bible was begun in 1450 and finished at the end of 
1455, printed from cut metal types, not cast as we have them at the 
present day. Each single letter had to be engraved. Three hundred 
impressions were made on the press per day working it continuously. 
This Gutenberg Bible consisted of two volumes, the first had 324, 
the second 317 pages. The size is almost 12 inches high and 8 
inches wide, printed in double columns. The initial letters in the 
parchment copies are in gold and various colors, in the paper 
copies they are painted in blue and red. Each page, with the excep- 
tion of the first ten pages contains 42 lines, hence the designation 
of these Bibles as 42-line Bibles. Only 31 of them are known to 
be left, ten on parchment and 21 on paper. It is interesting to note 
that quite recently an American book collector paid $ 106,000 for 
one original copy of a Gutenberg Bible. Gutenberg's last important 
work was the "Katholikon", a Latin dictionary and grammar, 
finished in 1460. 

As a contemporary of Gutenberg wrote, "Nothing yet invented 
by man, ever made such inroads on ignorance as this invention will 
effect. No more hoarding of libraries which kings and prelates and 
priests alone may read. The common people will also have their 
books." 

The first publishers designated their profession as ars impressonia, 
i.e., the art of impression, and also they used the term chalco- 
graphic, i.e., metal writing. Towards the close of the 15th Century 
the term typographia, i.e., writing with type, was adopted. In the 
beginning the printers adhered to and copied closely the form, etc., 
of existing written books, mostly adopting the folio size and using 
parchment instead of paper. The octavo size of books came into 
use at the end of the 15th Century. The place and the year and 
name of printer of the imprints were not especially mentioned; 
later on they were shown as a postscript on a separate sheet. 
Titles appeared about 1476; before that year the titles were included 
in the first printed lines of the books. The leaves were without 
running title, direction-word, number of pages or divisions in para- 
graphs. The character was an old Gothic designed to imitate the 
handwriting of the era; no punctuation marks except colon and 
full point. 

In order that the art of printing might not be divulged, Guten- 
berg administered an oath of secrecy to all the printers he employed. 
This was strictly adhered to until the year 1462, when following 
up a mighty strife between Diether, Archbishop of Isenburgh, and 

C20] 



Archbishop Adolphus of Nassau, the latter stormed and pillaged 
Mainz. The city was fired and the printing establishment of Guten- 
berg was laid in ruins. Gutenberg's printing franchise was revoked. 
Through the consternation occasioned by this event, the workmen 
believed that their oath of fidelity was no longer binding, they fled 
to other cities and to other countries, and there exercised their 
profession and instructed others in the art of printing. The end of 
the 15th Century saw this art exercised in the greater part of Europe. 
Among the many celebrated printers in Europe who carried on 
Gutenberg's invention and brought it to a high degree of per- 
fection were: 

Philippus de Lavagna, Milano, 1469. 

Antonius Koberger, Nuremberg, 1473. His plant was equipped with 
24 presses and employed over 100 men. He printed 19 Bibles 
and 2,000 other works; he was known as the "King of Printers". 
His "Book of Chronicles" contains over 2,000 wood cuts. 
William Caxton, London, 1476. 

Aldus Manutius, Venice. His books were designated as "Aldines". 
Stephanus Etienne, Paris, 1532. 

Christopher Plantin, Antwerp, 1555. This firm, Plantin-Moretus, is 
still operating and is the founder of the celebrated Museum of 
Printing in Antwerp. 
Louis Elzevir, Leyden, 1580. He specialized in the printing of small 

size books, known as "Elzevirs". 
Giambattista Bodoni, Italy, 1766. 
John Baskerville, London, 1770. 

Mrs. Glover, the widow of the Reverend Jesse Glover, non-conform- 
ist minister, brought the first printing press to America in 1638. 
In 1639 the first book was printed in the U. S. A., the "Bay- 
Psalm-Book". 

At the close of the 15th Century over 1,000 printing plants were 
in operation in 250 different localities. 

The term incunabulae or cradle impressions is used to designate 
books, printed during the period that began on the day the art of 
printing was invented and ending with the year 1500, thus approxi- 
mately the span of time between 1440 to 1500. About 16,299 works 
were printed in that period, and as the usual edition was about 300 
copies, about five million books were printed in these sixty years. 



C2I3 



CHAPTER TWO 
INVENTION OF STEREOTYPING 



In the year 1795 the celebrated French printer and typefounder, 
Firmin Didot of Paris, coined the name "stereotype" for printing 
from solid lead plates. 

"Stereo" in Greek means rigid, solid, and the Greek word 
"typos" means type, letter, character. Hence the combined word 
stereotype means a rigid, solid plate made of types. Stereotyping 
is the method of making of type metal perfect facsimiles of the 
faces of pages composed of movable type. 

If we have reason to be surprised at the quick steps by which 
printing with movable types was perfected, we have more cause to 
wonder why, with the acquisition of movable types, the art became 
stationary. The transition from founding single letters to founding 
whole pages was so invitingly obvious, that the circumstance of it 
not having been attempted, may be imputed rather to a want of 
enterprise, than to any ignorance of the perfect practicability of the 
art. The art of printing from movable types was invented in 1452, 
and it was not until 1701 that the first attempts at stereotyping 
were made in Europe. 

Printing from stereotypes is, in one respect, the reverse of print- 
ing from movable types. As described previously, the first books 
were made from solid wooden blocks, each of which formed a page. 
Then came typography (meaning writing, "graphein", from type 
"typos") the assembling of letters into words and pages, in which 
these pages were composed of numbers of separate types. There 
followed the period of the invention of stereotyping, in which pages 
again were formed by single blocks, i.e., where printed pages were 
solidified or made rigid in one plate. The distinction between the 
two is, that whereas the antique blocks were of wood, the later 
ones were of metal; and that while the one kind consisted of 
originals that were separately engraved, the other consisted of me- 
chanically produced copies and were cast in a mold. The disadvan- 
tages of printing certain works with the aid of movable types which 
led to stereotyping were the following: It was necessary before 

C233 



redistributing types, that the total number of copies of which the 
edition was to consist, be printed at one single time and at once. 
Then again there was a great disadvantage in advancing capital 
for large editions, thus tying up considerable funds in standing type, 
and pages preserved in this manner were liable to become incorrect 
through letters being misplaced or dropping out. There also was 
always an element of danger involved through making mistakes in 
the new form, thereby causing offense and annoyance in books of a 
religious nature, or grave errors in technical, dramatic and classical 
works. Another danger was the jumbling of types ("pi") caused in 
the transportation of forms from one establishment to another. 
Before the art of stereotyping was invented, the forms of such works 
had to remain intact, and in some cases, for instance the Bible, 
thousands of pounds of metal types were stored away. 

These many inconveniences led to experiments to overcome them; 
stereotyping was the ultimate result. 

A Chinese Pioneer 

It appears that the first attempt known to exercise a crude sort of 
stereotyping was made in China; however, the method used was 
later lost and never introduced in Europe. In the year 1041 a 
Chinese blacksmith, named Pi-Sheng, invented a method of print- 
ing with plates, called "ho-pan", or with plates formed of movable 
types — this name being still preserved to designate the plates used 
in the Government Printing Office in Pekin. The method employed 
by Pi-Sheng is interesting. He made a paste of fine glutinous earth, 
forming regular plates of the thickness of a Chinese piece of money 
called "tsien", and engraved upon them the characters most in use, 
making a type for each character. He then baked these types by the 
heat of a fire in order to harden them. He then placed upon the 
table a plate of iron, and covered it with a coat of very fusible 
mastic, composed of resin, wax and lime. When he wished to print, 
he took an iron frame sub-divided by narrow perpendicular bars 
of the same metal — the Chinese writing from above downward. 
This frame was placed upon the iron plate, and the types were then 
arranged upon it, pressed closely together. Each frame thus filled 
with type formed one plate or page. The plate being heated at the 
fire sufficiently to soften the mastic, a smooth piece of wood serving 
as a planer was then placed upon the composition, and the type 
was fixed into the mastic by pressure. By using two of these forms 

C24] 




7. Paper Mill of the 16th Century 



C25] 





8. Paper Mill. 1762 



[26] 



alternately the impression of each page was produced with great 
rapidity. When the printing from a plate was completed, it was 
heated again to soften the mastic, and the types were brushed by 
hand, detaching them from each other and freeing them easily from 
the mastic. When Pi-Sheng died, so says the Chinese chronicler, his 
friends, who inherited his type, preserved them as very precious, 
but discontinued the practice with them. Pi-Sheng had no successor 
and in the course of time the invention was lost. 

The Oldest Stereotype Matrix * 

In illustration No. 17, is shown a .picture representing an ex- 
ceedingly interesting curiosity, which years ago was acquired by 
Junius Spencer Morgan as a relief-impression and at the present 
time is preserved in the archives of the New York Public Library. 

It represents the coronation, by the Holy Trinity, of the Virgin 
Mary, and as recorded in Matthew III, 16 and Mark I, 10, the Holy 
Ghost circling in the center overhead in the form of a dove. The 
inscription reads: SANCTA * TRINITAS * UNUS * DEUS *. 

The original was most likely an altar chest (shrine) produced 
about the beginning of the 14th Century. Using this prototype as 
a model, the present metal plate with a few modernizations was 
produced about the year 1460 and is probably the work of a very 
skillful goldsmith. If duplicates in paper had been produced in the 
customary manner, the raised parts such as nose, halos, folds of vest- 
ments, crown, rays and inscription, would have appeared in black 
on white in the imprint. But in the illustration shown, just these 
parts are deeply molded into the paper. In like manner the produc- 
tion of paste moldings was effected, in that the plate was pressed 
down into the paste which was applied on the paper. In the present 
case, however, no paste, but paper pulp was used, similarly as it is 
employed in performing stereotyping with paper pulp. However, it 
is in no wise claimed that the production of this matrix took place 
almost simultaneously with the production of the metal plate; still 
the many, and most probably genuine, worm holes indicate a 
venerable age. 

Investigations concerning the age of the paste impressions bring 
the conviction that at least a part of them belong not to the 15th 
but to the first quarter of the 16th Century. About 1525 duplicate 

♦"The Oldest Stereotype Matrix" by N. L. Schreiber, in Gutenberg Jahr- 
buch, 1927. 

[27] 



plates of initials and border ornaments were probably brought to the 
market, placed in trade and thus it appears possible that in that 
period some artisan had already discovered a duplication process or 
method similar to stereotyping as that art is understood today. 
Based upon the arguments just enumerated and explained, it appears 
that the paper stereotyping process harks back to almost the era 
of Reformation (about 1529). Indeed, it has been previously claimed 
that even then Conrad Dinckmuth of Ulm in Swabia, Germany, 
used a method of stereotyping when he, in 1483, printed his religious 
work in folio entitled, "Der Seelen Wuerzgarten" containing 134 
pictures from only 19 wooden plates. Dinckmuth was a citizen of 
Ulm and founded, in 1483, the third printing plant of that city. 
He continued to operate until 1486. 

A number of other scholars confirm the findings expressed above, 
and excerpts from their publications, 1 dealing with the first experi- 
ments in the art of stereotyping are herewith recorded. Attempts 
to make metal casts of relief printing through the medium of 
matrices, may be as old as the first invention of printing with 
mobile types. It has been proven beyond doubt that already in the 
15th Century cast duplicates of plates cut in metal were made, 
most probably with the aid of the sand-casting method. Since this 
method was thoroughly familiar to the brass founders and gold- 
smiths of that period, the idea must have been near at hand to use 
it to make duplicates of carved printing plates. The original plate 
was pressed into moist molding sand and from the thus obtained 
matrix a cast was made in brass or type metal. It is established 
that on casts of plates cut in metal in the 15th Century there can 
occasionally be found a sinking of the plate towards its center and 
this is a typical occurrence in cast metal plates. 

Impressions of nail heads, which can also be observed on these 
plates cannot be accepted as a proof that the plate had been cast, 
since the carved original metal plates had to be nailed upon a base 
in order to be printed, together with the type matter. 

Furthermore it is an established fact that in the 16th Century, 
duplicates of wood cuts were cast in metal and that a regular 
business was established in the sale of such casts. Around 1570 this 
trade must have been quite important, because it is established 
that in many instances the same book illustrations, borders and 

lM What did Gutenberg Invent?" by Gustav Mori, Mainz, 1921. 
"The Origins of Duplicate Plates" by Johannes Luther, Leipzig, 1903. 

nan 



initials were in the possession of, and used by, different book 
printers in widely separated places throughout Europe. 

A proof that metal duplicate casts were used is found in the nail 
marks occasioned by the mounting of these casts on blocks; these 
marks show on the printed page. Our illustration No. 18 shows an 
initial made in the year 1582 and here the four marks made by the 
nails used to attach the plate to a base, are distinctly noticeable. 

In any case we find in these plate duplication processes the 
immediate precursor of later stereotyping, and that art of stereo- 
typing cannot basically have differed from these century-old pro- 
cesses. Of course, it is agreed that the beginning of stereotyping in 
today's sense of the word occurred when the copies were cast, not 
from rigid plates, but from type matter. 

We do not possess any factual knowledge of how the casting 
operation proper was performed; it must be taken for granted that 
a sand casting process was used, and our knowledge of sand casting 
methods was hazy until the first printing manuals were published 
in the 18th Century. In his celebrated text book, Gessner 1 explains 
the method of sand casting in the following terms: 

(In his description Gessner always refers to a "flask". The defi- 
nition of this term is "a shallow frame of wood or iron used in 
foundries to contain the sand and patterns employed in molding 
and casting". In the following the term "casting tray" is used in 
place of the word "flask".) 

The ingredients of casting sand are fine sand, to which is added 
calcinated baking-oven glue, the redder this glue the better. This 
mixture is finely pulverized and passed through a fine meshed sieve. 
Thereupon the mixture is placed upon a level board. The center 
is hollowed out and good beer is poured into the cavity — much or 
little according to the amount of sand used. This is well stirred with 
a wooden spatula. When, through the pouring of this beer, the 
mixture begins to steam, the mass must be well mixed in order that 
every single particle of sand is moistened. Then the sand is formed 
into a heap. Gradually and very carefully a little of it is taken up 
with the wooden spatula, making sure to separate the wet globules 
which stick together. When it is too dry it breaks easily in the 
casting operation; if it is too wet, it does not cave in when casting 
but cakes and falls out of the casting tray. By moistening it with 
spirits of ammonia it produces a clean cast. 



1 Christian Friedrich Gessner, "So Noetig als Nuetzlich Buchdrucker 
Kunst," Leipzig, 1740. 

C29] 



The type is placed on the flat sand or form-board. When a letter 
cut in wood or type high is to be reproduced, then straight boards 
or furniture must be placed around the form-board and the letter 
placed so as to protrude so high as to give the thickness of the 
cast desired. Then the face of the type is cleaned with a brush and 
the casting tray is placed over it, held down firmly with the left 
hand, so that there is no shifting. 

Thereupon the type is dusted by means of a dauber filled with 
coal dust; then the moist sand is loosely poured upon it until the 
casting tray is filled up. At first it is gently pressed down and after- 
ward harder pressure is exerted until the casting tray is firmly 
packed full. Thereupon the casting tray is evenly and gently raised. 
Should the type adhere to the sand, a tap on the tray with a knife 
will cause it to separate. The overflow of the sand is pared off at 
both sides of the tray with a knife so that this excess sand does 
not drop from the cast in the tray on to the type. The sand is 
delicately cut out so that the type metal may flow easily. By 
permitting the form to dry somewhat it flows much easier. 

The form or figure is blackened with a candle having a good 
flame and is then placed on a level and smooth board, which is not 
much larger than the casting tray itself in such a manner that the 
side of the figure is situated below. In order that the flow of the 
type metal may pass over the board and well over the figure, place 
another board over it, enclose it tightly in the tray between the 
two boards in a hand vise and then pour the type metal in. When 
the metal is melted, roll a piece of paper together and stick it into 
the metal. If the paper chars, the metal is satisfactory; if a flame 
appears, the metal is too hot. 

A method akin to stereotyping was used in Bavaria around the 
year 1 566 by the celebrated geographer Philip Apian, or as he called 
himself in the Latin manner of the Middle Ages "Apianus". This 
man was a geographer born on the 14th of September, 1531 in 
Ingolstadt, Bavaria, and followed his father in that city as a pro- 
fessor at the university. He was forced, however, being a Protestant, 
to flee in 1568. He then became a professor of mathematics in the 
university at Tuebingen, Germany, and died there on the 14th of 
November, 1598. 

Apian became celebrated through his Bavaria land maps pub- 
lished in 1568. His real name was Bienewitz. "Biene" translated into 
English means "bee" and in Latin the word for bee is "apis". All 
of the great savants of the Middle Ages latinized their names; hence 

C30] 







9. Johannes Gutenberg 



C31 1 




10. 
[32] 



instead of using his German name of Bienewitz he used the Latin 
appellation "Apianus". 

In the Bavarian State archives, housed in the State Library in 
Munich, are preserved some of the plates used by Apian for his 
map of Bavaria, published in his "Bavaria Descriptio Geographica", 
in Munich in 1455. This was printed in a folio of 24 pages. Christo- 
pher von Aretin stated in 1801, in his treatise on the oldest examples 
of the printing art in Bavaria, that this map was still, in many 
respects, the best map of the Kingdom. 

Vincenz von Pallhausen in 1804 described the process in his 
treatise, entitled "Stereotyping Invented in Bavaria in the 16th 
Century", as follows: 

"In the local government's archives are to be found plates which 
were used by the celebrated Bavarian geographer, Philip Apian, for 
the printing of his map or geographic chart of Bavaria. These plates 
prove conclusively that Apian, since before and after him no stereo- 
types were known, was the first inventor of stereotyping, even if not 
the first successful applier of this art." 

These plates are in effect just what stereotype plates are today, 
of a tinny composition, and each of them contains, as do today's 
plates, an entire printing page. Either Apian did not understand 
how to apply this invention in the way we do today, or perhaps he 
did not desire to do so, since it was not essential for the achieve- 
ment of the goal he was striving to attain. 

His map was cut entirely in wood. The names of the localities, 
however, he did not desire or could not cut in like manner; thus 
he hit upon the idea of imprinting them therein. In order to accom- 
plish this he invented the above referred to stereotype plates upon 
which as many names of places as he had room for were combined. 
The parts with the names he then cut out of the plate and attached 
with mastic onto the wood cut. 

It may be that Apian cannot be proclaimed the inventor of 
stereotyping in the present day sense of the word, but on the other 
hand it cannot be denied that his plates were made in a truly 
stereotyping manner and that it would have taken a minimum 
of inventiveness in Apian's time to carry this out to the degree of 
perfection it has attained in our time. 

To present the method pursued by Apian, Pallhausen had made 
and attached to his article an imprint, both of such a stereotype 
plate as well as an imprint of one square of the map. The first 

[33] 



shows the stereotyping combination and the second shows the appli- 
cation made of same. (See illustrations No. 20 and 21.) 

In an article on this process, Douglas C. McMurtrie states that 
the method of making these stereotypes was probably sand casting; 
the impression of type being taken in molding sand and the molten 
lead being poured in. This method was known to have been used at 
an earlier date for the duplication of wood cut engravings, a fact 
that Mori, the historian, and other authorities have already men- 
tioned. 

Hitherto it has been accepted as an historical fact that the 
so-called wet matrix process of stereotyping was invented by Claude 
Genoux, of Paris, to whom was granted a French patent on the 
process in the year 1828. Research in stereotyping processes which 
the writer conducted for the past few years has resulted in obtain- 
ing unimpeachable proof that the wet mat or papier mache process 
of stereotyping was not first invented by Genoux in 1828, but that 
in the year 1690, over 130 years before Genoux published details 
of his invention, the practical knowledge of a method of stereo- 
typing, closely akin to the wet mat process of stereotyping, was com- 
mon property throughout Germany and probably in all European 
countries practicing printing. 

The foundation for this statement is to be found in a detailed 
description of making wet mats with macerated paper pulp and of 
molding and casting them (i.e. stereotyping), contained in a pub- 
lication consisting of two quarto volumes, comprising altogether 
over 3,000 pages, printed and published in a second edition in 
1696 in Nuremberg. The contents of these books are comparable 
to those of modern universal recipe books. The writer is indebted to 
Professor Dr. J. Schnack, Curator of the Library of the University 
of Marburg, for photostats of the original text, this institution being 
the only one known to possess a copy of each of the two books. It 
is probable that the first edition of these books was published in 
1675; however, no library could be found possessing such a first 
edition. 

A free translation into English of the title page of the first 
section of the work (see illustration) has the following text: 

"A Manual for Persons Interested in Arts and Handicrafts" 

First Part 

Containing information on all kinds of very useful and 
well tested 



PYROTECHNIC ARTS 

and concerning Metallic Gold and Silver Assaying— Pearl- 
ing — Fluxes — Folding and Covering. 
Furthermore, Instructions for Making all kinds of Images 
and Figures — for Casting Glass and Artificial Fluxes — for 
the Making of all Sorts of Glass for Painting Purposes — 
for making Porcelain and Ceramic Objects — for Casting 
Metal Mirrors — for Polishing of Iron and Steel — and 
how to 

ETCH 

also Including many other Secrets pertaining to the Natural 
Sciences and Arts — derived in part from Personal Experi- 
ence — in part from many well known Sources; Reliable 
Libraries, and honestly compiled by An Odd Admirer of 
the Natural Arts and Sciences. 

A translation of the original text of the second part of this 
volume reads as follows: 

"A Manual for Persons Interested in Arts and Handicrafts" 



NUERNBERG, 

published by Johann Zeigers 
1696 

Second Part 

Containing Instructions for the Making of Beautiful and 
Well Tested Lacquers — Turpentine and Oil Varnishes — for 
Rare Multicolored Woodenware — for all Kinds of Colors 
for the Staining of Wood — thoroughly tested Methods for 
Gilding and Silvering all kinds of Objects — for Form Cast- 
ing of Wood and other Materials — for making Beautiful 
Works in Mother-of-Pearl, Bone and Horn — and for all 
kinds of Cements and Glues to be used in the making of a 
Great Variety of Articles. 

Likewise, Information about Beautiful Works of Art in 
Corals — different methods of making Turkish Papers, in- 
cluding other Curious Methods of making paper and Illus- 
trations — on the Art of Etching and Drawing — on the Art 
of making beautiful Objects out of Marble — the Casting 
of Gypsum and Isinglass — information on methods of Pol- 
ishing Colored Linen, Taffeta Cloth and Leather — on mak- 
ing Colored Parchment Transparent, and finally of mak- 
ing Scented Sealing-wax in all Colors. 

IT 35] 



All of this Information compiled on the Basis of Experience 
of long Duration and from Reliable Sources, painstak- 
ingly, diligently and at great Expense, and kind-heartedly 
imparted by an Odd Admirer of Natural Arts and Sciences. 

NUERNBERG 

Johann Zeigers 
1696 

The text in these Nuremberg volumes is couched in German in 
use during the Thirty Years War (1618-1648). To render this text 
into English as written in that epoch might prove interesting; how- 
ever, employing modern English in addition to comparing the old 
method to present day stereotype foundry terms will no doubt best 
serve our purpose. 

This is what is contained in Volume One, Chapter XLIL, num- 
ber 14. (For original of page, see illustration No. 24.) 

Preparing the Form: "If you desire to execute printing, proceed 
as follows: You will need a form made up of newly cast types and 
a perfectly true base or galley with adjusted furniture or sticks, 
these being of brass or lead. Place a case thereon, and lay the type 
form thereon. The quads must be of such a height that the head of 
the type protrudes hardly more than the thickness of a knife blade. 
All of the type must be corrected in the composing stick, then the 
type is placed in the galley and locked. Then take a small frame 
(chase) which is placed in the galley in which the type has been 
composed (assembled). This frame (chase) must be placed against 
the galley and should be about two fingers higher than the type 
surface. The galley in which the type is locked should have no 
screws, but it should be, in some other propitious manner and 
according to necessity, securely locked. 

Making of the Wet Matrix: "Thereupon take paper pulp or 
white paper, well moistened in water (i.e. disintegrated, beaten) 
and spread this upon the type in the frame (chase). 

Molding: "Then beat it in well with a brush in order that it 
may attain the same thickness all over. Thereupon also place the 
stone pan into the frame and screw the pan securely under the 
press. Thus the water will flow off; then remove it from the press. 
This little pan must be wider at the top than at the bottom in order 
that the paper mass (wet matrix) may fall out when it is cooled ofT. 

Drying Table Operation: "Then place the little iron pan in the 

C36] 




11. Gutenberg's First Printing Press 



C373 



mmtnr f ifimttotrorefo* tu tramps 
ftomtto*. ©jrtattucr motto trntpiKr 

want twattm urt tiottrtrr awre* 
lur €f jrttir^trwiiiaim wcrmroir 

ton wljjttarttu flte wlfatffer rCTrttit 
mud nelftiiOhtiu^ r(T(ti$ ud finflftts 

utmamtiorramtirtiacrdmuitiDtratif 
Comunmuo turn umptt ptfmfi 

12. Facsimile Page of Block Printing 



C383 



iron crucible, heat type metal in a casting pan and pour into the 
little pan upon the crucible. Thus the crucible becomes hot and 
quickly dries out the paper (wet matrix) on the type form, and 
the paper (wet matrix) does not shrink. When the metal has cooled 
off pour another batch in the pan and continue repeating this pro- 
cedure until convinced that the paper pancake (flong) is well 
dried out. 

Casting: "When you desire to cast, prepare two little wooden 
boards or tin plates, thicker all over than the flat paper flong, and 
lock the flong between them. Place smooth sheet of paper against 
the flong on the one board or tin plate, this paper having been 
rubbed over with red chalk; in this manner it will drop off easier. 
Then it must be securely screwed in a press. Place a tin funnel at 
the casting aperture, the funnel being as broad as your casting 
opening and the opening as wide as the flong. When casting pour in 
rapidly and forcefully upon the paper flong, paying attention to 
whether you are casting against the flong or away from it; against 
being the proper procedure. Bear in mind further advantageous 
manipulations and always see to it that the cast possesses good 
weight and firmness. When you form the flong on the type, rub well 
over the type and all the furniture with oil or some other fatty 
substance; by doing this the paper flong (wet matrix) will not stick. 

"In case the application of a fatty substance should not be 
deemed advantageous, bend a wire around the outside, between the 
paper pancake (flong) and the counter board. When you screw it 
into the press, the wire tightens and does not slip during the casting 
operation. Fill out the overhanging portion of the type with wet 
paper." 

A comparison of this wet paper pulp and the wet mat methods 
reveals that practically every step in this old process was imitated 
about two centuries later by Genoux. 

The designation "pancake", i.e. flong, is also found in the above 
rendered translation. This term has hitherto been attributed to 
Genoux, who employed it in his original patent, and also to James 
Dellagana, a Swiss-born stereotyper of London. The term "stereo- 
typing" was naturally not employed in the "Manual" of 1696; this 
term was coined a century later in 1795, by the celebrated French 
printer and typographer, Firmin Didot, of Paris. 

Among the first experiments in stereotyping, in the sense of the 
definition at the beginning of this chapter, were those made in 
Europe in 1701. Johannes Mueller, clergyman of the Reformed 

[39] 



Church in Leyden, Holland, discovered a new way of utilizing the 
art of printing by employing movable types. After the pages had 
been composed, corrected and set up in a form, he turned this form 
over on its face and cemented it into one solid plate by means of a 
mastic (window putty) or, in a second experiment, with a metallic 
composition (lead). Later on Mueller immersed the bottoms of the 
types nearly up to the shoulder of the letter in the mastic or solder, 
thus rendering the entire page one solid mass. 

The first trial of this process was made in 1701 with a book of 
prayers of Jean Havermans, printed by Mueller's son, William. 
Later on, Mueller and his son associated themselves with Van der 
Mey, the father of the celebrated Dutch painter, Jerome Van der 
May, and these three men, in 1711, prepared, in the above described 
manner, for Samuel Luchtmans, a bookseller of Leyden, the pages of 
a quarto and of a folio edition of the Bible. One hundred years 
later, Luchtmans' successors sent copies of this stereotyped Bible to 
Paris, accompanied them by a letter stating that "we have sent 
you a copy of our Stereotype-Bible. All the plates of it are now in our 
possession, and notwithstanding that many thousand copies have 
been printed from them, they are still in very good condition. They 
are formed by soldering the bottoms of common type together, 
with the same melted substance, to the thickness of about three quires 
of writing paper." 

This invention of Mueller may be considered as an intermediate 
link between the operations of the common letterpress printing and 
those of stereotyping, as practiced at the present day. Mueller 
soldered his plates together, and therefore he required separate 
composition of the types for each form made. Stereotyping, how- 
ever, in the modern sense of the word, means reproduction by cast- 
ing and its advantage is multiplication without re-setting of type. 

The great objection, however, to Mueller's method was its costli- 
ness, as the type used was no longer available for any other use. 
Johannes Mueller died in 1720, and his art of preparing solid 
blocks was, at the death of his associate Van der Mey, not employed 
any more. 

France and Holland both claimed that to a citizen of their 
country was due the honor of having first discovered stereotyping. 

Baron Willem Hendrik Jacob van Westreenen van Tiellandt, the 
Dutch historian and archaeologist, published in 1833 his "Report 
on the Researches relating to the First Invention and the Oldest 
practices of Stereotype Printing." In this latter book, written by 

£40] 



command of the Dutch Government, Westreenen seeks to prove that 
Pastor Mueller was the first inventor of stereotyping, and was, 
although born and raised in Germany, a citizen of Holland by 
reason of his protracted residence in that country. He concludes his 
masterly exposition with the words: "We must proclaim our con- 
viction that it is to the Netherlands that the honor is due not only 
of the initial, first invention, but at the same time the honor of the 
first improvement on the first use of stereotyping/' 

A process of so-called stereotyping, somewhat similar to the one 
practiced by Mueller and Van der Mey, is reported to have been 
used shortly afterwards by Athias, a printer in Amsterdam. Athias 
executed at a great expense, in what year is unknown, an English 
Bible, of which he preserved all the forms of the type, in such a 
manner that nothing could be added to, nor taken from them. 
Gessner, a Zurich printer, who first related this fact, adds that he 
had seen these solid forms carefully preserved. It is also generally 
recorded that Athias ruined himself by this speculation, such an 
edition of the entire Bible having tied up an immense amount of 
money. 

A great advance in the new-born art of stereotyping was effected 
by William Ged (born 1690, died 1749). We owe the following data 
concerning Ged to his own book entitled: "Bibliographical Memoirs 
of William Ged, including a particular Account of his Progress in 
the art of Block-Printing. 1781. London/' 

By birth a Scotchman, Ged was successful as a goldsmith in 
Edinburgh, and was widely known for his inventions and improve- 
ments in his business. As a goldsmith, he became, to a certain degree, 
a banker and was brought into connection with the trade by furnish- 
ing money for the payment of the printers. In the year 1725, one 
of the printers complained to Ged that he was seriously embarrassed 
by being forced to send to London for type, there being then no 
type-founders in Scotland, and that much of the English type was 
imported to undertake the business of letter-founding. Ged was 
struck with the idea of making plates from the composed pages, 
believing that it could be successfully done. He borrowed a page 
of composed type, and made many experiments with a variety of 
materials, but did not complete his invention until two years 
afterwards. 

The. following was Ged's method of stereotyping: He set up his 
page with movable type, locked his form and then the page was 
laid upon gypsum or plaster of Paris, or some other semi-liquid 

C4I] 



substance, just as it was drying; when it was dried completely he 
removed the form from the gypsum cast and, using this cast as a 
matrix, he formed solid plates of lead. From these he printed on the 
ordinary letter-press. The letters on the edges of the plates stood up 
rather higher than those in the center. 

Although in possession of some capital, Ged offered one-fourth 
interest in his invention to an Edinburgh printer, on condition that 
he advance the sum necessary to establish a stereotype foundry. 
This partnership lasted two years, but the printer failed to fulfill 
his promises. A London stationer, named William Fenner, visiting 
Edinburgh, next offered to establish a foundry in London, in full 
working order, for one-half of the profits. Ged, now exceedingly 
anxious for the success of his invention, accepted these terms; dis- 
posed of his business in Edinburgh, and followed his new partner 
to London to find himself again deceived. With many plausible 
pretenses, the stationer induced the unfortunate inventor to add a 
type-founder to their partnership, who furnished refuse type, which 
Ged rejected as totally unsuited to his purpose. Still undiscouraged, 
Ged applied personally to the King's printers, with a proposal to 
stereotype some type which they had recently introduced. The 
printers naturally consulted the type-founder who had made the 
type, and he, as naturally, denied the utility of the invention. An 
interview, however, was arranged which led to the curious result of 
the type-founder laying a wager that he could make the stereotype 
himself. The foreman of the King's printing-house was made the 
umpire. Each of the disputants was furnished a page in type of 
the Bible, under the promise that he would furnish the stereotype 
in eight days. Upon receiving the type, Ged went immediately to 
work, and the same day finished three plates of the page, took 
impressions from them, and carried them to the umpire, who 
acknowledged his success with much astonishment. 

The fame of the invention soon afterwards reached the Earl of 
Macclesfield, who offered Ged and his partners the vacant office of 
printer to the University of Cambridge and on the 23rd of April, 
1731, Ged eagerly accepted the position. A lease was sealed to him 
and his associates for the privilege of printing Bibles and common 
prayer-books with his new process. Ged went to Cambridge but the 
letter-founder prevented his success by treacherously furnishing 
imperfect type, and even when Ged sent to Holland for new fonts 
he was again deceived. He encountered every possible form of 
opposition from the compositors who, when they corrected one fault, 

C42 3 




ex 
o 

too 
c 



J-m 

■4-» 

c 
U 

c3 



5-. 

.9 



=r- m 



£43] 




14. Type Casting as Practised in 1683. (From Moxon) 



£44 3 



purposely made half a dozen others, and the pressmen, when the 
masters were absent, battered the letters in aid of the compositors. 
In consequence of these proceedings, the books were suppressed by 
authority, and the plates sent to the King's printing-house, and from 
there to a type-foundry, where almost all of them were melted and 
re-cast into single types. After all this ill usage Ged, who appears 
to have been a man of great honesty and simplicity, returned, 
financially ruined, to Edinburgh. His friends in that city were 
anxious that a specimen of his art should be published and there- 
fore subscribed a sufficient sum for the stereotyping of a single 
volume. The unfortunate inventor apprenticed his son to a printer 
in order that he might no longer be subjected to the enmity of the 
trade. With the assistance of his son, Ged produced in 1736, after 
eleven years of endeavor, the first public proof of his success, an 
edition of the works of a Roman historian, Sallustius. On account 
of the inferiority of the type, this volume was not a fine specimen 
of the art, but was sufficient to prove that the invention was com- 
pleted. Ged's son devoted himself to acquiring a knowledge of 
printing but just at the moment that he was fully prepared to 
effectually assist his father, the unfortunate inventor died. Although 
suffering so bitterly at home, Ged refused several offers, either to 
go to Holland, or to sell his invention to printers of that country, 
declaring that he only desired to serve his native land, and would 
not hurt it by giving the printers of another country such an 
advantage. 

A few rare samples of his stereotype plates escaped the melting 
pot and came into the possession of Thomas Curson Hansard, who 
made a reprint of two such plates for his book entitled "Typo- 
graphic. 

These reprints demonstrate Ged's rather raw execution of his 
particular method of stereotyping. The secret of Ged's invention 
slumbered after his death, until it was re-discovered and greatly 
perfected by Lord Stanhope in London. After Ged's death in 1749, 
his son published a pamphlet wherein he explained the advantages 
of his father's invention and proposed a subscription, in order to 
finance new editions of Ged's books. It appears, however, that this 
subscription did not materialize. 

The Clay Process 

During the same period when Ged was working out his stereo- 
typing process, a French printer, Gabriel Valleyre by name, invented 

C45] 



in 1730 a method of casting plates in molds, which he used for 
making calendars which were placed at the opening page of church 
books. The method discovered by Valleyre was the so-called clay 
process. He pressed the set up form of movable type in clay or other 
earthy substance; removed the cast made in this manner from the 
form and then poured molten copper into it. His clay or his copper 
was faulty; the edges of the letters were not clearly and sharply 
defined; the surface of his plates became rounded and many letters 
were broken. One advantage of his process was that it took the 
mold from low spaces and quadrats without filling them up. (A 
long time afterwards Valleyre's method was revived, improved, and 
employed in the Government Printing Office in Washington.) The 
thus modified "clay stereotyping method" was used there as follows: 
The form was placed upon a movable bed of an iron molding-press. 
A flat iron plate was screwed upon the inside of the lid of the 
press, and upon this plate a thin layer of prepared clay was spread. 
Preliminary impressions were taken to obtain the outlines of type 
and to remove the dampness from the mold. The surface of the 
form of type was rubbed with benzine; the lid of the press closed 
and clamped by means of a lever, the movable bed of the press was 
raised and the mold thus obtained by pressure. Then the mold was 
taken out and placed in a slow-drying oven. This operation took a 
few minutes for drying, and then the molding-plate, separated by 
a thick wire, bent into shape to fit the bottom and sides of the plate, 
was clamped fast to a companion plate of equal size. Into the open- 
ing between the plate, formed by the wire, molten stereotype metal 
was poured, and the stereotype cast by this clay method was formed. 

J. Michel Funckter, whose methods are described as having been 
practiced in Germany about 1740, merits being mentioned because 
his operation was akin to the one practiced by Ged and later on 
by the printers in France. Funckter, a printer of Erfurt, published 
in that city in 1740 a little pamphlet entitled: "Short but useful 
introduction to the cutting of wood and iron plates, to make types, 
ornaments and other drawings and also to the art of baking plaster, 
preparing sand molds for type-casting, vignettes, medals and form- 
ing of matrices therefrom." This pamphlet called the attention of 
many printers to the new art of making solid printing plates. 

Alexander Tilloch, editor of the "Philosophical Magazine" and 
part proprietor of the "Star", a London daily newspaper, conceived 
the idea of stereotype printing in 1781, and in the following year he 
entered into partnership with the printer to the University of Glas- 

L46] 



gow, Andrew Foulis by name, in order to carry on the business of 
stereotype printing. 

At the start of their venture, they advertised the following 
arguments regarding solid-plate printing to the book-printers and 
book-sellers: "If founding could be applied to single letters, why not 
to pages, to get rid of a sacrifice of capital submitted to at first 
because of the enormous expense of block-cutting. Founding of 
pages, on the first view of it promises many advantages in point of 
economy; and to science it holds out, what can never otherwise be 
obtained — the possibility of procuring, in a short time, Immaculate 
Editions. From books cast into solid pages, no more copies would be 
printed than might be wanted for immediate sale; the money thus 
saved from being sunk into paper to be piled up in warehouses 
for years, as at present, would serve as surplus capital to print 
other works; all errors as soon as discovered, could be rectified in 
the plates, to prevent them from appearing in later copies, instead 
of running through a large edition, as at present." 

POLYTYPING AND LoGOGRAPHY 

Conforming to the chronological order of this booklet, a report 
is now due on two methods known as Polytyping and Logography. 

Polytyping is the art of producing by mechanical means, from 
engraved plates or otherwise, any number of plates capable of 
multiplication. The "sister arts", Stereotyping and Polytyping, are 
so connected and the processes, which have been used in one, have 
often so great an alliance with those of the other, that it is not easy 
to separate them. The process of Polytyping differs from Stereo- 
typing in the fact that while a stereotype is taken by pouring molten 
metal on the mold, the polytype is made by a method akin to 
die-sinking. 

Polytyping was used only for the reproduction of small wood- 
cuts or typographical ornaments. For that purpose it was considered 
by some founders to be superior; duplicates could be produced more 
rapidly than by stereotyping and at a cheaper rate, and the blanks 
or whites of the polytype were much deeper than those of the 
stereotype. 

Logography is a method of composition consisting in the art of 
arranging and composing for printing with entire words, their roots 
and terminations, instead of single letters. 

The first experiments with Logography were made by Henry 

[47] 



Johnson, a compositor of London, in the printing establishment 
of his employer, Mr. Walter, owner of the "Times". A patent for 
Logography was granted him in 1783. Johnson's aim was to simplify 
the basic technique of type-setting, which had remained stationary 
for centuries. He cast certain of the most used words and syllables 
and used these casts together with the ordinary type, hoping thereby 
to speed composing to a degree. Although this method was never 
universally adopted, it found imitators and perfectors even up to 
our times. Johnson also intended to save labor for the compositor, 
for instead of lifting the word "and" in three letters, if cast as a 
logotype, he picks it up as one. The combined letters stated to have 
been found of greatest value were: 



be 


com 


con 


ent 


ion 


in 


for 


ge 


ing 


Id 


me 


the 


and 


th 


ve 


al 


re 


OS 



"The London Times", when it was first published, used logotypes 
for a while but then abandoned them, on account of their proving 
practically useless, the compositors being able to set up more type 
in a given time by the old method than by using logotypes. Other 
weighty objections urged against logotypes are the additional space 
of case-room they require (about 480 cases), if they are sufficiently 
numerous to be of material service; and the waste of type which 
results from the necessity of destroying a whole word whenever a 
single letter is battered. After some years, the experience of the 
"Times" and a few other unsuccessful experiments, led to the total 
abandonment of the logotypes, but recently they have attracted the 
attention of inventors. 

The names given in the course of years to the different in- 
ventions of this nature were many, for instance, Logography, 
Logotypography, Polyamatiamie, Typocheographie, Hamapoligram- 
matiamme (!). 

As far as the art of Polytyping is concerned, the first invention 
therein was made in 1784 by Franz Ignaz Joseph Hoffmann, a native 
of Alsace, who had drifted to France and settled in Paris. Hoffmann 
was inspired, through Ged's work and through a remark concerning 
several metallic combinations made by Darcet in 1773. The method 
Hoffmann discovered was: With a page composed of types in the 
usual manner, he made an impression on a mass of soft fatty earth 
mixed with plaster of Paris or gypsum, and prepared with a glu- 
tinous paste of syrup of gum and potato starch. This impression 

[48] 



TYPOGRAPHIC HARLEMJ PRIMVM INVENTA 




15. Printing Office in Haarlem. A. D. 1440 



C493 




16 Interior of a Dutch Printing Office from a Book Printed at Haarlem 

in 1628 



C503 



became a matrix, into which a composition of lead, bismuth, and tin 
being pressed at the moment of casting, gave plates which exhibited 
in relief, facsimiles of the types which had been used to form the 
matrix. The impossibility of sinking each single letter absolutely 
in the same horizontal direction and in the same depth into the 
matrix composition, in connection with other relatively less im- 
portant drawbacks, convinced contemporaries that this method was 
entirely impracticable and unserviceable. The apparatus used for 
Polytyping somewhat resembled a pile-driver. 

A further practice of Hoffmann was that he formed two sorts of 
types or puncheons; one for detached letters, and the other for 
letters collected into the syllables most frequently occurring in the 
French language. This was simply following up Johnson's inde- 
pendent discovery of logography. Hoffmann was granted a patent 
and a franchise in 1785, and his three volume work, printed with 
logotypes, created quite a sensation, notably in France, but not- 
withstanding this success, his establishment was closed in 1787 
through a Government decree. It appears that the reason for this 
act was that Hoffmann had been engaged in printing prohibited 
writings. 

In 1785, Joseph Carez, a printer at Toul in France, happened to 
obtain some numbers of Hoffmann's "Journal Polotype". He was 
struck with the advantage which the new process seemed to offer, 
and carried on a series of experiments in editions which he called 
"omotyped", meaning the junction of many types in one. Carez 
executed several liturgical and devotional works, and among others 
the Vulgate Bible in nonpareil, which possesses great neatness. Carez 
carried out his process in the following manner: The page being 
locked up, was placed downwards on a block of wood suspended 
from one arm of an iron lever. On the top of a wooden pillar 
there was a cardboard tray smeared over with oil. A quantity of 
molten type-metal was taken from a furnace, and poured into the 
cardboard tray. The moment the metal began to be clouded by 
cooling he let fall upon it the block of wood and the page attached. 
In this way an impression of the page was formed. This plate, after 
being trimmed, was fixed to the under side of the block, and let fall 
upon some fused metal placed as before on the bed of the machine, 
and thus was obtained a plate in relief fit for printing. The most 
serious drawback of the Carez method was the difficulty encountered 
in getting his type-form off the chilled metal. 

In 1786, Pingeron, a skillful mechanic, varied the Hoffmann 

C51] 



process. For the purpose of stereotyping, he proposed making a 
composition, formed of talc, gypsum, clay, Venice tripoli, and 
formers sand, capable of receiving a clear impression; to press 
into this mass the face of a page composed of types and then to 
pour melted type-metal into the matrix thus formed. He also used 
a sand pit for molding, and a composition of German spar, salam- 
moniac, etc., which would bear several castings before being de- 
stroyed. 

All experiments of this nature were doomed to failure, as they 
were in direct opposition to the basic principle of the art of printing 
— the division of written matter into small movable parts, namely 
into single letter types. 

The art of stereotyping received a great deal of attention during 
that period of money inflation when the French government ordered 
the printing of the colossal quantities of paper money, so-called 
assignats. This work had to be done as fast as possible, and it was 
necessary to guard against forgery of those bills. Recourse was 
taken to stereotyping and not only were the hitherto known methods 
practiced, but a number of new ones were discovered. The first 
issue of assignats was printed in 1790; they were, however, scarcely 
out of the hands of the printer before they were counterfeited and 
great difficulty was experienced in recognizing the genuine assignats 
of the government. It became evident that every plate would have to 
be identical. A modification of Hoffmann's polytype process was 
resorted to; casts were taken of the separate parts of the bills and 
these became matrices, these again were united and a single matrix 
formed, which was struck into molten metal. This operation was 
called clicher, the word being used by the die-makers to express the 
striking of melted lead, in order to obtain a proof. It signifies to let 
a writing fall perpendicularly and forcibly upon molten metal. 
Since this time up to the present day the word "cliche" has been 
generally applied to stereotype plates by the French. 

In 1795, when the Revolutionary Convention had begun to 
issue lottery tickets, a printer named Gatteaux was charged by the 
National Assembly to print these tickets. The process he developed 
was to sink the face of the type into a plate of cold metal by means 
of a screw press. Gatteaux's brother-in-law, Anfry, invented a harder 
metal than that heretofore used for types, which prevented their 
being damaged when being violently impressed into a plate of lead. 
This hard metal of Anfry was largely composed of silver, therefore 
very costly. 

C52] 



During this same period, the printing establishment of Firmin 
Didot (born 1764, died 1836) operated an extensive stereotyping 
plant. Didot is the name of a family of eminent printers in France, 
who have pursued the calling with remarkable success from the year 
1713 to the present day. Firmin Didot deserves special mention for 
his elegant and correct cheap stereotyped editions. He published 
as his first, Gaillet's "Logarithms" which he announced as a "stereo- 
typed" work, thus being the coiner of the now so familiar word. 
This book was set up in types and the pages afterwards incorporated 
in one solid mass, the plate soldered at the base. This shows that 
at the start, Didot followed the process invented almost a century 
ago by Mueller and Van der Mey. 

First Commercial Stereotype Shop 

Louis Etienne Herhan, a workman in the employ of Didot, was 
born in Paris on the 3rd of August, 1768. He was a well-known 
typographer, and collaborated with the celebrated French printers 
and publishers, Hoffmann and the Didots, in the manufacture of the 
French paper money, the assignats. He died in 1854. 

Herhan devised a new process of stereotyping upon which he 
obtained patents in 1798 and 1800. Herhan worked in conjunction 
with his employees, Errand and Renouard, under the supervision of 
Count Schlabrendorf. He had copper type made, in which the letters 
were sunken, but in such a manner that the letter-face did not 
appear reversed on it. With these copper types he set up his form, 
and from this copper form he made a cast in lead. The printing 
plate therefore was made DIRECTLY from the copper composition 
of the form. This very costly experiment had the great disadvantage 
that the sunken letters did not permit of correction, and without 
possibility of correcting, the process was impracticable. Thus every 
type needed in a printing shop, using Herhan's method of stereo- 
typing, had to go through the separate manual operations of filling, 
dressing, arranging, striking with special punch, lining and properly 
adjusting for the nicety of printing. A labor for which no adequate 
remuneration ever could be expected. 

After Herhan's first patent was granted, Pierre Didot, Firmin 
Didot and Herhan entered into a partnership to exploit it. They 
issued a pamphlet called "Prospectus of stereotyped editions". This 
is the first prospectus of its kind. They announced therein the 
formation of a partnership for the purpose of quickly and accurately 

C53H 



employing the new stereotyping methods for which they enjoyed a 
patent. They specifically stated that in their stereotyped editions, 
correctness would be a special merit, which would be carried to the 
highest degree of perfection, based upon the fact that even if in the 
first impression a few mistakes would creep in, it would be an easy 
task to correct these on the plate, which is always at their disposal, 
before making new impressions. They further stated that they would 
sell these stereotype plates in two sizes, 18mo and 12mo sized pages, 
the latter at francs 3.75 or 75 cents a page. In case of loss or 
deterioration they offered to furnish another copy of the same plate 
at the price of francs 12.50 or $2.50. Independent of the advantages 
of most perfect correction and of being able to furnish these books 
or plates at a very modest price, since copies were printed only 
when needed, there would be no storing of paper, no warehouse 
charges, etc. 

The new editors also called attention to the fact that should a 
customer lose a volume, forming part of a set, they would replace 
same at the original price, the plates for reprinting always being at 
their disposal. This prospectus aroused a deluge of derisive remarks 
and criticisms. The consensus was "that this so-called new art of 
stereotyping, which embodies all the inconveniences of an old process 
long abandoned because of its imperfections (meaning the process 
of Hoffmann), tends to retrograde the art of printing; that by stereo- 
typing one can never reproduce an impression as beautifully as 
made by movable types; that without showing any visible advantage 
for the announcers, it would be ruinous for all others who would 
make use of such plates." x The prices were objected to as prohibi- 
tive, etc. All this clamor did not keep the three associates from going 
ahead with their stereotyping business. In 1810 about 2,000 plates 
were made in Paris every month. 

Another important stereotype job shop was the establishment of 
Mame Bros, in Paris. They claimed that in their time their process 
was the best and the simplest one. It required one operation less 
than that of Mr. Didot, who after having composed his page in 
movable types in relief was obliged to immerse it in a cooling 
material in order to obtain a matrix from which he obtained his 
stereotype plate. Mame Bros, warned the users of their process that 
great skill and care would have to be exercised in carrying it out 
and further that the Mame method necessitated considerable capital, 
but the plates would last for an indefinite period and that thousands 
1 M. Stoupe: Memoire sur le retablissement de la communaute. 




17. First Stereotype Matrix Made from a Metal Cut Depicting The 
Coronation of The Virgin. (15th Century) 



C553 




18. Initial from a Work Printed by David Sartorius in 1582. 

The Four Black Points in the Corners are the Heads of Nails 

Showing in the Impression 



C56] 



of volumes could be printed without fear of deterioration of the 
plates. The Mame Bros, also claimed that from the day they took 
over Herhan's plate they had in their establishment manufactured 
2,000 pages or plates regularly per month and that over 200 works 
in all sizes had been stereotyped by their improved method. 

Later on quite a number of stereotype plants were established 
in France, using the Herhan and Mame methods, and also utilizing 
the many improvements that were made as time passed. 

Jean Pierre Joseph Darcet, the celebrated French chemist, born 
in Paris, in 1777, experimented with stereotyping. Darcet's principal 
works were in the main confined to the manufacture of artificial 
soda, bicarbonate of soda, alum, sulphuric acid, hydrate of baryte, 
and the composition of alloys, and he produced a new alloy suitable 
for clichage and for stereotyping methods. All results of his research 
work were published in the Annals of Chemistry and Physics. At 
the time of his death, which occurred in Paris the 2nd of August, 
1844, Darcet was Director of Tests at the Royal Mint, and a 
member of the Academy of Science, as well as of the Academy of 
Medicine. 

Another pioneer in the art was Jean Philippe Guy le Gentil, 
Count de Paroy, born in Paris in 1750, as the son of a noted 
statesman, the Marquis Guy Le Gentil de Paroy. In 1765 Paroy 
entered into military service as second lieutenant, and in 1793 he 
was made commander of the garrison-battalion of the Lyonnais 
Regiment with the rank of lieutenant-colonel. He cultivated the arts 
and notably engraving, and was received as an honorary amateur 
member in the Academy of Painting in 1785. He invented a new 
process of stereotyping called "Pankototypie", about which he, in 
1822, published an account entitled "Precis sur la Stereotypic". 
Marquis de Paroy died in Paris in 1824. The contents of Paroy's 
"Abstract" are very interesting; however, he brings little that differs 
from what Camus had already explained of French stereotyping 
methods. 

It would lead too far to recount all the different adaptations of 
the existing processes; worthy of mention are Rochon, Thouvenin, 
Gengembre, Bulliard and Lheritier. Boudier produced in 1798 some 
specimens of stereotype printing by a process entirely different from 
Herhan's, proceeding as follows: Boudier's mold was taken from 
a page of type by sinking its face into a mass of soft clay. Into this 
clay matrix melted copper was afterwards poured, in much greater 
quantity than was required to form a plate, as it was upon the 

C57] 



weight of the metal that Boudier depended for its entering com- 
pletely into all the cavities and angles of the mold. When cold, the 
plate was reduced in a lathe to such thickness as was required. 
This process, however, had no special outstanding merits to com- 
mend its use and therefore did not become a practical success. 
Boudier obtained a patent on his process in 1801 and published 
stereotyped school books and music. 

In the year 1803 a printer named Pierre de Joyeuze proposed 
a new method of stereotyping, which consisted of making a relief 
mold with clay from a page composed of movable types. His process 
had the advantage of cheapness, but it also had all the old defects 
of plates cast in clay. 

Plaster of Paris Process 

Each and every one of the inventions and processes thus far 
described was an important step forward in the building up of the 
art of stereotyping, but none of these methods was practiced to any 
great extent by others than by the men who invented them. The 
adoption of stereotyping throughout the entire printing world was 
due to the efforts and the labors of an Englishman, Charles Mahon, 
Earl of Stanhope. Stanhope did not invent any entirely new method 
of stereotyping. He did, however, improve and supplement the 
existing methods to such a degree as to make them practicable for 
shop work and to insure the universal use of his perfected method. 

Charles Mahon, Third Earl of Stanhope, an eccentric and in- 
genious nobleman, was born in London on the 3rd of August, 1753. 
In his ninth year he was sent to Eton School, and at this early age 
began to give strong proofs of his mechanical and mathematical 
taste. In his nineteenth year he was sent to Geneva, and placed 
under the tutelage of the celebrated French jurist and writer, Alain 
Rene Le Sage. A few months later he was awarded a prize, offered 
by the National Academy of Stockholm for the best paper written 
in French on the construction of the pendulum. 

The Earl was the originator of a great many inventions and 
improvements in the arts and philosophy. Among those which 
attracted most attention were his electrical experiments; his scheme 
for safeguarding buildings from fire; a machine for solving prob- 
lems in arithmetic; a method of roofing houses; a kiln for burning 
lime, and a steamboat. He also evolved a plan for preventing 
forgeries in coins and bank notes. In the realm of the printing art 

C58] 



he invented the printing press which bears his name. The Stanhope 
press was first tried out at the plant of "The Shakespeare Press", 
in London, and was immediately received as a remarkable advance 
in the art of printing. Stanhope also devised a system of logotypes, 
but his efforts to introduce it into general use were unsuccessful. 

The Earl of Stanhope died on the 15th of December, 1816, in 
Chevening, Kent, his ancestral seat, deeply lamented by all, but 
more especially by the humbler class of citizens, whose esteem and 
friendship he had won by his interest and exertions in their welfare. 

In the year 1800 Lord Stanhope became desirous of establishing 
stereotype printing in England where, although it had been twice 
invented and practiced, it had for many years fallen into disuse, 
and was practically abandoned and forgotten. His experiments and 
inventions in the art of stereotyping, which form a good deal of 
the subject matter of this book, were of fundamental and lasting 
value to the art. The Stanhope processes of stereotyping were of 
great importance to the development of stereotyping, and for many 
years they dominated the entire art not only in England but 
throughout the entire world. Stanhope saved stereotyping from 
disuse and oblivion, after practically every attempt to stereotype on 
a practical, businesslike scale had been put into discard, and for- 
gotten not only by the authors of such previous attempts, but also 
by all printing craftsmen. Many authors of works on printing 
mention Lord Stanhope, giving wide publicity to his press. How- 
ever, as to the important role he played in stereotyping, references 
are not missing, but with few exceptions they are, compared to 
his other work, short and none present a complete recital of 
Stanhope's great contribution to the art of stereotyping. 

Stanhope conducted a thorough investigation of experiments and 
inventions made before 1800 and found that Alexander Tilloch, the 
editor of the Philosophical Magazine in London, had conducted a 
series of experiments in making plates for the purpose of printing 
by plates instead of using the movable types. 

Alexander Tilloch, Doctor of Jurisprudence, was born in Glasgow 
on the 28th of February, 1759, where his father was a tobacconist 
and had, for many years, filled the office of magistrate. In 1781, 
whilst editing the Philosophical Magazine, Tilloch invented a method 
of stereotyping without having at that time any knowledge of 
William Ged's invention of stereotyping. In perfecting his inven- 
tion Tilloch had the assistance and joint labor of Andrew Foulis, 
printer to the University of Glasgow. After great labor and many 

[59] 



experiments Tilloch and Foulis overcame every difficulty and were 
able to produce plates, from which the printing could not be dis- 
tinguished from the printing from the very types from which these 
plates were cast. In their public announcements to the printing 
world of London, the inventors stated that although they had 
reason to fear, from what they found William Ged had met with, 1 
that their efforts would experience a similar opposition from igno- 
rance and prejudice, they persevered in their objective for a con- 
siderable time, and at last had resolved to take out patents for 
England and Scotland, to secure for themselves, for the usual 
term, the benefits of their invention. 

A patent was granted to Tilloch and Foulis on the 8th day of 
June, 1784, under His Majesty's Patent Office Number 1431. The 
text of this document is interesting: forty-five lines are devoted to 
phraseology setting forth the nature of the privileges accorded by 
the patent, and only fifteen lines cover the claims of the invention. 

The exploitation of the invention protected by this patent was 
initiated, but owing to some circumstances of a private nature, not 
connected with the stereotyping art, the business was discontinued 
for a time, and Tilloch, having moved from Glasgow to London, 
the concern was dropped altogether; however, not until several 
volumes had been stereotyped and printed under the direction of 
Messrs. Tilloch & Foulis. Tilloch also invented the high spaces and 
quadrats used later on. 

In 1789 he, in connection with others, purchased the "Star," a 
London daily newspaper, and became its editor until his death on 
the 26th of January, 1825. 

Mr. Tilloch's co-inventor and business partner, Andrew Foulis, 
was born in Glasgow on the 23rd of November, 1712. There were 
two brothers Foulis: Robert Foulis, celebrated as printer and letter- 
founder of Glasgow, produced in conjunction with his brother, 
Andrew, some works in the art of typography that will cause their 
names to be recorded in the temple of fame. 

They were both natives of Glasgow. The elder brother was born 
April 20th, 1707. Robert was originally a barber, and practiced 
that art on his own account for some time. While thus humbly 
employed, he came under the notice of the celebrated Dr. Francis 
Hutcheson, then Professor of Moral Philosophy at Glasgow Uni- 
versity. This acute observer discovered his talents, inflamed his 

1 See Kubler, "Historical Treatises, Abstracts and Papers on Stereotyping", 
New York, 1936, pp. 131-158. 

C60] 




19. Philipp Apianus (1531-1589) 



C61] 




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L62] 



desire for knowledge, and suggested to him the idea of becoming a 
bookseller and printer. 

Andrew, the collaborator of Tilloch, seems to have been designed 
for the church, entered the University in 1727 and probably went 
through a regular course of study. For some years after they had 
determined to follow a literary life, the brothers were engaged in 
teaching languages during winter and in making short tours into 
England and to the Continent in the summer. These excursions were 
of great advantage to them; they brought them into contact with 
eminent men, enabled them to form connections in their business, 
and extend their knowledge of books. Thus prepared, the elder 
brother began business in Glasgow about the end of 1739, and in 
the following year published several works and shortly afterwards 
he took his brother Andrew into partnership. Three years later his 
connection with the University of Glasgow began. In 1743 he was 
appointed their printer under condition "that he shall not use the 
designation of university printer without allowance from the Uni- 
versity Board in any books excepting those of ancient authors." 
The first productions of his press, which were issued in 1742, were 
almost exclusively of a religious nature. In this year he also pub- 
lished the first Greek work printed in Glasgow. 

Lord Stanhope invited Dr. Tilloch to live for a time at his 
mansion in Chevening. He also assured himself of the collaboration 
of Andrew Foulis, to whom he paid the fee of eight hundred pounds 
for his work. In 1802 the result of all these labors and of innumer- 
able experiments was the perfection of the Stanhope Plaster of 
Paris Process of Stereotyping. Lord Stanhope then established and 
financed a stereotyping plant in London and placed it under the 
management of Andrew Wilson, a well-known London printer; 
the latter issued a prospectus announcing the new invention in 
glowing terms and also edited a manual explaining the Stanhope 
Process. It contained a list of stereotype imposing furniture neces- 
sary for one page (an iron frame, an iron side-stick and foot-stick, 
an iron head, and two to four iron quoins, with four bevelled 
brasses, to give a slope to the edges of the stereotype plate) ; 
instructions for the burning of the gypsum; instructions for mold- 
ing, pouring of the gypsum, etc.; instructions for the dressing of 
mold, making it fit for being put in the oven to be dried; explain- 
ing the nature and the making of oven used for baking the molds; 
instructions for process of casting. 

The process practiced in the stereotype shop of Stanhope and 

C63] 



Wilson is described as follows: The face of the types set up in the 
form was first rubbed with fine olive or sperm oil, in order to 
prevent the adhesion of the plaster of Paris mold to the form. The 
types having been set with high quadrates and spaces, they were 
plastered over with the liquid gypsum (nine parts of plaster, finely 
ground in a semi-liquid state with seven parts of water) to the 
thickness of about one-half of one inch, so that a level cake was 
formed on the surface of the types. As soon as the plaster hardened, 
which it did almost immediately, the case was separated from the 
types, and on being turned up, showed a complete hollow or mold- 
like representation of the faces of the types and everything else 
on the page. Then the set up types were of no further use, and were 
re-distributed. The cake was put into an oven and baked like a 
piece of pottery. Next, it was laid on a square iron pan, having 
a lid of the same metal, with holes at the corners. The pan was 
then immersed in a pot of molten metal and, being allowed to fill 
up by means of the holes, it was at length taken out and put aside to 
cool. On opening the pan, the metal had run into the mold side of 
the cake, and formed a thin plate all over, exhibiting the perfect 
appearance of the faces of the types on which the gypsum was 
plastered. These plates were about one-sixth of an inch thick, and 
were printed from in the same manner as in the case of printing 
from types. 

In 1804 the Stanhope-Wilson plant changed its policy and under- 
took the publishing of stereotyped books, which were to be sold 
through bookshops. The first publication was "Frelynhausen on the 
Christian Religion", a work which had long been a favorite of the 
late Queen, and was translated from the German by her command. 
Mr. Wilson continued his labors for some time, but not receiving the 
encouragement from London booksellers which he had expected, 
he endeavored to establish himself as a stereotype bookseller. He 
published editions of several standard school books; however, again 
his venture was not accompanied by success. Hodgson, recognized 
as one of the outstanding experts on printing of the period, wrote 
that "Wilson, as a stereotype printer, must ever rank among the 
most eminent; the plates which were cast by him, having never 
been excelled if ever equalled. His best performance, and which at 
the same time is a most favorable specimen of this mode of stereo- 
typing, on account of the fidelity with which such a mass of minute 
letters is rendered, is probably the octavo edition of 'Walker's 
Pronouncing Dictionary', published in 1809." 

C64] 



In 1804, with the approbation of Lord Stanhope, the joint 
invention was offered to the University of Cambridge; however, 
differences between the contracting parties arose, and the project was 
abandoned. Wilson was at first dejected, then aroused, and gave 
vent to his feelings in a stereotyped pamphlet carrying the title, 
"Arbitration Between the University of Cambridge and Andrew 
Wilson". 

The stereotyping business of Stanhope and Wilson was carried 
on for a number of years, but never was it a commercial success, 
owing in part to the lack of interest shown by printers and pub- 
lishers, and in part to direct antagonism displayed by many mem- 
bers of the printing craft. As an example of such antagonistic 
articles as were published in trade journals, we cite one which 
appeared in the Monthly Magazine of London in April, 1807: 

"Stereotype printing has not been adopted by the booksellers 
of London because it does not appear that more than 20 or 30 works 
would warrant the expense of being cast in solid pages; conse- 
quently the cost of the preliminary arrangements would greatly 
exceed the advantages to be obtained. On a calculation, it has ap- 
peared to be less expensive to keep certain works standing in 
movable types, in which successive editions can be improved to 
any degree, than to provide the means for casting the same works 
in solid pages, which afterwards admit of little or no revision. 
As the extra expense of stereotyping is in all works equal to the 
expense of paper for 750 copies, it is obvious that this art is not 
applicable to new books, the sale of which cannot be ascertained. 
Although these considerations have induced the publishers of Lon- 
don not to prefer this art in their respective businesses, yet it has 
been adopted by the Universities of Cambridge and Oxford; and 
from the former some very beautiful editions of Common Prayer 
Books have issued to the public; probably the art of stereotyping 
applies with greater advantage to staple works of such great and 
constant sale, as prayer books and titles, than to any other." 

This very disparaging statement was hotly contested by Mr. 
Wilson, Lord Stanhope's partner, in a lengthy article addressed to 
the London booksellers and printers. 

Even after plaster of Paris stereotyping had been practiced on 
a relatively modest scale for almost twenty years, the opposition 
against the art had not yet abated. 

Hansard, the celebrated London printer and writer on printing 
subjects, wrote in the year 1825: "No printer should stereotype 

[65;] 



who wishes his type to be a credit to his house. The wear of 
material in casting is miserable, the gypsum is at best a fine powder, 
and grinds away the edge and face of the letter when rubbed in with 
a brush, in a frightful manner. The letter can never be entirely 
freed from the plaster and will present a very dirty appearance 
ever after." 

Equally bitter in his condemnation of stereotyping was Johnson, 
printer and author of a celebrated book entitled 'Typographic" 
(1824). In this two volume work, Johnson devotes but a few meager 
lines to the subject of stereotyping. He writes: "We conceive that 
the inventor of stereotyping is not worth the pains of our tracing; 
and more particularly when we reflect that so many of our brethren 
who well deserve (from their ability) a comfortable subsistence, and 
who ought to be enabled (from their profession) to move in a 
respectable sphere of life, are now through this process, reduced to 
a very humble pittance; thereby bringing the first art in the world 
down to the level of the lowest; and, at one season of the year, 
nearly one-half of the valuable body of men alluded to may be 
considered as destitute of employ on account of the standard works, 
which was the summer's stock work." 

The plates made by the Stanhope plaster of Paris process were 
of wonderful depth, sharply cut and gave the very best impressions. 
There were, however, in the practical use of the plaster process, 
many inconveniencing manipulations. The method was a slow one, 
causing great loss of time. The type became dirty, small specks of 
plaster adhered to them and necessitated cleaning before re-distribu- 
tion of types. The sheet was smudged through the high spaces that 
were necessary with plaster casting. The most important drawback 
was that from the plaster matrix only one cast could be made. 

About the same time when Stanhope was engaged in his experi- 
ments, Poteral, of Paris, created a stir in the printing world by 
announcing that he had invented a more simple method of stereo- 
typing than any yet in use. A commission of the National Institute 
of France was appointed to examine his claims. From its report it 
appears that Poteral had executed nothing according to his projected 
plan, which was in fact merely a modification of part of Herhan's 
method. Poteral proposed to form matrices for casting hollow faced 
types, instead of type in relief; to compose the pages with these 
types, and then to cast from them a stereotype plate, formed of 
compound metal. The commission's report was entirely unfavorable 
and the process was never put into practice. 

C663 



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H67] 




22. Frontispiece of The Kunst and Werck Schul. 1696 



In 1809, Charles Brightly, Printer of Suffolk, published a small 
pamphlet giving a detailed account of a method pursued by him in 
founding stereotype plates. He was convinced that the whole art of 
stereotyping depended on the equal temperature between the metal 
and the molds. Otherwise Brightly's process resembled the Stanhope 
method considerably; however, it possessed greater simplicity in its 
arrangement. Brightly was perhaps the first to demonstrate the 
economy of the Stanhope process when applied to a certain class 
of printing. 

Moses Poole obtained an English patent on a wet mat on the 
20th of July, 1839, the number of the English patent being 8159. 
His method was as follows : Take one sheet, cover with glue, on this 
put a thin coating of a composition of equal parts of paste and 
well ground potters earth mixed with water to the consistency of 
paste; another sheet of tissue is placed, and so forth, until the 
whole assumes the required thickness of about one-eighth inch. 
The last sheet of paper should have applied to it a coating of sweet 
oil. In his patent Poole always refers to flat and curved plates. 

A process, thought out and practiced by the Frenchman, M. 
Daule, is of a much simpler nature than Stanhope's method. The 
difference between the two is that Daule recommends that the matrix 
composition should contain a little more plaster of Paris and a 
little less water. The matrix, when it has the necessary consistency, 
should remain in the pan and be dried therein. Finally the cast is 
not made by sinking but by placing it between two iron plates in 
a casting box and metal is poured in with a ladle. 

The general rules laid down for the use of the Stanhope process 
also find application when stereotyping according to the Daule 
Method. 

Daule stated in his prospectus that his method in comparison 
with the Stanhope process had the advantage that the utensils used 
for the former were not as expensive as with the Stanhope method; 
there is less heating material necessary because it is not necessary to 
maintain such a large pot with metal in flux; that as far as the 
alloy is concerned much less is lost by burning and waste and 
especially much time is saved since a plate made by the Daule 
process is cast in a few moments. In using the Stanhope method, 
however, a lot of time is lost throughout the sinking operation, 
the automatic casting of the plates, the cooling and striking of the 
pans. If a plant is equipped with two Daule casting boxes, the first 
can be opened when the matrix is cast in the second box, thus 

C69] 



work can be finished faster. The Daule process of stereotyping 
met with far reaching success and was adopted by many plants 
that heretofore had been using the Stanhope method. 

Augustus Applegath, in conjunction with his brother-in-law and 
business associate, Edward Cowper, was the inventor of several of 
the most important improvements in presses and printing machinery 
made in his time. He also devoted himself to improving the art of 
stereotyping. His invention was primarily for printing bank and 
bankers notes, or other printed impressions, when difficulty of 
imitation was desired. The patent privilege accorded to him was 
dated the 22nd day of June, 1818. 1 

Sir Marc Isambard Brunei was a British inventor and engineer, 
born in Normandy on the 25th of April, 1769. He entered the navy 
where he served six years. Then he took up his residence in France, 
but being a Loyalist he was forced to flee on account of the Revolu- 
tion. He journeyed to New York in 1793 and practiced there as an 
architect and civil engineer. He submitted a plan for the dome of 
the Capitol in Washington; also designed and constructed the old 
Bowery Theatre, which was burnt down in 1821. Brunei died in 
1849. He was accorded an English patent in 1820 on a stereotyping 
process, which contained modification of the Stanhope method. 

A patent was granted in 1821 protecting the stereotyping method 
of James Ferguson of London; it presented an innovation insofar as 
it suggests the use of cork for the remedying of the inequalities of 
the thickness of stereotype plates. 

A great improvement in the stereotype art was introduced about 
1820 by Mr. Thomas Allan, printer in Edinburgh, into his own 
plant. It consisted in casting a number of plates at one time, and at 
the same time considerably lessening the risk of broken casts. This 
was effected by means of a pot sufficiently deep to contain molds 
placed in a perpendicular position. The plates of the Encyclopaedia 
Britannica, which is the most extensive work ever stereotyped, 
were almost entirely produced by Allan's process, in pots contain- 
ing each five molds; and it was especially advantageous for large 
plates, the risk of breakage by the old method increasing in a greater 
ratio than the increase in the size of the page. 

Sir William Congreve was a British artillerist and inventor, 
born on the 20th of May, 1772, educated in Singlewell School in 

1 In 1815 Cowper made "curved stereotyping plates", and obtained a patent 
on his invention in 1818, but the use of such plates did not become practical 
until 1855. 

[70] 



Kent and in Cambridge University. He first studied law, then turned 
to journalism as editor of a political paper. He died in Toulouse 
the 16th of May, 1828. 

Congreve was an ingenious and versatile man of science. He was 
the author of many inventions such as one for four-color printing, 
in which several color plates were printed simultaneously, a process 
which was widely used in Germany. He took out patents for colored 
watermarking of paper, and for making unforgeable bank note 
paper. The first friction matches made in England (1827) were 
named after Congreve by their inventor, John Walker. A patent 
was granted Congreve in 1822 on improvements in the manufacture 
of stereotype plates, and pertained to improvement of the Stanhope 
process. 

All of the above cited inconveniences, drawbacks and criticisms 
of the plaster of Paris method of stereotyping led members of the 
trade to further experiments and advance in the art, the ultimate 
aim being to devise a stereotyping process which would eliminate 
these drawbacks and to make stereotyping simpler, cheaper and 
more practicable. The first important and far reaching step in that 
direction was the invention of the papier mache or wet mat process. 



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Hurnberg/ 

23. Facsimile of Table of Contents of the Werck Schul 

H73] 



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24. Facsimile of Instructions for Wet Paper Pulp Stereotyping 

C743 



CHAPTER THREE 
THE PAPIER-MACHE OR WET MAT PROCESS 



It was between 1828 and 1829 that the papier-mache or wet mat 
process of stereotyping was invented. This invention represented a 
tremendous advance in the art of stereotyping and up to this present 
day paper mats have dominated the art. 

Claude Genoux, a French printer, is the developer of the so-called 
"papier-mache" (mashed paper) or "wet mat" method of stereo- 
typing. 

Some contemporaries claimed that an Italian, named Vanoni, 
by trade a maker of plaster casts of statuary, invented a system of 
forming molds for papier-mache in London in 1846, and thus, 
indirectly, gave the idea for the invention of matrices from that 
material. Others claim that in 1840, six years prior to Vanoni's 
arrival in England, a patent was granted to Poole, printer in 
London, for "Improvement in casting for printing purposes," and 
that the subject patented was the papier-mache stereotyping matrix. 

Genoux's patent upon papier-mache matrices, however, was 
granted eleven years before Poole received his patent, and seventeen 
years before Vanoni was heard of. While Genoux was working as 
compositor in the printing establishment of Rusaud in Lyons, 
France, he conducted his experiments, made his invention and was 
granted a patent upon same on the 24th of July, 1829. 

The text of the wet mat patent granted to Genoux by the French 
Government read as follows: "Patent Number 3965, granted for a 
period of ten years to Genoux (Jean-Baptiste) of Lyons, for a 
perfected process of stereotyping." 

"The Matrix which I have the honor of submitting to you is 
composed of seven layers of paper; the last, or uppermost layer is 
oiled and reddened (sanguine). Between these layers I lightly apply 
by means of a brush a mastic composed of clay, hide-glue and a 
little oil. Any sort of mastic may be employed; I have adopted 
this special one on account of it being more economical. 

"I place this combination of layers upon the type form and 
I make an impress with the aid of a roller, proceeding as in taking 

C75 3 



off a simple proof. I place the whole in the press and cause same to 
dry. After it is dried I paste a cardboard frame all around the back 
of the matrix in order to give more depth to the face of the type; 
thereupon I place it between two iron plates, upon which I have 
pasted several sheets of paper, there where the cardboard frame of 
the thickness which I desire to impart to the mold, has been applied. 
"I pour the fused metal through a large aperture made in one 
of these plates, and thereupon the mold is perfect. 

"My invention is entirely in the paper, being that without its 
help I cannot obtain anything perfect." 

On the 30th day of August, 1836, a "Patent for improvement 
containing additions" was granted to Rusaud of Lyons, purchaser of 
the first Genoux patent. The preamble of this document reads as 
follows : 

"When Mr. Genoux ceded his process of stereotyping to Mr. 
Rusaud, his first tests were far from the hopes he had given birth to; 
a large number of plates could not be used, because they were 
badly executed, and very often the matrix broke at the first cast. 
Also, Mr. Genoux having sold his process in several localities, the 
purchasers did not succeed in deriving any benefit from their ac- 
quisition. Genoux personally came to Lyons two years after he had 
sold his process to Rusaud, well aware of the fact that the latter's 
foundry was the only place where Genoux's process had been put 
in practice and demanded to be admitted in Rusaud's shop in order 
that he might be initiated in the new discoveries and improvements 
made since the sale of the original process. 

"It was due solely to his work, expenditure and perseverance 
that Mr. Rusaud has conquered over all difficulties and obtained 
satisfactory results." 

On the 26th of November, 1836, a second patent of improve- 
ments and additions to the original Genoux patent was granted to 
Mr. Landrin of Paris, another of the many purchasers of the original 
wet mat process. This amendment contains a number of improve- 
ments in the handling of wet mats. 

Genoux sold his patent to his employer Rusaud, who in turn 
transferred it to another printer, J. A. Pelagaud by name. Genoux 
thereupon journeyed to Germany with the intention of finding there 
a purchaser for his patent rights. An article appeared in 1834 in 
Dingler's Printing Trade Journal reading as follows: "xMonsieur 
Genoux, French book printer, gave a demonstration in Vienna a 
short time ago of his new method of printing with solid fixed types 

C76] 



('Stereotyping'), of which he is the inventor. In accordance with his 
invention, Genoux first prepared a material which he called 'flan.' 
This material was in form and thickness about that of a paper book 
cover. Into this material he made an impression of the form he 
had composed, thereby making a matrix. Into this seemingly very 
weak mold, he poured lead, thereby casting a metal plate of about 
the thickness of 40 to 45 one-thousandths of an inch. This plate was 
a reproduction in relief of the form impressed on the 'flan/ and 
was of greatest cleanliness and precision." 

In 1834, the same year this article appeared, Genoux sold his 
patent rights to George Jacquet, owner of the royal-printing-estab- 
lishment in Munich. Jacquet then advertised to the trade that he 
stood ready to sell, against payment of an honorarium, the necessary 
information regarding the manufacture of these "wet mats" to 
printers. 

Although compared to the old plaster process this paper method 
of stereotyping did wonders as far as rapidity, cheapness and beauty 
of the plates were concerned, still it took a very long time before 
this process was universally acknowledged. 

In fact, it was not until over seventeen years had passed since 
the granting of Genoux's basic patent that a master printer, Tetin 
by name, founded a stereotyping shop in Paris in 1846 using 
Genoux's invention, which, by the way, Tetin in due time greatly 
improved. 

Genoux's method of stereotyping was to paste four or five sheets 
of dampened tissue paper lightly together on a sheet of plate-paper, 
lay same on the surface of the type, strike the laminated sheet 
with a heavy brush until the soft papier-mache had taken an exact 
impression of the type. On this "flan" or matrix, as it was then 
called, a sheet of plate paper was spread and beaten in by another 
application of the brush. This completed the matrix, which was then 
dried and hardened. Casts were taken from the mold thus obtained 
by simply placing it in a flask (flat caster) and pouring stereotype 
metal upon it by means of a ladle. 

The advantages of Genoux's papier-mache (wet mat) process 
presented over the plaster of Paris method were: The comparatively 
short time it took to accomplish; a series of plates could be made 
from one and the same flan. (In the plaster process the mold is 
destroyed in releasing the "shell" or cast, therefore only one plate 
can be produced without remolding.) That the molds could be 
preserved indefinitely for later use, that molds could be packed 

[77] 



and sent any distance without damage, and finally that the paper 
molds could be bent without damaging them. 

The papier-mache process of Genoux's is the basis of all paper 
stereotyping as it is practiced to this very day. It is unchanged in 
principle, although the materials used have been improved, certain 
drawbacks overcome, and the machines used for the different mani- 
pulations augmented and modernized. 

The word "flan" is used above as a designation for a "papier- 
mache" matrix. The term is attributed to Genoux, who employed 
same in his original patent, and also to James Dellagana, a Swiss 
stereotyper in London. The English phonetic form for this French 
word "flan" is "flong." The explanation for the word "flan" is that 
in Paris there exists a kind of pastry called "flan" made in layers, 
and which has the appearance of piled up, somewhat flabby buck- 
wheat cakes. The resemblance between a layer of such flabby cakes 
of "flan" and the pasted layers of the wet papier-mache mats sug- 
gested the name for paper stereotype matrices. This name has, how- 
ever, never been universally adopted, and is practically in disuse 
everywhere except in France and England. The generally employed 
term for a papier-mache mat is "wet mat." 

Genoux, after demonstrating the great value of his invention 
by printing the entire dictionary of the French Academy with stereo- 
type plates, made with his wet mats, sold the use of his patent rights 
on a license basis to the following firms: Chirin & Mana in Torrino, 
Russaud in Lyons, Seguir, Sr., in Avignon, Douladont in Loulouse, 
Levrault in Strasbourg, Geo. Jaquet in Munich, and others. 

In the year 1839 Moses Poole applied for and was granted an 
English patent on a papier-mache stereotype matrix. In the preamble 
of the patent, 8159, Poole states: "This invention of improvement 
in casting for printing purposes was communicated to me by a 
certain foreigner residing abroad." In other words, Poole learned 
of the Genoux process in France, and on his return to England he 
patented that process in his mother country. However, it appears 
that he was the first to claim in a patent that he could obtain flat 
plates, or curved surfaces or forms, to be employed in printing with 
flat or cylindrical printing presses. 

In 1840, eleven years after Genoux was granted his patent on 
the wet mat, a contemporary claimed that although Genoux had 
discovered a radically new method of stereotyping and had sold 
the secret of his process to a number of plants in different localities, 
his method had not proven to be a success, since it had not been 

C78] 








MBBBBJfflMl — : 






25. Johann Jacob Mueller (1679) 
C793 



IUANGELIUM UATTHMl 



8f 

%ja5&^ l&olA ^oAdqj Jio • c «»Li(£ VS&I 
Sto^s^ la*3> 1A^? 'Psi* Ip^o^ ^oAosu 

$aj 6@B 10 ♦|laJ^ ^AIq^QO^ Jjj jiof 
^wlH^I &s{ hl&)D til Tew : «^aAs ^otqI&sJ 

•_^5? {Sb JL&j£*)qq U? : .oak pi aJJof 



®fs,£i 






6 Ettam i8 ft qsiaQG te& cfltafe 

in inc. 

7 Quumautem abiiifiat, copst .Jtfis 

dicereturbis dejohaims; Quid eiiift* 
ia defertum ad videndnm? aracdints& 
que a vento agitator ? 

8 Alioqui, quid exiaftis ad videndm^ 
hominem qui veftibus mollibus veAisof > 
Eccequi mollibus veftiuntur, *» doas® 
regumiunt. 

9 Alioqui, quidexiiftisadvideadum? 

Prophetam? Etiam dico vohis, & «S* 
cellentiorem quam Prophetam. 

10 Ipieenimeft de quo fcriptusn dh 
Ecce, ego mitto nuncium meum sa» 
t§ facteat tuam, qui diriget viam «> 
tete. 

1 1 Amen dico vobis , quod nan ftp- 
rexit inter natoshominum, qui major fir 
JohanneBaptiftas minor autcm in reg* 
aoccelorum, major eft eo. 

11 A diebus autcm Johannis Baptifts , 
& ulque nunc, tegnum coelorum cum 
violentia accipitur , & violenti rapium 
illud. 

13 Omnes enim Prophets & Lc 
ulque ad Johannem prophetaverunt. 

H £t» fi vultis vos, recipite quod fa 
eft Bias , qui venturus cr&t 

if Cuiluntauresutaudiat, audiat. 

1 6 Cui autem affimilab© generationem 
banc ? Similis eft pueris , qui iedent in fb- 
ro, &acclamantfodalibusfuis. 

17 Ac dicuntj Cecinimus vobis , & 
nonfaltaftis: ululavimus vobis, & noa 
pianxiftis. 

18 Vcmtentm Johannes, quinon c©» 
medit neque bibit , &dicunt » Dm®* 
niumeftiiii: 

19 Venit Alius h ©minis comedens & 
bibens, & dicuntj Ecce, homocdaxft 
potor vini, & amicus pubiicanorum & 
peccatorum. Et juftificata eft fipieoiai 
cultoribus filis. 

ao Tunc ccepK Jcfos cxprobrartdrt* 
tatibus illis in quibus edits fiiaa& vici^ 
tes ejus plurims, ne^ie conv«rfe && 
rant. . t 

21 Etdiccbat; Vs tibi Coraiioi V^ 
tibi Bethfaida : <jaoniam } u' Ty ri & Sidosi 



26. Facsimile Page of First Stereotyped Book (1701) 

[80] 



^-*^*I& |3^0O • 1p|^0 IjA^S l&£9? 

4t^QAJ \UAAg ^f 6i-Ji A*1? ^ ^o 1 5 

^o| * 1?A lAa^, ^i?} ^ ^!^ 1 6 

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00939 ^,..,„Aft| 1AL^ O^dblklS UQaI wi^S 

pS\6 %l »g^ Uo 1^1© ^ehc&hJ ^ds 



adopted even on a small scale. It was stressed that the Stanhope 
process of plaster stereotyping was the only one that had proven 
its merit and thus universally used throughout Europe. 

In September, 1829 Count Pravana reported on this invention 
before the Academy of Torrino, and on the 10th of August, 1831 
M. Francoeur explained its nature in the Societe d' Encouragement 
in Paris. 

Thomas Bolas, a member of the Society of Arts in London, 
claimed that a similar process to the Genoux one was employed by 
several persons previous to 1829; he evidently referred to the old 
German wet paper pulp process of 1690. 

In 1853 George Todd wrote about "Stereotyping: its purport and 
its varieties," in the following manner: 

"That cheap literature owes much to stereotyping, is beyond 
question; as the process is one of those which economise the outlay 
in printing. For works of small circulation it is useless, or worse 
than useless; but when there is a very large demand for a book, 
or the demand spreads over a considerable space of time, then does 
stereotyping lessen the expenses of the publisher. It does so for the 
following reasons. If the publisher over-estimates the demand for a 
new book, he prints too many copies, some of which remain a dead 
loss to him on his shelves; if he under-estimates the demand he 
prints too few, and has all the expense of composing the type to 
incur over again. But if he bestows the time and labour of making 
stereotype casts from his type, he can then print from these plates 
just as many copies as are wanted, and do this from time to time 
during an indefinite period. He need not keep the type standing; 
he can distribute and use the type for other works, knowing that he 
has a source of power in his stereotype plates. And, moreover, he can 
make two or a dozen or any number of stereotype casts from each 
page; so that he could print two, or a dozen, or any number of 
copies at once, with the requisite press or machine arrangements, 
and all with one original 'setting up,' or composing. There is this 
consideration, too; that a woodcut becomes somewhat worn when a 
large number of impressions have been taken from it; but by a 
series of stereotype casts from it, the power of printing from it 
becomes practically illimitable. The reader will then bear in mind 
that, so far as any one copy is concerned, stereotype printing is 
not better than type-printing; on the contrary, the highest class of 
work is generally type-printed; but when a large quantity of one 

C81 3 



kind is required, the advantages of the stereotype method, both in 
time and money, are quite irresistible. 

"It is certainly extraordinary that, after two castings, a stereo- 
type plate, even from a woodcut, should be fine and sharp enough 
for printing; it shows how great is the skill now attained in the 
art. That there are two castings, many readers are apt at times to 
forget; but a moment's consideration will show that such must 
necessarily be the case; for the first cast will give hollows instead of 
protuberances, and vice versa; and hence another is required to 
restore the original aspect of the surface — just as in all other 
processes of casting, founding, or moulding; where a model is 
employed to yield a mould, and the mould is employed to yield 
casts. In stereotyping, the page of type, or mingled type and wood- 
cuts, is the model; a plaster impression from this is the mould; 
and the stereotype plate is the cast. The method was first practised 
at Edinburgh a century and a quarter ago; but it was not brought 
much into requisition until towards the close of the last century; 
and did not become a really important commercial element in print- 
ing until 1832, when the vast sale of the Penny Magazine produced 
a revolution in cheap literature." 

Then Todd goes on to explain in detail the plaster process of 
stereotyping, and then continues as follows: 

'This is the ordinary stereotype process, but many recent novel- 
ties have been introduced in aid of it. The application of gutta percha 
to printing was noticed in a former number of this series; but we 
may here describe one or two of these applications more fully. Mr. 
Muir, of Glasgow, has invented a mode of stereotyping, managed 
in the following way. A page of common type is first set up, and well 
fixed; a warm cake of gutta percha is applied to it, screwed down 
tightly, and allowed so to remain a quarter of an hour; when this 
gutta percha mould is removed, it is brushed over with fine black- 
lead, and an electro-copper cast taken from it; the printing is then 
effected from this cast. It is found that gutta percha constitutes 
a very convenient and efficient substance for the mould, owing to 
the readiness with which it can be softened, and its toughness when 
cold; while the electro-copper cast is said to bear the action of the 
printing press throughout a much greater number of copies than an 
ordinary stereotype plate. 

"The same inventor also practises a plan in which the gutta 
percha performs not only its own work but that of the electro- 
copper also. A mould is taken from an engraved wood-block, in 

C82] 



gutta percha; and this mould, when brushed over with black-lead, 
is made to yield a cast also in gutta percha, in an exactly similar 
way; and from this cast the impressions are printed. It seems diffi- 
cult to conceive that, after this double process, all the delicate lines 
of a wood-engraving should be preserved on the surface of such a 
material as gutta percha; and yet, without this preservation, the 
method would be practically valueless. 

"Bitumen is another substance which is competing with gutta 
percha for an honourable place among stereotyping materials. 
Messrs. Manchin and Morel have introduced a method which, 
though not yet much adopted in this country, is said to have found 
considerable favour in France. The cast, either from a woodcut or 
from type, through the intermedium of a mould, is formed of a 
bituminous substance, which is harder than type metal, and gives 
the markings with great clearness. It is said to be somewhat more 
expensive than common stereotype; we learn, however, that it is 
now being tested, and if found practically advantageous, will be 
brought at once into use. 

"It is really almost difficult to follow the novelties in this depart- 
ment of the printing art. There is a method of making stereotypes 
from paper, or rather papier-mache. From the description given in 
another part of this series, it will easily be understood that the 
pulpy nature of papier-mache would enable it to be used as a 
stereotyping material; but this application seems to be abandoned 
for others, especially that of stereotyping by electro-deposition. 

"So far as scientific completeness goes, no other stereotyping can 
bear comparison with the beautiful process last named: it is a very 
triumph of science applied to the arts; and as we find that our 
artistic manufacturers and fancy printers are every day availing 
themselves more and more of the process, we may safely conclude 
that it superadds practical usefulness to scientific precision. " 

Up to approximately the year 1852 stereotyping as practiced by 
the various methods described so far in this booklet was employed 
solely in the printing of books. In the above year Genoux's papier- 
mache or wet mat stereotyping was adopted by the French daily 
newspaper "La Presse" in Paris. This step opened an immense and 
fertile field to the art of stereotyping. (For an abbreviated history 
of the newspaper see Chapter 4.) 

In 1856 James Hogg and John Napier took out a patent for 
improvement in stereotyping. A sheet of stout printing paper, or a 
cloth, was coated with a paste of red ochre and fine whiting, thin 

C83 3 



glue, fine starch and wheat flour with a little alum. This was laid 
upon the form to be reproduced, which had been previously oiled. 
A pull was taken on the press or with a mallet and planer. A mold 
also could be made in plaster of Paris. It was left on the form to dry. 

An improvement on the wet mat stereotyping process embodying 
an idea of using dry material was made in 1863 by Alfred Vincent 
Newton, an English mechanical draughtsman. He was granted a 
patent for "An improved mode of and apparatus for producing 
stereotype plates." His application first describes the prevailing 
process as consisting of several sheets of glued paper, beaten in with 
a brush while moist, then heated to dry; in his improved process 
the molding material used is soft paper or dry pulp of such thickness 
that under pressure a sufficient depth will be ensured to hollows or 
counters to produce a good casting. To obtain the mold a sheet 
of dry paper or paper pulp of soft or spongy character is laid on 
the form of type to be copied and upon the layer of paper a sheet 
of steel or brass or India rubber is placed, and the whole is passed 
between pressing rollers which may be covered with rubber. A 
matrix is thus produced and from it a stereotype plate is obtained 
in much less time than by the old wet mat process. 

Alfred Leighton, a color printer in London, took out a patent in 
1864 for improvements in the construction, manufacture of printing 
surfaces in relief. The novelty of his invention consisted in the fact 
that these surfaces were elastic, being made of an India rubber com- 
pound and vulcanized in the molds. 

Celluloid: The advantages of celluloid are manifold, but one 
great deterrent to its use was found in its inflammability. However, 
at the time of the chief use of celluloid in the stereotyping industry 
the product was of such a nature that it would burn only by subject- 
ing it to an open flame. 

The predecessor of celluloid was a discovery by the well known 
inventor Parks of Birmingham, England. He named it "Parkazene," 
and it was made of dehydrated wood naphtha and nitrocellulose. 
Later on, in 1869, Hyatt Bros, of Newark, N. J., owners of a print- 
ing establishment, while engaged in experimenting to find a press 
blanket substance which would withstand atmospheric influences, 
invented celluloid. The name was derived from the fact that cellu- 
lose was used to make the product. Newark became the most 
important center for making celluloid in the world, and in 1877 as 
many as fifteen American factories were producing celluloid, the 

C84 3 



DE PROPHEET 



H 




S E A. 




Inhoudt defes Boecks. 

E PropftMl Pofea (gelijck oodc vtew, ende mcer anderc) is byfondcrlick van Godt gefonden tothet Koningrijck Ifracls oftecfer 
tien Stammen, (hoewel ondertuflchen Juda oock mecr-maels van hem bcftraft wort) onder dewelcke hy tot ccnBcwijs van Gode 
grote Lanckmoedigheyt ende Gctrouwigheyt, ecnen langen Tijt, (als Cap. i. Vers i. lefien is) gepropheteert heeft: wacr van 
de Heyligc Geell gewilt heeft, dat het Sommier der Kercke Godes in dit Boeck fchriftelick foude worden na-gelaten, begrij- 
pende, voor eerft, Prophetifche Af-bee!dingen , ende feer fcherpe Bcftraffingen van den fondigen ende vervalligeuStaet desgant- 
fchen Koningrijcks, byfonderlick der fiioode Af-goderijemetdegoudeneKalveren, die ten. Tiide \m Rehab cam y Salomons Sone, 
van haren eerften opgeworpen Koning, Jerobeam den Sone Nebels, waren op-gericht, als Ifrael fich eerft van Juda ende den waren 
Godts-dtenft af-fonderde ( i Reg. i j. Z7,z8,{9^c.) waer °P voort$ ccne afgrijfclicke Hcydenfche Ongebondenhcyt , ende als een ovcr- 
ftroornend: Vloet van allcrley Sonden gevolgt is, foo tegen dc eerfte als tegen de twcede Tafel van Godts Wet, ende dat onder 
alle Stams-pecfonen, die daer over van Godt door defen Propheet hcftiglick worden gefcholden: mil vcelvoudige ende fter beweeg. 
licke Vermaningcn ende Nodigingen tot oprechte ende tijdelicke Bekeeringe. Doch alfoo de Godtloosheyt ende Hart-neckigheyt van 
de Koningen af. tot den minllen des Volckstoe, dagelicks wies ende d'Overhant nam, wort haer ten tweetUn gepropheteert de ge- 
heele Verwoeftinge ende Ondcrgang haers Rijcks ende Staets, gcvangclicke Wech-voeringe naAffyrien, mitfgaders cenen feerlang- 
daerigen defolaten Toeftant onder de Hcydenfche Natien. Tea derden , worden de Boetveerdige ende Gelovigc getrooft met fchone 
Beloften van Godts Genade in haren hemelfchen Koning, JESU CHRISTO, tot welcken fich allc Uytvcrkorcne , aictalleen. 
«yt Ifrael, maer oock uyt de Heydenen, <buden briteeren, ende in hem eeuwiglick geiegent ende ihlig lijn. 

ban ■« ^cJju/ enbe fa» {ict Jtonittrjrnrtte beg u ©ie'tcei oioftj 
I^upfejs %fcOI0 been op-Doubcn. XEffSJtffJ? ES 

5 €nbe fat fa! te bieu ©aoegcfcgicbcn/acoci be*. cj«cni/ 
V n ic& treaty • 6 23o0cbct:D;ctUHfaI/ iitUcu Sg'Kfff'SnE 

l > 3DatC %\Wltl$* t^W Wr-?obrnjc u»t 

6 4£ii&£ fp ontfins toeocrom/ enbe ftacr; aSE^USftSS* 
be ccn SDocfjtcr-, cube' 8 Ijp fcpbc tot Ijcnt; \f™}\jft': fefi 
^oemtt)arm^atm'*llo-Siutlj.\ma: iuant acf.-« mn-ocDWu 
jt& en fal nip boo?racn mctmccrontfcnticn "J'^llobtamu^ 
obcr bet I!)up£ 3ifracW niacr Jt6 falfc 10 fe; F'^jPOJi'iVS^ 1 " 



Hct eerfte Capitt£ 

ffi*annrcr vWfn gcp;opbctectt be 56c / §# i. «9co; eSobtgKc 
btl bcclt Ijp 3ifrnclf acfrirtirhf {gotcerac enbe «3nbtsJ <Oo;bcclcn 
of/ boo; 't ttouaicn tinn Conur, i. tribe gctomt Dp bner J itmli 4 
Loruchima . 6. enbe I-oammi , R. «Ebftltocl brloofi -Sobt Hint 

Utcrthe boo; btn m e a s 1 A m tjecrlich tucber 011 ic ticgrcn upt 



3obcn enbe IBcpbciicn / 10. 



1 tin ben tfeutuen 
•eftamentt/ in brt 
tSiicchfrjj ecnormt 
Ofi»i Rout, j. »/. J?en 
fe!at«/ <$ann hab&c 
"Si «t(l 3ofua? 
.lum. 13. !«. irtiii bt 
toitrtct!oitlao2frut l !S' 

1 irK_«jt blijdtt/ 




ET JT^btbCiS 
!^€ .« C»«2|R/ 
bat csf^)i« i^ tot 
'i|}ofca/ten ^>o; 
ne ban SSrtri ; in 
be5Da5jtnban H= 
3tja/ 3!stl)am/ 
SStf)o|/ ^>i3bia/ 
fcsninccti ban 



S ftrrBSSTSf. 5l ul,a: en&e in oe ^ n 8en ban jerobeam/ 
ntofttn/ immtoiim; ^oneban3!oa^/ Stoning ban ifrael. 
" ,«3S « wf"n * m 2&cgin ' bait 't B3oo?t De^ % «E e 
fccmig ant™ B fj>jo' fl C JJ3 boo? ^ofea: 5De ^ H2 4E CI € ban 
Sfijpacionbtcbtall. fepbetot £?o|ca 5 <6aetfjcnen/ neemtuecne 
afraSTfrsacroV" ^ouVue bcc« ^oercrrjen/ enbe « Stinbccen 
■m (nw bm i6nnt Dec lOoercrijm : toaut Ijct Sant fjocrccrt 
%S*fi£mZf£Si 4 SamftBelicB » ban arDtcr ben $ € € fl <E. 
tan a?iju) oeboist j ,g>oo 8 cin0 !jp Ijcncn/ enbe nam»<5o; 
«c'rr ijtrft "oototot mer ten 5j)ot[)tcc ban ,0 3DibIaim: enbe fp 
SSS5 SST£ """P"? / «" te K5« Sent ecnen ^.one. . 
mi cm en fat wis 3o« 4 Cnbebe^'CCCj'iS fepbe tot ■ ■ f>cm •, 
JSStSJSiB'tfSK^w^f'J'nm ^ame" 313ml: iuantr.ot& 
iw.ichijcpt befrc pjo. ccn iucpnio [Tijts,]foo |al tcb be •» 25Ioet- 

ol gcfdjict tji rrc ffiijt f 

al;S 'i ttonmorljclic bcr titn ^itammtn tiocfj to 3? Icur toag. ©frt t Eeg. 14. ty. cnbt boojr? 
br IjiftoricnbnnbcUrgcmnacbcftc KonmQm ban a»ba/ iISeb. ban'rif. Cap. tot 
bctii. fnbciCljion. bnn'tis. totfttt 5j. mbcbagel. amo^ 1. 1. j Oftc/ van 

bet fpreken , van de Sprake , bat 10 / aljj be tjttre Ctrrt mo ■ door , »nbc tot Softa brgon 
te fpjtlitn / fi>|ac!i l)P bit tot (jfin / enbe boo; bem tot Jet IDolch. ?tnb. in Hofc> : (enbe 
olfao clbe rjs ) om nobec ic tooncn bat bet bolgenbe niet gefchict 55) in bcr 3?nct / mnec boo? 
re 11 sSi'iicljfc 111 btn ©cert inlncnbiglicli (ip JMomcre bnn pnrnnci ofie iffitlnelienilTe / ben 
■ptoyficft ban >Sobt jp acopcribaeit / cube nabcrfjnnt ben Dolclie olfoo / alis een Pjopfjc* 
cifcinSetirtiic/ boo;-gcb;nsitn. ,5>ict ban fulche jpjopljttrTtljciScficljtmiScnef. ij. 1. en< 
be Jigel- onbet 3. 1/ &c. item Cjcel). 4. 4. enbe 8. i. enbe 1 1. 14/ if I tec 4 3Dat 

if I ganifcjjclirn tot Ijocrenjc begeben. aaetge lijrht be jBonietc ban f^efceij ractjpf. ;.y. 

r (Om0at!)iergcffi)tu)0)t: Jlccmt een t)oere met Iijoec-hinbeccn / cube boccna/ bat 
Be P;opbt« bti'eloc Hinbtrcn by bie (Soccc gcsionncn hetft / baecuptblncbt bat Ijct met 
olfoo in bee ©act gcftljici en 50. 6 Hcbr. hoeretrende hoccetri , bat ij! / bort booj* 

eacnj met onbcriS- ^&tct ban accflclichc (Qocrecoe 3Lcb. 17- 7- 7 ©.olfoo' bat d'ln- 

woondeu des Laim ben ycete met inter na-volgen , inaee van b«n of tnijciir m enbe ben Xf- 
nobni oniinnig na-iopen. jdgcl. onbrc 4- n- 8 ©it oiks' i(i btn pjoohrrt in cm 

i£>clicfjtc benoont / enbe ben BolcbefalS op J60i. It Ben-gcteetBcnt) Booj-gclUlt/ tot 
cenen Spiegel/ enbe Itbcncngt Kf-bedOinflc hates &obt-lofn; a?c(i'ric / in 't boo;gaenb( 
JtSbccmclt. 9 (SeliiffiComerm't l!eb?reufcl)fornt!jtsbeSctcechcninget|ccft ban 

Vollieyi, ofte / Volmaeckiheyt , foninjtji ban Venecringe. ali'ooljabbe e3obt befen Palehe 
e"!cs( «BoetS gtbatn / maer fp berttcrben ones'/ cube oorti Ijacr felben/ boo; 2tf-gobt rgc 
inbe anbete ^>onben / tDOCronifpepnbclichboo;«BobtP piagtn fouben beiteert too;bcn. 

10 efeommigc ntincn bit boo; een jtEand jjiaem / anbtte boo; be «Beboo;t-pIaetfe. fiet 
50oo;t bctecclient tv«e Vlompen v^gen , uwec boo; bebupbt tian b)o;ben/ it <?cpitjcvt / 
STDclluftiahrpt / cnbcOetitlbeptbtiJBolrliS. <Eenigc mepnen .' batbtfe jjJacnifiet op be 
IBscittjnt Dibla , bttnielfffijccbs. M- (i&ictb'aent. albocr) om tt tooncn be «5enabe/ 
kvc >iBobt fiincn ldolelie bctocfen bceft / 6atr boerenbe uct be IDoeltijne in Canaan. < s-icl. 
•Gjctl). i«. »/ 7. Coin. 3. «. ) J^um. 33. 4S. too;t bcnnclt DibUihujm. ^>iet loijbcrf 3er. 
■.i/tS. ki ljuke. 12. ©cfe ,Hinnn moct oiiberfrijtpbcn \no;b(n ban Ifrael: 

Wbe bit fi«t op be plactfe Jiireel. ifeict Ijct bolgenbe / enbe ujijbcrp Cap (JIT- 11' 11. 
Cut ft'amtceth. 13 Hebv. Bioedcn , ©. Dloct-frljulben ©oot-ITiiJcn; JjKiWibcn 

^Jsa / {flii Genii »■) »«'. ) bo albocr oy-gcUyt sate bebjebcu jjja. 



6edtt'6\D«tj-br7eren. " ' SSS'SSf'gSS 

7 Mm obcr bet J^upjS » !|uba fal irft mp «™> c Sj* J»£J 

ontfennen/ cube faffe bcrloflcn booj bctiooot minis imubc 

»$<8<ea<£ Ijaren <JBobt / tube ic& en falfc B^d'^SgS 

tlftt bcdoffCn bOO? *» 2&0ge / IlOCf) bOO? banSaSfa/ .tirg..r. 

&toecrt/ norl?boo ? $i^s/ boo? ^ctrbm ^eS'U?/ 5 ^ 

noth boo? Ciuptcrcn. f,°"°, EDoo ? t ' u^ 

s 5Jifi f P ,iu Ho-SJutftama gefpeent fiabbc/ SSlom/ J D™" wrt "* 

otitfingfp/ tnbe bacrbe eenen esSmic. »«©• be jro«r« 

9 <EnbeMf,p fepbe-, |^ccnn1i)ncn j^aem k£R&'ttS 
Jto-Sflmmi ; UDant cp-!itDcn en 3151 mijit S'VaiaTtoc^bM 
ilBokH niet/ foo en fal ic6 [oockj'sbeutoe ©janr ten Bote m£» 

nitt 3nil. J ,_- ^ ,- «,_. ««&am.i..8. SerciK. 

10 i^otgtan^ fal get <Betat bcr &hmi*i-->s- mttb^cn'rec. 
bcren IfcaeljS 3tjn aljt f)ct a ^ant bcr £cc/ , 7 n g- |(ttanhlf P „i 
bat niet acmctcn noth actclt ftan Voojben: aub.s.ft.'t^rft.mu 

" J v c bat afracl Dice een» 

B;ote Ji^cbti'Iagc Btfiobt fjeeft / ten ffitjbc tilt eSalmnnafler tegen baec op^oo^J. ^-irt 
iHlcg. 17.4/ See. 3nb. omhee Dal Jrtreels.bat It I onibe Jjaoo;btnjcii olbacrbcbjebc.i. 

18 ©e IJeerC tot ISofta. 19 ©. nietom.'ermde. to Hebe, weeh-vuerende, 

of,' op-nemende, (batiS/ op-ticmcnbe cube toccb-boerenbe) wech-voeren. jpgel. onb. s- 
14. ©efeE3oo^irnttio;bcnbcrfr!)tpbentlithober-aeftt/ bcrmitii be bccfcftrpbtiic 5?etct! , < 
kcRiffen ban Ijct C)cb;ccufc!) IDoo;t / bat niet allccn op-nemen , wecb-nemen , uech-voe- 
rcn, tec mncc ooth veigeven bcteechcnt. (^>i'cf pf. 1 j. 18. 3cf. 1. 9. ) ©it It bctbult/ cccft 
bou; diglotD-Pilefec' bactiioboo;^ifllmQnofTcc/liloiungcnbanaffprtcn. 11 ©at 

ts • niljne llcrche / ofte mb,n Polch / f)icr bpfonbtrlirh af-gcbctlt boo; Juda , alS ljc6bcnbf 
ben vceljtcn «Bobi3-bicnft/ enbe met boo; Iliael, bie ben tontcn Oobtp-bicnft berlaicn hr.tu 
ben : baerom in 't bolgenbe oocb ban - t Igiipa 3uba gtftpt toojt ' ben SJecre baien «5obt. 
ipgel. onb. M 9- tnben. 1. onbcr|InSaiinbciiaiibaenbc3!frar1(t'fainen of-bcclbcubc b« 
alacmsBne Hetcli' upt 3obcn enbe SKPbmcn) t'famen-gtbot gt. eSict onb JS 11/ See. item 
3. t. ii ©. boo; mijr.rn ccuungra cemg-grborencn «>one JESUM CHRI- 

STUM, birn (eli tot cenen IJcptaiit/ saclionbcr/ ^aligniahee/ Sjooft enbe Boning fi)n|J 
©cleliS bcto?bincert bebue. Jugcl. <5m. 19. m- 3cf. 10. 17. enbe 3icr. 13.4/ j/ Sec. anb. 
door den HEE R EhatcnCodi, ©. boo; mp ftlbtn/ icli fal fjet Mfp boen ; Ce bjcrcn/ Ijuce 
ligliaemlith bcrloffcn upt 53abcl / enbe gccliiicli boo; bra messiAM, apt be «5ebni!« 
gcuffc beS ©upbelp/ Sec. 23 tSelych be 33erlomnge ban 3ubo upt be SRabplontftlje 

OtbangcmlTc boo; ingnc fonbcrlmgc Ocnabe enbe tlcgcccinge btfcljielit enbe brllieit ;al 
bjoibcu/ enbe met boo; mcnfcblichOetttlt/ ajfoo fol be BcrloiTingc boo; curihtiiu 
ten gantfeh bcmcKch, cnbt geclllieh t^cpt ?gn/ bes fp menionr nip mp fullcn Dcbben te banr» 
hen. ©crgrl. Jt/lielj. 5.9. met b'acnieccli. ^oimigc bupbtn bet oocb op be toonbrilifbe 
Htgecringe Gobtp; boo; beiotlrbc fjp guba beeft bcrlort ban be ttace itoiiingcu Pekih liio» 
ning ban 3lfroe! / cube ReilnMomiigbon^&ptitH. f&>ict 3'cf. 7. i' Sec. 2 Ueg. if. 19' ;o, 
cute 16. 9. 14 ©ctjeete. if ©at ip/ icli fal u-lirbcc «5oDt met 3Un/ geh.'ili 

bitfommigealbusberbulltn/ fooenfalick [oocb] u-beder [«&obi] n,« njn nfcj viSobr 
clbctS bicliniilp fp;eccbt. Pcrgcl. bobcnDccp7. met b'Scmcceh- cube firt v3Vncf. 17.7. 
enbe ©cut. 7. 6. ©00; be «3cboo:tc ban bcic b;ic tlinbcren mtpnen loniniigc nf-grbreli ic 
Jtjii/ bncbcrlcpeSxactbepiaoinifiaiinelS' t'elrhcnStcrballigcrniefioiiben.' enbefujarr» 
bcrbnnOobigtrtraft. is ©icn icli in toclioinrnbcn arptn fal grnabig 3pn. Jiire 

fp;tetht «3obt ban 't Ocnaben-njerrlc bai bp boo; Ijabbc acn mn Oolt h ic be&iji'c'u bp b- 1» 
ttgt bcS jSieiilocii (Eertointnt^ ; ai. to. ncn 3obrn enbe Uepbenni/ 't3frari ssobtp. 
e*>iet D0111. 9. 14/ is. Onlnt. 3. 28' 19. cnocs. is. tuantnu Ijrt bleeicftebrli 3(Vael/ ft* 
acinic br FJcuCrnrnf «3oStfi IDoleb met mf re en Inarm ' foo iiioeflrtifc brpbr boo] low 
rcrr cube b;gc oaubc ocit-aiMMg fco,btu bewdebe Oobt Ijict liarr btpotn toe fV* 

9 Gen* 11. 11. 

•tnJte 



27. Facsimile Page of First Stereotyped Bible (1701) 



J0MP 



mpBMM— WW W <W* > 



M^MNkiaMN 1 * 



"»""W| #*%<gU 




MARS 
^4rj 4 i\. fears 
*p la hunt 30 

I d s. Aubiil , Eveque 
re s. Ceadde Eveque 

5 £ sre Ctmegoncic 
4g s. Cailmir Prm.P* 
f A $. rauiln, Eveq. 

6 b s. Godegrane Ev. 

7 c So Thomas d' Aq. 
8d s. jean de Dicu 
5 e ste Fraii$oife,veu, 
10 fs. Dto£lov6e Ab. 
n g Les 40. Martyrs 

II A s.Gregootre Pa. 

13 b ste EuphraficjV. 

1 4 c s. Lubin, Evlque 
if d s^Tranquille.Ab. 
s£ c s. Cyriaque,Mar. 
j 7 f ste Gertrude, Vier 

18 gs.Cyrflcde jeruf. 
ijAj. Jofeph. 
xo b s. Jnachim 
xi c s.Benoift Ab.M. 
xxd s. Camel. en, Ev. 
ues. Proa tie Evlq. 
14^ steCateniu-de S a 
if g L\Annonctation 
z$ A $. Jean d'Egypte 
xy b s. Rupe-'t, Eveq.. 
x8 c f'.Praiere, Eveq. 

19 d s. Euftafc < Abbi 
30 e s. Rieul. Ev£que 
$t f steB^ibine p v. 

I 




Avai L. 

Vtil & jo, ;o^r/ 
jT la Lane x#e 
x g s. Huguc* , Ev„ 

z, A s. Franco is de P* 
j b s. Kichard , Ev. 
4CS. Ambvoiie Ev* 
{ is. Vincent fttu 

6 e s. Pierre , Mar tyu 

7 f s. Egefipe j Hift. 

8 g s. Deni5 > Eveque- 
^ A ste Marie Egyp. 
10 b s. Terence , M« 



28. Page from the "Book 

[86 



lies. Leon 5 Pape. 
\l ds. jule, Pape. 

1 3 c sre Ide ,. Veuve. 

14 fs.Tibu^ce&r^C. 
1 j g s. Ortaire ; C©nf. 
i5As, Patcrne , Ev. 
iTb$.Anicet,P.8cM. 
18 c s. ParfaitjPr.M. 
\$ \ s. Tihioa } Diacr. 
xo e s. M'aricn d'Aux. 
xi f s.Anfelme,Atch; 
xx g L'lnvent. $. D. 
xj As, Georges , M. 
X4 bste Bsuve.Vlerg. 
\%c%. Marc . EvaYig. 
z6 d 5. Clec, Pape M. 
if e s*. Amhime 5 Ev. 
xS f s # VIcaI , Mart, 
xpg ste Catherine 
30 A s. Eucrope, Ev, 



of Hours" by Valleyre 

3 



new product. When heated to 120° C. celluloid becomes plastic so 
that any desired form can be given it. 

Emil Janin of Paris, in 1880, was the first to conduct successful 
experiments for making printing plates of celluloid. He hit upon the 
idea whilst experimenting with the plastic properties of celluloid. 
He also invented the putty which was necessary for the making of 
the matrices. This compound he found in the so-called Janin's 
cement or putty. He tested his cellulose printing plates successfully 
in Paris and then came to Vienna and London to demonstrate that 
his plates stood 100,000 impressions and more as against ordinary 
plates which began to deteriorate after the first 30,000 impressions. 

The advantages of his celluloid plates were: 

(1) Flexibility in heat which permitted of easy and quick change 
even on rotary presses. 

(2) Durability under all possible conditions and making of a 
great number of good impressions. 

(3) Repairs could be made as easily as with ordinary plates. 

(4) Speed of production which occupied about one-half hour 
for any plate size. 

For color printing celluloid plates were better than ordinary 
plates as none of the colors used had any chemical influence on the 
plate. A further advantage was that the transportation of celluloid 
plates was cheaper than ordinary plates, their weight being less, and 
thus resulting in postal savings. 

The Janin celluloid process of stereotyping, as a substitute for 
metal in the casting of plates, consisted in the following features: 

The composition had the same consistency as putty. The mix- 
ture was spread upon a thin iron plate to a thickness of }i" and 
a piece of blotting paper was pressed over the whole to absorb 
the superfluous glycerine. This was then placed on the type face 
downwards, subjecting same to gentle pressure in a press and apply- 
ing a slight heat on the iron plate. After about four minutes the 
composition hardened and was lifted from the form. Now a hot 
press (steam table) was necessary. The matrix, now ready to take 
casts from, was laid upon the table of a hot press (steam table) 
and a piece of celluloid of the same size on top. The head of the 
press was heated by steam, screwed down on the celluloid, which 
was thus softened. Great pressure was applied whereby the celluloid 
was forced into every part of the matrix, whereupon cold water was 
admitted into the press, hardening the celluloid. Then the cast was 

[87] 



easily removed from the matrix and trimmed and was immediately 
ready for use. 

The operation of this process took a little less time than the 
papier-mache method but it was in actual practice for only a short 
time. Then it was discarded and forgotten. 

Xylonite: This product was introduced into stereotype plates by 
J. E. Heidegger in Vienna in 1884. Xylonite was a product that had 
all the advantages of celluloid and none of its faults or disadvan- 
tages. It was produced from a cheap plant fibre, was not as porous 
as wood or metal, was especially adapted for illustration work and 
was exceedingly elastic. The plates made of Xylonite were from 
60% to 70% cheaper than ordinary printing plates, and the ma- 
terial, after having been used, could be easily reclaimed and used 
over again. The method of applying the process was the same as 
practiced by Mr. Janin in the making of his celluloid stereotype 
plates. 

Mame Bros, of Paris purchased Herhan's hollow copper matrix 
stereotyping process. They sent to the printing trade circulars with 
the following text: 

"In 1801 the celebrated printing expert and artist, Herhan, 
exhibited at the Louvre the result of his research work in stereo- 
typing, namely an edition of the 'Conjuration of Catalina Sal- 
lustius.' We attach to this circular a sample of this printing, a page 
of this work printed by his original process, and are confident that 
it will convey proof to an enlightened public that Herhan plates are 
capable of meeting the Elzevir competition." 

The hollow types or movable matrices which Mame Bros, in- 
vented are made of copper instead of lead and regulus as hitherto 
employed in making ordinary types. They go thru the regular pro- 
cedure, being stamped instead of cast. With the aid of exceedingly 
ingenious machines it was possible to impart to these new types 
the same height, the same strength of body and in proportion the 
same thickness as cast movable types possessed. The composition 
of a page was performed in identically the same way as in any 
ordinary printing plate. 

A. Isermann, the well known printer and stereotyper and pioneer 
user of the plaster of Paris method in Hamburg, claimed that he 
had invented the wet mat process independently of Genoux, but 
had not deemed it worth while to take out a patent on the invention. 
One of the best known stereotypers in Europe, M. Archimowitz of 
Karlsruhe, endorsed the wet mat method and thru his widely dis- 

C88] 



tributed book, "Stereotyping Processes," he converted a great number 
of plaster of Paris stereotyping plants into wet mat enthusiasts. 

The wet mat process met with considerable resistance on the part 
of many stereotypers at the time of its introduction. For instance, 
an important typographic plant in Leipzig received an order and 
made the matrices for the job on wet mats using the Genoux 
procedure. When the head of the pressroom examined the plates he 
threw them out as totally unfit and ordered all plates to be remade 
with the plaster of Paris method. 

Butter Bros, of Komotau in Bohemia published a booklet, en- 
titled "The Value of Stereotyping in Book Printing in 1873." This 
pamphlet, widely circulated, was intended to interest the small town 
printer in stereotyping. Butter Bros, called attention to the fact 
that printers in small towns lacked prompt deliveries of type ma- 
terial, were forced to have their type lying idle, were hindered by 
lack of capital to put in an adequate supply of type. Butter 
offered stereotyping as a remedy for all these ills, and due to his 
untiring efforts stereotyping was soon widely practiced in small 
plants throughout Central Europe. 

A system called "cold" stereotyping (not to be confused with 
the dry mat cold method) was practiced in many shops. It did 
away with the drying of mats on a steam table. The drawbacks of 
this hot drying were that the type material expanded under the 
influence of the heat, and the materials contained in the paste, used 
to combine the layers of the wet mat, melted and stuck. The "cold" 
drying method was first employed by Ryles & Son in their plant in 
Bradford, England. The mat, while still moist, was removed from 
the type matter, put into a specially constructed frame which held 
it tight and then was left to dry out without heat. 

In 1901 Robert KrafTt of Berlin invented a matrix comprising 
an inner and outer layer and an intermediate layer of pulp, com- 
posed of a mixture of freely ground turf (peat), glycerine, starch, 
paper pulp and a small percentage of an antiseptic such as carbolic 
acid. 

In 1902 Leopold Elias patented a stereotype matrix composed of 
asbestos covered with a thin covering of plant glue. 

In 1911 Niels Bendixen of Copenhagen invented a method of 
producing a special rapid drying mat for stereotyping of halftones. 
Bendixen made an etching from a photograph, coated it with a 
fatty paste containing parafTine, fish glue and pipe clay. A wet mat 
made with another special soapy paste was placed on top of the 

C89I1 



coated etching, covered with blotting paper and placed in a heated 
drying press. The coating on the etching loosened itself from the 
etching and adhered to the paper mat, transferring to the paper 
all the details of the etching. In this manner a paper mat was pro- 
cured, which was flexible and adapted to be sent by mail, and 
wherein immediately after its production one or several castings 
could be made using stereotype metal. 

The distinguishing feature of Bendixen's matrix was that it 
possessed the quality of drying very rapidly. The ordinary dry mat 
is much cheaper, simpler and better adapted for syndicate work. 



£90] 




29. Armand Gaston Camus 



C91] 




30. Charles Earl Stanhope (1753-1816) 



C92] 



CHAPTER FOUR 
A SHORT HISTORY OF THE NEWSPAPER 



Before continuing our compilation of the different steps under- 
taken in the art of stereotyping, remarks pertaining to the history 
of the newspaper in Europe and America will be of interest. 

A newspaper in its modern acceptance can only be properly 
dated from the time when in Western Europe the invention of 
printing made a multiplication of copies a commercial possibility. 

We find news in a form similar to what we call a newspaper 
in the times of the Assyrians and Egyptians, and later on in the 
Roman Empire. Julius Caesar ordered a regulated publication of 
short hand-written records, called 'Acta Senatus," of the courts of 
law and of public assemblies. Another publication, called 'Acta 
Diurna" (daily acts), recorded descriptions of public works, build- 
ings in progress; lists of deaths, births and marriages; trials for 
divorces, which were of frequent occurrence among the Romans. 
These hand-written publications were made accessible to the people 
through posting of same on public buildings. 

Soon after the Chinese had invented their method of block- 
printing, they established an official gazette and printed it in Pekin. 
This publication is still in existence and is called "The Court 
Transcript." 

There is, however, no uninterrupted connection between these 
different hand-written or printed publications and the real begin- 
ning of newspaper makings; these date from the beginning of the 
16th century. 

The ancestors of the modern newspaper are four-fold: Trou- 
badours or wandering minstrels, the leaflet, the letter and the so- 
called market-relations or statements of an isolated piece of news. 

The troubadours have been called the wandering journalists of 
the Middle Ages. They roamed through many countries, visiting the 
courts and castles of the mighty, and in song and speech they 
brought to the world of those days what we moderns glean from 
our daily newspapers. They gave the best and the newest in the 
sphere of music and poetry, and being widely traveled personages, 

£93 n 



they disseminated knowledge of all events, big and small, that hap- 
pened in the cities and countries they had roved in. This news was 
delivered by the minstrels in epigrammatic, vigorous songs, which 
were often memorized by the hearers and carried further. 

After the art of printing from engraved wooden-blocks was 
invented, the next step was to disseminate news through hand-bills 
or leaflets. The contents of such leaflets were made up from the 
momentous events, for example, the dangers of the Turkish invasion 
of the Occident, the acts and utterances of emperors, rulers and great 
men, great ceremonies, finances, battles. Also short, vivid accounts 
of occurrences of Nature, pestilence, crimes, executions, etc. During 
the period of the Reformation, the ninety theses of Luther were 
printed as leaflets and distributed all over the country. 

A very important member in the chain leading to the newspaper 
was the written letter. In the Roman Empire the high officials in 
the provinces had slaves or liberated slaves in Rome send to them 
regularly reports by letter covering all political and social events 
of the empire. In the Middle Ages, princes, monasteries, city ad- 
ministrations, learned men, etc., had writers of occupation report 
to them on various topics. Then scribes appeared who reported 
only on commercial matters of importance; these men had as seat 
of their activities great commercial centres, Venice, Ulm, Rome, 
Antwerp, Augsburg. 

In due time these letter-writers dropped the form of addressed 
letters and issued written circulars, becoming thus less personal in 
their reports. In the 16th century scribes began the practice of 
selling accumulated news in copies. The men who conducted these 
flourishing news agencies were called scrittori d' avisi (writers of 
news) and formed the first reporters' guild. 

The next step was a certain regularity of making and delivering 
such news information. The first printed news-sheets, which through 
the combination of giving news and giving same regularly resembled 
the present day newspaper closely, were the so-called market-reports 
or "relations." These publications were issued semi-annually for 
distribution at fairs held at the commercial centers and contained 
all important news, covering the past six months. The inventor of 
this system was Michael von Aitzing, who in March, 1583 issued 
the first relatio historia (historical report). 

In July, 1588 an English newspaper appeared intermittently, 
called "The English Mercurie, for the prevention of false reports, 

C94] 



imprinted and sold by the Queen's printers, Field and Barker, 
London." 

Within a few years London had no lack of such Mercuries, 
Corantos, Gazettes. Many imitators followed on the Continent and 
as the next step there appeared the weekly news-sheet, of which one, 
issued in Strasbourg in 1609, carried the following title: "Account 
of all capital and memorable histories which on and off have 
occurred in Upper-and-Lower-Germany, also in France, Italy, Scot- 
land, England, Spain, etc., etc., in this year 1609. All newes shall, 
as I may obtain and collect same, be set up in print." 

The first English newspaper in the present day sense of the 
word was established in London by Nathaniel Butter, in 1622. It 
was a small quarto of eighteen pages, called the "Certain Newes of 
the Present Weeke." The editor solicited subscribers by the following 
advertisement : 

"If any gentleman, or other accustomed to the weekly relations 
of newes, be desirous to continue the same, let them know that the 
writer, or transcriber rather of this newes, hathe published two 
former newes, the one dated the second, the other the thirteenth of 
August, all of which do carry a like title, with the arms of the 
King of Bohemia on the other side of the title page, and have 
dependence one upon another: which manner of writing and print- 
ing he doth purpose to continue weekly, by God's assistance from 
the best and most certain intelligence. Farewell, this twenty-third 
of August, 1622." This was the first English newspaper because it 
was the first publication of news which the editor publicly proposed 
to continue regularly. 

Very shortly afterwards a number of "Weekly News Books" put 
in their appearance, such as "News from Flanders," "News from 
Italy," etc. On March 7th, 1649, in Number 7 of "The Impartial 
Intelligencer" there is to be found the first regular advertisement. 
It is from a gentleman in Candish in Suffolk, from whom two horses 
had been stolen. 

France printed its first weekly newspaper in 1632. It was estab- 
lished in Paris by Dr. Theophrastus Renaudot, a physician, famous 
for his skill in collecting gossip and news to amuse his patients. 
Encouraged by the reception his news received from not only 
clients but also from others, he realized it would be advantageous 
to print periodically and sell his accumulations of news. He obtained 
a sole privilege from Cardinal Richelieu for publishing "The Paris 
Gazette" and the first number appeared in April, 1632. King Louis 

[95] 



XIII was a frequent contributor to the Gazette, taking his little 
paragraphs to the printing office himself and seeing them set up in 
type. Renaudot asked six centimes for each issue. His children and 
grandchildren kept up the publication; in 1765 the paper was the 
first to bring stock exchange quotations, and in 1792 also the first 
newspaper to publish theatrical advertisements. 

The first daily newspaper appeared in Leipzig, Germany in 1660, 
the same still being published. In 1695 the censure fell in England 
and in 1709 the first daily newspaper was published in London, 
called 'The Daily Courant." In 1777 the first daily in France was 
issued, the "Journal de Paris," and in 1778 the first Sunday news- 
paper, Johnson's "Sunday Monitor," in London. 

The following pages are devoted to an abbreviated historical 
record of newspaper development in the United States of America. 
It would be entirely beyond the scope of this book to follow through 
this development with even meager details from the beginning to 
our day. 

However, due to the many demands for a brief outline of this 
phase of printing history it is offered herewith, but closes with the 
day when wet mat stereotyping entered the newspaper plants, i.e. 
about 1865. 

In the first paragraphs general information is given, then first 
newspaper ventures in the thirteen colonial states are recorded, 
thereupon a list of the first newspapers printed in the remaining 
thirty-five states of the Union, and finally notes concerning printing 
plant conditions in the colonial, Revolutionary War and Civil 
War periods. 

As was the case in Europe, the first American mediums of 
disseminating news were the written and the spoken newspaper. 
The latter was read to the inhabitants after church service on 
the steps of the church or on the public square by the Town Crier; 
also at times in the public tavern. Written copies of what had been 
spoken were posted in places near the church. The appellation "news- 
paper" was first used in 1670, and appeared in a letter addressed 
to Charles Perrot, the second editor of "The Oxford Gazette;" a 
reader stated: "I wanted your newes paper Monday last past." 

Further precursors of newspapers were the printed sheets. There 
was no regular publication; they were issued only once and were 
called "broadsides." One of the earliest, 1689, was a sheet 8" x 
4J^", printed only on one side; its publisher and printer was 
Samuel Green. Other broadsides, or handbills, were circulated rather 

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extensively about this time, for towards 1689 the Massachusetts 
authorities passed a resolution: "Whereas many papers have been 
lately printed and dispersed, tending to the disturbance of the peace, 
any person guilty of printing or even concealing such like papers, 
should be accounted enemies of the Government, and be proceeded 
against as such with the uttermost severity." Thus no freedom of 
the press existed at that time. 

In 1690 a sort of a newspaper was printed and published by 
Benjamin Harris, who was an exiled English newspaper publisher 
who had settled in Boston as a bookseller and proprietor of the 
London Coffee House. It was issued under the name "Publick Oc- 
currences." It was a small 4-page sheet 7^" x llj^", two columns 
to each page, except the fourth, which was free from any printing. 
The sheet was suppressed by the Governor of Massachusetts, and 
after its suppression no other paper was founded until 1704. 

At Bridgeton a written newspaper called 'The Plain Dealer" 
was publicly posted at Matthew Potter's bar. A notice informed the 
public that those interested might read the paper by calling at the 
tavern every Tuesday morning. 

The clergy of New England frequently related or referred to 
items of news. The bellman as he made his rounds sometimes told 
other things besides giving the hour and informing the public that 
all was well. News was circulated thru pulpit announcements and 
semi-public letters. Foremost among writers of news-letters was 
John Campbell, the postmaster of Boston. He made it a practice 
to send rather regularly letters to the governors of the New England 
Colonies. These letters, after being read, were passed along to others. 
Sometimes they were publicly posted so that their contents might 
be read after the manner in which news was communicated in 
ancient Rome. These Campbell letters might be termed written 
newspapers. 

So numerous were the requests on John Campbell for extra 
news advices that neither he nor his brother, Duncan, was able to 
make the supply equal to the demand simply by the pen. He was 
forced to employ the printing press. His first printed news-letter 
appeared on Monday, April 24th, 1704, and was called "The Boston 
News-Letter." It was printed on both sides of a half sheet folio, 
7" x 11^", by Bartholomew Green (who later became its owner) 
in a small wooden building on Newberry Street, and for over forty 
years it was printed at that address. The old home had burned 
down, and Green's son-in-law, Richard Draper, built a new home 

[99] 



for the paper. In 1776 the publication of the paper was suspended. 
Then William Brooker started the second newspaper in America, 
"The Boston Gazette," on December 21st, 1719. Other Massachusetts 
papers to follow the Gazette were: The Courant (1721), The Weekly 
Journal (1727), The Rehearsal (1731), The Post-Boy (1734) and 
The Evening Post (1735). 

The first Pennsylvania newspaper, 'The American Weekly 
Mercury," which appeared on the 22nd of December, 1719, was the 
first newspaper in the Middle Colonies, and was published in Phila- 
delphia from the press of Andrew Bradford, the local postmaster, 
and his son William Bradford, who was to be the publisher of the 
first newspaper in New York. At first the paper was sold by "Andrew 
Bradford at The Bible in the Second Street and John Copson in 
the High Street." Upon Bradford's death in 1742 the next issue was 
put in mourning with the inverted column rules. His widow, 
Cornelia Bradford, suspended the paper for one week because of 
the death of her husband, and then continued the black borders for 
the next six weeks. The paper bore her name on its imprint until 
its suspension early in 1747. 

Benjamin Franklin worked at his trade as printer in the office 
of Samuel Keimer. The latter started a paper, the second in Penn- 
sylvania, the title of which was "The Universal Instructor in all 
Arts and Sciences; and Pennsylvania Gazette." The first number 
appeared on September 24th, 1728. After nine months the paper 
had less than one hundred subscribers, and Keimer was glad to sell 
at any price to Franklin and his fellow printer, Meredith, who 
assumed control in October, 1729. The new firm shortened the title 
to "The Pennsylvania Gazette." After the fourth issue Franklin 
announced a "Half Sheet twice a Week," and gave America its 
first semi-weekly; after a few issues he returned to weekly publica- 
tion. The profits of the paper from 1748 to 1766, or 18 years, were 
about $60,000 for subscriptions and over $20,000 for advertising. 

The first daily newspaper in America appeared in Philadelphia 
on September 21st, 1784; it was entitled, "The Pennsylvania Packet 
and Daily Advertiser," and was published by John Dunlop and 
David Claypoole. It was a 4-page sheet of four columns to the page 
and was sold at four pence a copy. The first page and the last 
were entirely filled with advertisements. The third page consisted 
half of advertisements and half of text. The only page which did 
not contain any advertisement was the second; it was filled with 
news and essays. 



William Bradford was the founder of the first paper in New 
York. After he had learned the printing trade in England he accom- 
panied William Penn to America in 1682. Upon his return to Eng- 
land in 1685 he procured a press and type and again set sail for 
Philadelphia, where he opened a book shop and did a general 
printing business. 

Bradford became Royal Printer in New York in 1693. On the 
8th of November, 1725 he published the first issue of the "New 
York Gazette." From 1725 to 1730 the "New York Gazette" con- 
sisted of a single sheet of four pages. 

The paper was invariably poorly printed — doubtlessly due to 
the fact that Bradford had used the type for a long time before he 
began to print his newspaper. Bradford retired from the newspaper 
world on November 19th, 1744, the date of the last issue of the 
"New York Gazette." The name was changed to "The New York 
Evening Post" in 1744. 

The second newspaper in the city was "The New York Weekly 
Journal," first issued on November 5th, 1733 by John Peter Zenger, 
a German who had come to New York in 1710 with a group of 
palatines sent over by Queen Ann. He set up his own printing shop 
in 1726, first on Smith Street and later on Broad Street. A con- 
temporary correspondent wrote that "Zenger rides too fast and 
speaks in the spur when he ought to make use of the reins." In 
his second number Zenger published an article on "The Liberty 
of the Press," and followed up with other articles radical in tone. 
On the 17th of November, 1734 he was arrested and imprisoned. 

Because of his attack on the arbitrary and corrupt administra- 
tion of the British Colonial Governor Crosby, Zenger had been 
arrested on the charge of seditious libel. In the trial which followed 
Zenger was fortunate in having to defend him Andrew Hamilton, 
probably the ablest lawyer of Philadelphia. 

"The laws of our country have given us a right — the liberty of 
both exposing and opposing arbitrary power in these parts of the 
world at least by speaking and writing truth." 

In his impassioned address to the jury in the famous trial of 
John Peter Zenger in August, 1735, eighty year old Hamilton used 
these words in closing his plea for the liberation of his client who 
was held in jail for nine months by the King's Governor for print- 
ing an attack on the arbitrary and corrupt administration of Colonial 
Governor Crosby. 

A jury of twelve courageous and upright men acquitted Zenger 

C 101 3 



of seditious libels against the Crown and the fight for the freedom 
of the press was won. From that time the press was to become an 
unhampered medium of education, a purveyor of news and a 
guardian of public welfare. From that day in 1735 newspapers were 
destined to play a leading part in Revolutionary development by 
educating the Colonists on their rights as free men. Here was the 
genesis of the Bill of Rights — our present guarantee of liberty. 

The following is a record of the first newspaper printed in the 
remaining original thirteen states. 

Connecticut 

"The Connecticut Gazette," the first paper in Connecticut, made 
its appearance on April 12th, 1755 at New Haven. The first number 
bore the imprint: "Printed by James Parker at the Post Office Near 
the Sign of the White Horse." 

Benjamin Franklin had been induced by President Clap to 
purchase a printing plant with a view of establishing the former's 
nephew, Benjamin Mecom, in business at New Haven. The material 
arrived in the fall of 1754, but Mecom changed his plans and 
Parker was secured to take up the work. In 1764 the "Gazette" was 
suspended for a short time but was afterward revived by Benjamin 
Mecom on July 5th, 1765. In an editorial announcement Mecom 
added the following statement about subscribers: "All kinds of 
Provisions, Fire Wood and other suitable country Produce, will 
be taken as pay of those who cannot spare money, if delivered at 
the Printer's Dwelling House or any other place which may acci- 
dently suit him." 

Delaware 

James Adams, a native of Ireland, was the publisher of "The 
Wilmington Chronicle," the first newspaper in Delaware. After work- 
ing for about seven years in the office of Franklin in Philadelphia, 
he set up a press in that city, but a year later moved to Wilmington, 
where he first printed books and almanacs. In 1762 he started the 
"Chronicle" but failed to get enough subscribers to make the venture 
profitable, and after six months discontinued the sheet. 

Georgia 

For 30 years after Georgia was founded the Colony depended for 
its news upon the papers of South Carolina, and its merchants were 
forced to advertise their goods in Charleston papers. On April 7th, 

C 1.02 3 




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nio4n 



1763, however, the first number of "The Georgia Gazette" was 
issued at Savannah by James Johnson at his printing office on 
Broughton Street. On November 21st, 1765 it suspended publication 
on account of the Stamp Act, but was revived again in May, 1766 
and lasted as late as February, 1776. 

Maryland 

William Parks, who had learned his trade in England, brought 
out the first paper in Maryland. In setting up his press in 1726 
he had been made "Public Printer to Maryland." One year later he 
began publishing "The Maryland Gazette" at Annapolis. As the 
colony was but sparsely settled at the time, Parks had great diffi- 
culty not only in getting subscribers, but also in securing advertise- 
ments. The paper was discontinued in 1733. 

New Hampshire 

The first newspaper in New Hampshire was published by Daniel 
Fowle of Boston under the name of "The New Hampshire Gazette," 
on October 7th, 1756. 

On November 1st, 1765 the "Gazette" came out with the usual 
black border like so many other papers of the same time, and 
announced that it would cease publication because its printers were 
unwilling to pay the obnoxious stamp tax. 

In 1776 it issued a publication urging the Provincial Congress 
not to establish an independent government because such a pro- 
ceeding might be taken as a desire to throw off British rule. The 
editor was at once called before the Provincial Congress, severely 
censured, and admonished in the future never to publish articles 
reflecting upon the Continental Congress or the cause of American 
independence. 

New Jersey 

The first printed newspaper did not appear in New Jersey until 
the War of the Revolution had started, but it was not hard to 
understand this tardy beginning. New York and Philadelphia papers 
circulated then as they do today through New Jersey. The suspension 
of some of these newspapers, the increase in subscription price, the 
poor delivery by post riders, many of whom were in active military 
service — all of these things, coupled with the exciting events of the 
war, created an independent demand for news on the part of the 
patriots of New Jersey. 

[10511 



A paper printed weekly in 4-folio page, and entitled "The New 
Jersey Gazette," to be sold at the price of 26 shillings per year, 
the New Jersey Legislature to guarantee 700 subscribers within six 
months and the printer and four workmen to be exempted from 
service in the militia, was printed by Isaac Collins who already had 
a plant in Burlington. The first number came off his press on 
December 5th, 1777, 

North Carolina 

In 1755 Benjamin Franklin, then Postmaster General for the 
Colonies, appointed James Davis, who had migrated from Virginia 
to North Carolina, Postmaster of Newburn. The latter established 
in the same year 'The North Carolina Gazette." It bore the fol- 
lowing imprint: "Newburn: Printed by James Davis at the Printing 
Office in Front Street; where all persons may be supplied with this 
paper at Six Shillings per annum; and when Advertisements of a 
moderate length are inserted, for Three Shillings the First Week 
and Two Shillings for every week thereafter. And where also Book 
Binding is done reasonably." Published on Thursdays it usually 
appeared in a cheese pot size folio. 

Rhode Island 

After James Franklin, the founder of 'The New England Weekly 
Courant," left Boston, he went to Newport, Rhode Island, where on 
September 27th, 1832 he established 'The Rhode Island Gazette." 
It was the first newspaper in that state, and while it made an heroic 
struggle for existence, it only lasted eight months. After Franklin's 
death his wife, Ann Franklin, made several unsuccessful attempts 
to revive the paper. The second newspaper, "The Newport Mer- 
cury," was founded in Newport in 1758 by James Franklin, Jr. 
When the son died in 1762 his mother, Ann Franklin, ran the paper 
in partnership with Samuel Hale. Upon her death in 1763 Hale ran 
the paper most successfully, as he was one of the first editors and 
publishers to realize that advertising depends upon circulation for 
its value. 

South Carolina 

Eleazer Phillips, a New England printer, went to South Caro- 
lina in 1730 where he established a book and stationery shop in 
"Charles Town." Associated with him was his son, Eleazer, Jr. The 
latter established a paper on March 4th, 1730 called "The South 

C106] 



Carolina Weekly Journal." The paper, however, failed to get enough 
subscribers to warrant continued publication and suspended in 
about six months. 

Virginia 

One reason why Virginia did not have a newspaper earlier 
than 1736 will be found in an assertion of Sir William Berkeley, 
who was Governor of the Colony for 38 years. In his report to 
the Lords of the Committee for the Colonies in 1671 he said: "I 
thank God we have not free schools nor printing, and I hope we 
shall not have these one hundred years. For learning has brought 
disobedience and heresy and sex into the world, and printing has 
divulged them and libels against the Government. God keep us 
from both." 

On August 16th, 1736, however, William Parks brought out 
at Williamsburg "The Virginia Gazette." This first paper in Vir- 
ginia has been described as "A small dingy sheet containing a few 
items of foreign news; the ads of Williamsburg shopkeepers; notices 
of the arrival and departure of ships; a few chance particulars re- 
lating to persons or affairs in the Colony; and imbecile effusions 
celebrating the charms of Myrtilla Florella or other belles of the 
period." Parks was made Printer of the Colony at a salary of 
200 pounds — payable in tobacco, the currency of the time. If he 
was unsuccessful in establishing his paper on a permanent basis 
it was through no fault of his, but due to the opposition to a free 
press in the Colony. In his announcement Parks stated a subscrip- 
tion price of 15 shillings per annum. 

In the following a short resume is given of the first newspapers 
printed in the remaining States of the Union. 

Alabama 

The first paper in what is now Alabama was 'The Mobile 
Sentinel," first published on May 23rd, 1811 by Samuel Miller and 
John B. Hood at Fort Stoddard. These men were so determined to 
be the first in Mobile journalism that they started south before 
the city was annexed, but were compelled to stop for the printing 
outside Mobile in the neighborhood of St. Stephens, where they 
began to print the "Mobile Sentinel" while under the protection of 
Fort Stoddard. Sixteen issues of this paper were brought out, but 
whether a single one of them was actually printed in Mobile is 
not known. 

no7;i 



Arizona 

The first paper in Arizona, 'The Weekly Arizonian," was started 
at Tubac by Sylvester Moury on or about March 3rd, 1859. The 
press on which the paper was printed came around the Horn in 
1858, and was brought from Guaymas Tubac by wagon. In 1860 
the paper was removed to Tucson. It ceased publication in 1861. 
In advertising the sale of its plant it included among the office 
equipment two Derringer pistols. This mention showed "shooting 
irons" to be a necessary adjunct in the offices of many of the western 
papers. As a matter of fact, one reason for the suspension of this 
newspaper was the fact that its publishers were charged with a 
stage robbery, and in resisting arrest one of them was killed. In 
the fall of 1879 the old press was taken to Tombstone, where it was 
used to print 'The Nugget," the first paper in that camp. 

Arkansas 

Journalism began in Arkansas when Wm. E. Woodruff printed 
at the Post of Arkansas the first number of "The Arkansas Gazette" 
in 1819. A native of Long Island, he had arrived at the Post in 
October 1819 from Franklin, Tenn., bringing with him by canoes 
and dugouts a press and some type. Being the Printer of the Terri- 
tory, he ceased to bring out the "Gazette" at the Post in 1821, and 
went to Little Rock which had been made the capital. Here he 
revived his paper and continued it as the official organ of the state 
until 1833. 

California 

At Monterey Robert Semple and the Rev. Walter Colton brought 
out the first paper in California on August 15th, 1846. It was called 
"The Californian." Semple was described as follows: "He is in 
buckskin dress and foxskin cap; he is true with his rifle, ready 
with his pen and quick at the type case." Colton once asserted that 
the materials in his office had been used by a Roman Catholic Monk 
in printing a few historical tracts; that the press was old enough 
to preserve as a curiosity, and that the types were all in pi and 
were so rusty that it was only by hard scouring that the letters 
would be made to show their faces. There were no rules or leads, 
and in their absence two or three sheets of tin were cut with the 
help of a jack knife for substitutes. Fortunately there was enough 
ink for the press, but unfortunately no paper. A supply of paper, 

C 108] 




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sent to California to be used to wrap cigars, was purchased from a 
coasting vessel, and on these sheets, not much larger than the 
common sized foolscap, was printed the first issue of the "Cali- 
fornian." One-half of the paper was in English, the other half in 
Spanish. Single copies sold for \iy 2 cents and considered cheap at 
that. "The Californian," after six months, boasted that it had been 
able to meet expenses, but in spite of this assertion it was forced to 
move from Monterey to Yerba Buena — now San Francisco — with 
Robert Semple as its sole publisher. 

Colorado 

In Denver "The Rocky Mountain News" is the oldest paper in 
Colorado. Its first issue appeared on April 23rd, 1859 in a struggling 
home-seekers' settlement which had not yet a definite name. The 
discovery of placer gold some months earlier had made a settlement 
at the junction of the Platte River and Cherry Creek. On each bank 
of the river there was a rival townsite, so that William M. Myers 
dated his paper as published at Cherry Creek, Denver Territory. 
The first issue of the "Rocky Mountain News" was printed on brown 
wrapping paper. At the start it was published weekly but later it 
became a daily. It has been published uninterruptedly since its 
establishment with a single exception, in the early '60's when a 
flood in Cherry Creek washed the plant out of existence. 

The day the "Rocky Mountain News" started was one of the 
most exciting in frontier journalism. When the news of the dis- 
covery of gold in Pike's Peak region had reached as far east as the 
Missouri, it promptly started two small newspaper plants. One left 
Omaha and was owned by William M. Byers. The other set out 
from St. Joseph, Missouri, and was owned by John L. Merrick. 
Merrick was the first to arrive, but not knowing that competitors 
were on the way, he leisurely commenced work on the first issue 
of "The Cherry Creek Pioneer." Ten days later the Omaha plant 
arrived, and the competition for the first paper in Colorado began. 
The settlement offered a suitable prize to the winner and appointed 
a committee of citizens to referee the contest. Both the "Rocky 
Mountain News" and the "Cherry Creek Pioneer" announced their 
date of first publication April 23rd, 1859. At 10:30 o'clock in the 
evening of April 23rd the first copy of the "News" a 4-page sheet, 
was pulled from the old Washington hand press. A little later the 
"Pioneer" also appeared on the streets. The decision of the com- 
mittee, however, was that the "News" had won by twenty minutes. 

tin n 



Worn out by his efforts and depressed by defeat, Merrick the 
next morning offered to sell his plant to his rival. His terms were 
accepted and Merrick then set off for the mountains, not to hunt for 
news, but for gold. 

District of Columbia 

Before the site of government was permanently located in the 
District of Columbia, a number of newspapers had been published 
in Georgetown. The first of these was 'The Times and Potowmack 
Packet" established by Charles Fierer in February, 1789. Others 
were "The Weekly Ledger," 1790; 'The Columbia Chronicle," 1793; 
and 'The Sentinel of Liberty," 1796. 

The first paper actually printed in Washington City was "The 
Government Observer and Washington Advertiser," the initial num- 
ber of which Thomas Wilson issued on May 22nd, 1795. The paper 
was suspended about a year later on account of its owner's death. 

Florida 

The first newspaper, called "The East Florida Gazette," was 
published at St. Augustine by William Charles Wells about 1783. 
This paper has been mentioned in later southern newspapers; how- 
ever, no copy has been preserved. John Wells, brother of the pub- 
lisher, left Charleston, S. C, where he printed "The Royal Gazette," 
for St. Augustine where he helped his brother to print books and 
possibly the "Gazette." Florida, being sparsely settled, did not have 
another paper until "The Weekly Meridian" was established in 
1825 at Tallahassee. 

Idaho 

. The first paper to be published in Idaho after the territory was 
created on March 3rd, 1863, was "The Boise News," started on 
September 30th, 1863 at Bannock City — now called Idaho City. 
It was published by T. J. and J. S. Butler; J. S. Butler had left 
Auburn, Ore. in the fall of 1862 to look after a herd of cattle in the 
Powder River Valley. Later on he organized the pack train to take 
goods to Walla Walla, Wash. At Walla Walla he met Major Reese 
of "The Walla Walla Watchman," who had just bought out a rival 
newspaper. Butler purchased the extra outfit from Major Reese, 
sold his packing business and sent for his brother, T. J. Butler, 
who became the editor of the new paper. 

The outfit sold to Butler was far from being complete. He found 

c 112] 



it necessary to make composing-sticks from the tin of an old tobacco 
box; he improvised an imposing-stone by using a large slab split 
from a pine log, which he dressed off on one side, mounted on a 
frame and covered with sheet iron; he chiseled a chase out of old 
horseshoe iron. 

In spite of such handicaps, however, the "Boise News" was a 
fairly creditable production. It was continued by the Butler brothers 
for about thirteen months and often sold for $2.50 a copy. 

Indiana 

Journalism in Indiana began at Vincennes when Elisha Stout, a 
printer from Lexington, Ky., brought out the first number of "The 
Indiana Gazette" on July 31st, 1804. The newspaper was produced 
under great difficulties. The paper was brought to Vincennes on pack 
horse which traveled over the old buffalo trail. The plant itself 
had been brought from Frankfort, Ky. down the Ohio River and 
up the Wabash, which was then called the Piroques. The printing 
office burned out in about two years, and the paper was revived on 
July 11th, 1807 by Stout under the title "The Western Sun." 

Iowa 

The first paper in Iowa was the "Dubuque Visitor," brought 
out at the Dubuque lead mines, which at that time were in Wis- 
consin territory, by John King on May 11th, 1836. He had founded 
the Dubuque Lead Mine in 1834, and having purchased in Cin- 
cinnati a hand press, some type and materials sufficient to issue a 
small weekly paper, he returned to Dubuque. William Carey Jones, 
a young printer from Chillicothe, accompanied King to take charge 
of the mechanical side of the paper. 

In 1837 a new owner changed the title to "The Iowa News," 
and the name of the paper was again changed in 1841 to "The 
Miners Express." When in 1851 a new publication, "The Dubuque 
Herald," appeared, the Miners Express made preparations to bring 
out a daily paper, and on August 19th of that year it published the 
first daily paper north of St. Louis or west of the Mississippi. 

Kansas 

The first paper to appear in Kansas was published at the Baptist 
Mission and called "The Shawnee Sun." Published exclusively in 
the Indian language it was a small quarter-sheet edited by the 
Reverend Johnston Likins and printed on the Mission press by 

c 1133 



Jotham Meeker. The old fashioned press of the Mission was later 
taken to Prairie City and used to print 'The Freeman's Champion," 
first issued in 1857 in a home-made tent, a gift of the women of 
that place. 

The earliest English newspaper in Kansas was "The Kansas 
Weekly Herald" published in Leavenworth in 1854 by Osborne 
Adams. It was started before there was a single permanent building 
in Leavenworth; only four temporary tents had been raised before 
a typesetter was at work under an old elm tree on the first number. 
An editorial remark in the first issue said : "Our editorials have been 
written and our proof corrected while sitting on the ground with a 
big shingle for a table." 

Kentucky 

Kentucky was first organized as part of Virginia, and to promote 
its admission as a state, Lexington, at that time a most important 
town, voted in 1786 a free land to John Bradford, the Virginia 
planter, who had come to Kentucky after the Revolution. On the site 
given him by the town of Lexington Bradford put up a print-shop, 
and on April 11th, 1787 brought out the first number of "The 
Kentucke Gazette." The equipment for the shop had to come by 
wagon over the road to Pittsburgh, and then down the Ohio to 
Maysville, and then by "nag" over the trail recently blazed to 
Lexington. The initial number of the "Kentucke Gazette" was a 
single sheet of two pages, 10" x \9y 2 ", three columns to a page. 
The spelling of "Kentucke" was changed to the modern form 
"Kentucky" in 1789. Some time in 1848 the "Kentucky Gazette" 
ceased publication. 

Louisiana 

Among the refugees from San Domingo who settled at New 
Orleans, was L. Puclot. After much difficulty he succeeded in getting 
the consent of the Governor to print in French "The Moniteur de la 
Louisiana," which first appeared in 1794. In 1797 the "Moniteur" 
became the official state paper and in its pages are to be found 
most of the facts we know about the early history of Louisiana. 

"The Louisiana Gazette," the first paper in New Orleans to be 
printed in English, was established in 1804. It was published twice 
a week by John Mowry. He started with only nineteen subscribers 
who paid an annual subscription of f 10.00. Several attempts were 
made to turn the "Gazette" into a daily newspaper but they were 

CH43 




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[115] 



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38. A Leaflet of 1520 Depicting the Flood 



not successful, principally owing to the large number of residents 
who could not read English. 

Maine 

The first newspaper published in Maine (1785) was called 'The 
Falmouth Gazette," and was published by Benjamin Titcomb who 
had learned his trade in a shop at Newburyport, Mass., and Thomas 
B. Wait, who had been connected with the "Boston Chronicle." The 
title was changed to 'The Cumberland" in 1786, and when part of 
Falmouth was incorporated as part of Portland the masthead carried 
the name of Portland. Six years later the title was again changed, 
to avoid confusion with another Portland paper of similar name, 
to "The Eastern Herald." It continued to be published until 1804. 

Michigan 

Journalism in Michigan began with a spoken newspaper con- 
ducted by Father Gabriel Richard, a priest of the Order of Sulpice 
in Detroit. He appointed the Town Crier, whose duty it was on 
Sunday to stand on the church steps and tell the public in general 
such news as was fit to speak. Advertising had its place in this spoken 
newspaper, which told of things for sale, etc., and for the benefit 
of those that were absent at the spoken edition a written one was 
publicly posted near the church. The Sacristan of St. Ann's Church 
assisted Father Richard and later became a printer and newspaper 
publisher. 

Out of this spoken newspaper grew the first printed sheet in 
Michigan, entitled "The Michigan Essay," or "Impartial Observer." 
It first appeared in Detroit in 1809. The first section, about a column 
and a half, was written by the Father himself. James M. Miller 
functioned as editor and publisher. An editorial announcement in- 
formed the public that the paper would be published every Thursday 
and handed to city subscribers at $5.00 per annum, payable half 
yearly in advance. 

Minnesota 

The first newspaper in Minnesota was announced in its prospectus 
as "The Epistle of St. Paul." When the paper appeared, however, it 
bore the name of "The Minnesota Pioneer," and was published in 
St. Paul in 1849. It was a 4-page, 6-column sheet for the first few 
months, but later it was enlarged to seven columns. Its editor and 
owner v/as James M. Goodhue, a native of New Hampshire. The 

C1I7] 



early issues were printed under difficulties. The only available print- 
ing office was the basement of the only public house in St. Paul. The 
editor, in describing his early experiences, said it was as open as a 
corn crib and that the pigs in seeking shelter under the floor fre- 
quently jostled the loose boards on which rested the editorial tray 
of the "Minnesota Pioneer". Many of the editorials written by Good- 
hue got him into serious difficulties — difficulties out of which he 
escaped only with the help of his fists and a pistol. 

Mississippi 

The first paper in Mississippi was 'The Gazette." It appeared in 
1800 at Natchez and was called "The Mississippi Gazette." Its editor 
and printer was Benjamin Stokes. The paper continued publication 
until about 1802. 

Missouri 

James Charless, a printer who had worked on the "Kentucky 
Gazette" at Lexington, was the founder of journalism in Missouri. 
Securing an old Ramage press and a few fonts of type, he put his 
plant aboard a keel boat on the Ohio and floated down that river 
to find a permanent location at what is now St. Louis, but what was 
then only a little settlement of about a thousand inhabitants. Here, 
in 1808, he pulled the first number of "The Missouri Gazette." In 
this period of American history Congress had divided its recently 
acquired provinces into the Territories of Orleans and Louisiana. St. 
Louis was in Louisiana Territory, so in 1809 Charless called his paper 
"The Louisiana Gazette." When Congress, however, again set up 
Missouri and Louisiana each as a separate territory, Charless in 1812 
returned to the original name of "The Missouri Gazette." (This 
paper is now published as the "St. Louis Article.") 

Montana 

Journalism in Montana began in the cellar of a log cabin at 
Virginia City in 1864, when John Buchanan brought out "The 
Montana Post." He had brought a press and material from St. 
Louis. After two issues of the "Post" he sold the paper to D. W. 
Tilton and Benjamin R. Ditters. Ditters gained complete control of 
the paper, took it to Helena, and resumed publication there in 1868. 
The reason for the change was that Virginia City was a placer camp, 
and after its mineral beds were exhausted the miners left the city 
and there was no longer need for a newspaper. On April 23rd, 

C 1183 



1869 Helena was swept by fire, and from that time until June 11th 
of the same year the "Post" continued to operate, but was unable to 
make any collections either for subscriptions or advertisements on 
account of the paralysis of business. On June 11th, 1869 the "Post" 
was compelled to suspend publication. 

Nebraska 

The first five papers in Nebraska were printed in Iowa. The first 
of these, and incidentally the first printed in Nebraska, was "The 
Nebraska Palladium." Number one was dated July 15th, 1854 and 
was printed at St. Marys, a hamlet just below Bellevue on the Iowa 
shore of the Missouri River. The first number to be printed in 
Nebraska was that of November 15th, 1854. For the privilege of 
turning out the first number E. N. Upjohn gave one dollar. Thomas 
Morton was its publisher and Daniel Reed & Company editors and 
proprietors. 

Nevada 

Among the prospectors who hastened to Nevada after the dis- 
covery of gold and silver in that region was Joseph Webb. He was 
not successful prospecting and settled for a while at the Carson 
River crossing where Dayton now stands. Gold had been found there 
in some quantities, and then it became a station for immigrants 
along the trail on their way to California. 

Webb gathered up the gossip of the trail, supplemented by what 
news was told him by passersby, and then with pen and ink made 
a written newspaper which he sold to travelers, who paid for it 
with gold dust taken from Carson River with milk pans and wash 
basins. 

He called his written newspaper "The Golden Switch." It started 
some time in 1854 and lasted about four years 

At about the same time that Webb was getting out his sheet, 
Stephen A. Kensey was issuing a written newspaper called "The 
Scorpion," in the little village of Genoa. 

The first printed newspaper, however, in Nevada was "The 
Territorial Enterprise" issued on November 18th, 1858 at Genoa 
by Alfred Jones and W. L. Jernegan. Later it changed proprietors 
and became "The Enterprise," and is best remembered as the paper 
on which Mark Twain worked. 

New Mexico 

The first newspaper printed in New Mexico was "El Crepusculo," 

[H9] 



(The Dawn) and was first published by Antonio Jose Martinez in 
Taos on November 29th, 1835. Only four numbers of El Crepusculo 
were issued, and these were on paper the size of foolscap. The paper 
failed to pay expenses and was suspended after the fourth issue. 

The first newspaper to be printed in English, however, was "The 
Sante Fe Republican." This paper was a 4-page weekly in two parts 
— two pages in Spanish and two in English, and made its appearance 
in Sante Fe on April 4th, 1847. Its publishers were Hovey and 
Davis and its editor G. R. Gibson. 

North Dakota 

Col. Clement A. Loundsberry was the founder of journalism in 
North Dakota, the last of the states and territories to have a 
newspaper. 

On July 6th, 1873 he published "The Bismarck Tribune." His 
first issue was remarkable in that it contained an advertisement of 
every business establishment in Bismarck. In the fall of that year it 
was forced for a short time to print on wall paper on account of 
a snow blockade. For the same reason the following winter the size 
was reduced from a seven to a four column sheet. 

"The Bismarck Tribune" had the usual experiences of frontier 
journalism in that numerous gun and revolver shots were frequently 
heard in the establishment; once its local editor narrowly escaped 
a lynching. 

Ohio 

The distinction of being the first paper in Ohio belongs to "The 
Sentinel" of the Northwestern Territory, brought out in the village 
of Cincinnati on November 9th, 1793 by William Maxwell, who 
had come to Ohio from New Jersey by way of Pittsburgh. He 
brought with him a Ramage press and a few fonts of type, which 
he set up in a log cabin print shop at the corner of Front and 
Sycamore Streets. 

The paper, published on Saturdays, was a 4-page sheet and had 
three columns to the page. 

Having mislaid the subscription list, Maxwell published a notice 
in the first issue that subscribers should call at the office for their 
paper. 

Oklahoma 

The first newspaper in Oklahoma was the national organ of the 
Cherokee Nation; on September 26th, 1844 there appeared at Tahle- 

[120] 



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39. A Leaflet of 1529 Depicting the Capture of Bologna 



[121] 




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40. Facsimile of Title Page oi the First Newspaper (1609) 



[122 3 



qual the first number of "The Cherokee Advocate." The paper was 
printed both in the English and Cherokee languages, and the Chero- 
kee Nation fixed the subscription price at |3.00 per year "except to 
those persons who could read only the Cherokee language, and they 
shall pay $2.00." 

"The Territorial Advocate," started at Beaver by E. E. Eldridge 
in May 1887, was the first real English newspaper in Oklahoma, and 
had the distinction of being probably the only newspaper ever pub- 
lished in the United States outside the pale of established law of 
any character. The Panhandle portion of the State of Oklahoma in 
which Beaver is located was, prior to 1889, known as "No-Man's 
Land." 

Oregon 

A press was secured from New York, a company was formed 
known as the Oregon Printing Association, and it brought out the 
first newspaper in Oregon on February 5th, 1846. It was called "The 
Oregon Spectator," and had for its motto: "Westward the Star of 
Empire Takes its Way." 

Col. Wm. G. T. Vault was its first editor, and a few months 
later Henry A. G. Lee, a descendant of Richard Lee of Virginia, 
became editor. He demanded a salary of $600 which was consid- 
ered too exorbitant, and he therefore severed his relations with the 
newspaper in 1846. 

The third editor, George L. Curry, resigned in 1848 and decided 
to start a rival newspaper, and accordingly bought about eighty 
pounds of type from the Catholic missionaries. Having no press, 
and being unwilling to wait until one could be secured from the 
East, he constructed one of a rude sort chiefly out of wood and 
scrap iron. The type which he purchased had been used to print 
religious tracts in French and had but few letters "W". This ob- 
stacle was overcome by whittling a number out of hard wood. 

Curry's paper was called "The Free Press" and lasted until Oc- 
tober, 1848, when it ceased publication, largely on account of the 
wild rush of subscribers to the mines in the Territory. 

South Dakota 

The first newspaper published within the present boundaries of 
South Dakota was "The Dakota Democrat," founded at Sioux 
Falls City (now Sioux Falls) on September 20th, 1858. Its pub- 
lisher and owner was Samuel Albright. He published the paper, 

c 123 3 



which was a 4-page sheet with five columns to the page, rather 
irregularly until July 2nd, 1859. After that date he rarely skipped 
an issue until 1860 when he turned the paper over to Mr. Stewart, 
who changed its name to 'The Northwestern Democrat." 

The reason for this change was that Albright took with him 
the original heading of the paper — the "Democrat" — and the new 
owner was forced to use one which had previously been employed 
in printing a paper at Sergeant Bluff, Iowa. With the Indian War in 
1862 the settlement of Sioux Falls was abandoned. In sacking the 
town the Indians destroyed the printing plant and carried away 
most of the type. After peace was declared the type came back again 
to the whites in the shape of ornaments used to decorate the pipes 
which the Indians fashioned out of the red pipe stone and sold to 
the settlers. 

Tennessee 

George Roulstone first brought out at Rogersville on November 
5th, 1791 "The Knoxville Gazette." After issuing a few numbers he 
moved his plant to Knoxville, where he continued to bring out the 
paper until his death in 1804. 

He remained authorized Public Printer to the Territorial or 
State Legislature all of this time, and his wife was later elected for 
two successive terms to fill the place. 

Texas 

The first newspaper of the Lone Star State was "The Texas 
Gazette," which made its appearance on September 29th, 1829, and 
was published by Godwin Brown Cotton in San Felipe, Austin 
County. 

"The Texas Gazette" survived until 1832 when it was purchased 
by D. W. Anthony and united with "The Texas Gazette and 
Brazoria Commercial Advertiser," a paper started in 1830 by Mr. 
Anthony at Brazoria. The union was called "The Constitutional 
Advocate and the Texas Public Advertiser," and its first issue ap- 
peared on August 30th, 1832. 

Utah 

When the Mormons were driven from Nauvoo, 111., in 1846, they 
gathered on the banks of the Missouri River near the point where 
Council Bluffs now stands. 

From here various bands were dispatched to the Rocky Moun- 

C 124 3 



tains; one of the earliest of these to leave had a wagon loaded with 
an old Ramage press, a supply of paper and a few fonts of type. 
This outfit was hauled across the plains from the Missouri River 
to the Salt Lake Valley, a distance of over one thousand miles by 
team. 

Upon its arrival at Salt Lake City preparations were made for 
printing "The Desert News," which was to be the official organ of 
the Mormon Church. Brigham Young appointed William Richards 
as editor, H. K. Whitney as typesetter, and his nephew Brigham 
H. Young as pressman. The first number appeared on June 15th, 
1850. Its motto was "Truth and Liberty," and its price 15 cents per 
copy; travelers and immigrants were charged 25 cents per copy. 

Currency was scarce, but the "News" accepted "flour, wheat, 
cornmeal, powder, tea, tallow and pork" in exchange for subscrip- 
tions. 

For years it made its own supply of paper from rags gathered 
in the early settlements of Utah. 

Vermont 

In the rooms of the Vermont Historical Society at Montpelier is 
still preserved the press on which was printed the first newspaper 
in that state. The claim has been made that this press was the first 
to be used in the English speaking colonies in North America, and 
that it did the best work in a mechanical way when set up in the 
house of Henry Dunster, the first president of Harvard College. 

It printed at Westminster, Vermont, on February 12th, 1781, 
the first number of "The Vermont Gazette or The Green Mountain 
Post-Boy." From that date dates the beginning of journalism in 
what is now the State of Vermont. The paper, 17" x 12j^", had 
for its motto: "Pliant as Waves where Streams of Freedom Glide; 
Firm as the Hills to stem Oppression's Tide." 

Printed by Juda Paddock Spooner and Timothy Green it lasted 
until the beginning of the year 1783. 

Washington 

The old fashioned Ramage press which had been used to print 
the first number of "The Oregonian" in Oregon and several other 
papers of the Pacific Coast, was the press on which was pulled the 
first newspaper in Washington, "The Columbian." This paper ap- 
peared on September 11th, 1852, at Olympia, and was edited and 
owned by J. W. Wiley and Thornton F. McElroy. From the start 

t: 1253 



Wiley advocated a separation from Oregon. Thru the columns of 
his paper he arranged a meeting of some prominent settlers to 
arrange for the organization of Washington as a territory. 'The 
Columbian" later became "The Washington Pioneer," and with 
this change was made over into a radical democratic journal. Be- 
cause of its new political affiliation it became, in February, 1854, 
"The Pioneer and Democrat." It suspended in 1861. 

West Virginia 

Dr. Robert Henry, a physician who had come to Berkeley 
County in 1792, started the first newspaper in West Virginia at 
Martinsburg in 1789. It was called "The Potomac Guardian and 
the Berkeley Advertiser," and had for its motto: "Where Liberty 
Dwells There's My Stand." 

The earliest known issue is that of April 3rd, 1792, Volume 2, 
No. 73. It was a 9" x 1 5" sheet, and a copy is preserved in the Cap- 
itol at Richmond, Va. 

Wisconsin 

The frontier printer occasionally started his paper before the 
arrival of other settlers. With intuitive foresight he seemed to know 
the probable locations of settlers along rivers and at the junctions 
of small streams. 

Typical of papers thus established was "The Mirror" of New- 
port, one of the pioneer papers of Wisconsin, but by no means the 
first. Its editor, Alanson Holly, stated that he was printing "The 
Wisconsin Mirror" in the woods, and claimed that this had never 
been done in the United States before. However, Mr. Holly was in 
error when he thought his paper was the first to be printed "in the 
woods." Other papers had been started under conditions even more 
primitive, with the type set under the oaks themselves. 

The first paper printed in the City of Milwaukee was "The 
Milwaukee Advertiser," founded in July, 1836. Later on the name 
was changed to "The Courier," and the latter was succeeded by 
"The Wisconsin." 

Wyoming 

Wyoming Territory, organized in May, 1869, was composed of 
land from three other territories, namely Idaho, Utah and Dakota. 
The first newspaper published within the boundaries of Wyoming 
was "The Cheyenne Leader." It first appeared on September 19th, 

[12611 




41. Theophraste Renaudot 



zwi 



I 




■ ■■',;■■:. 



* '/;* i 



42. "The English Mercuric" 



1867, with N. A. Baker as editor and proprietor, from a primitive 
printing office on the east side of Eddy Street in Cheyenne. Pub- 
lished tri-weekly, the Leader sold for $ 12.00 a year, or 15 cents 
a copy. 

Before closing this chapter, it will be of interest to stereotypers 
and others connected with the printing vocation to gather some in- 
formation concerning the production end of newspapers from the 
colonial era to the period of the Civil War, when paper mats were 
first used in the production of a newspaper. 

Newspapers in colonial times were generally printed on half 
sheets. Shapes and sizes varied greatly not only because of the 
scarcity of news of the various towns, but more frequently because 
of the scarcity of paper. In 1690 the first paper mill in the colonies 
was established in Germantown, Pa. Presses and types had to be 
imported from England. The first one was brought to America by 
the widow of the Reverend Glover in 1638. The first printing press 
manufactured in America was constructed by Christian Sauer, Jr., 
at Germantown, Pa. All of these old time presses were built of wood 
and only one page could be printed at a time. This handicap made 
four pulls necessary on the part of the printer before he could pro- 
duce a printed newspaper of the whole sheet. Even in the case of 
the larger presses two impressions were necessary for every copy of 
the paper. Reliable printing ink also came from abroad. Substitutes 
were frequently attempted by the early printers and were manu- 
factured from wild berries. The fading of the impressions in some 
of the early colonial papers may be traced directly to the use of 
such substitutes. The inking was done with half of a deerskin ball 
filled with wool and nailed to a stick of hickory. 

Much of the poor printing of that period was due to the fact 
that the type had become badly worn out from frequent use; in one 
and the same paper more than one variety of type was used. To get 
new type it was frequently necessary for the printer to make a 
special trip to England. The first attempt to cast type in America 
was made in Boston about 1768 by a Scotchman by the name 
Michelson. 

Concerning subscribers: Those living at a distance from the 
place of publication had to pay not only the subscription price of 
the paper, but also the cost of distribution by the mail carrier. A 
pine knot, a tallow candle or a bit of bear oil burning in a saucer 

[129] 



afforded poor light for reading a newspaper by a farmer already 
tired from the day's toil clearing forest land. 

The colonial editor experienced much difficulty in raising the 
necessary funds in cash to meet his expenses, and he also experienced 
much the same difficulty in getting his subscribers to part with 
provisions in exchange for newspapers. He was willing to take almost 
anything in exchange for subscriptions. Firewood, homespun cloth, 
butter, eggs, poultry — almost anything was acceptable to the 
printer. 

The cost of producing a newspaper was about $30 a week. 

Advertisements: When John Campbell brought out 'The Boston 
News-Letter" in 1704 he announced that "Persons who have any 
Houses, Lots, Tenements, Farms, Ships, Vessels, Goods, Wares or 
iMerchandise, etc., to be Sold or Let; or Servants at a Reasonable 
Rate from 12 pence to 5 shillings and not to exceed; Who may agree 
with John Campbell, Postmaster of Boston." This is fairly typical 
of advertisements inserted in colonial newspapers. Save for their 
headlines advertisements were frequently set up like regular reading 
matter, and in many localities advertisements for colonial papers 
could be left at the local Post Office. 

During and after the War of the Revolution newspapers con- 
tinued to be printed on the ordinary flatbed hand presses. The size 
of the editions of some papers had become so large that the men 
who pulled the levers complained of backaches. To overcome this 
difficulty inventors had already started to find some way out of it 
Benjamin Dearborn, publisher of "The New Hampshire Gazette," 
had invented a wheel press which would print the whole side of a 
sheet at one pull of the lever. 

The Revolutionary War automatically ended the importation 
of white paper from abroad. Paper mills had increased until there 
were over forty in the country. Several of these were laid waste by 
British soldiers and others made idle because employees had en- 
listed in the army. The remaining mills were unequal to supply the 
demand, so that during the latter part of the Revolutionary period 
and for some time later, the newspapers experienced great difficulty 
in securing the paper on which to print the news. One publisher re- 
ported that on account of the scarcity of paper he had printed but 
few sheets for the past three months, but that a parcel was now on 
its way to him and that in two weeks he would begin to print 
again. 

At times when epidemics were appearing in the larger cities the 

CI 30] 



publishers of newspapers disinfected their sheets before delivering 
them to newsboys and post-riders. Frequently, in order that the 
sheets might not be carriers of disease, they were put into stoves 
and thoroughly smoked before being wrapped for delivery. 

The first paper to print two editions, a morning and an evening 
one of the same paper, was in the year 1796. In reality the paper 
had only one edition, for the sheet was printed all at the same time 
and was then divided; one-half went to the customer in the morning 
and the second to him in the afternoon. 

The scarcity of ink caused the publishers of newspapers in the 
South to employ substitutes. Home-made inks, though often so 
poorly mixed that they did not spread evenly over the rollers, never- 
theless gave a far better impression than did some of the substitutes. 
Many newspaper publishers were compelled to print their sheets 
with ordinary shoe blackening. 



cut a 



The Daily Courant 



Wcdncfday, March u« i?ez. 




from dseHirkffi Courant, Dated JfazshA N.S. 

K*ples, Feb. **. 
N Wedndday laft. our New Viceroy, 
the Duke of Efcalona, artiv'd here With 
a Squadron of tSt Galleys of Sicily. He 
ma<k hisEntrance drrft in « Trench ha- 
bit ; and to gjve us the greater Hopes 
*f the Ring's coming huhcr. mem «e Lodge in one 
of the link Palaces, leaving the Royal One for hit 
Mj)cKt. Ths Marquis of Gngni a alio arriv'd here 
With a Regime at of French. 

/^wnr, Feb.* j. In a Military Congregation of State 
jfeit was held here, rt was Rcfolv <i to draw a Line 
from Afc'oli ro the .Borders of the Ecdefuftica) State, 
thereby to (under the Incurlions of the Traslalptoc 
Troops. Orders -are Cent to Qvita Vccchia t?> fit <aa 
the GaUevjs, and to ftreagthm theCarpfon of that 
Place. Signtor Ca&li is isade Gowsroorof Perugia. 
•The "Marqag-dd-V af r o; arid the P rm e e dt-Cafato 
continue (Id! in the Iofpcrial SnabsfladorV Pakse $ 
where his Ejtcelkncy has a Guard of 50 Mm every 
lMiftht in Arms. The King of Portugal has defett 
the.Arch-Biihcfrickof Lisbon, -vacant by the Death 
of Cardinal Soafa, for the Infante his second Son, 
who is about « t Years old. 

Vierma, Mar.4. Orders are Icnttothe-a Regiments 
«f Foot, the * of Cuiraffiers, and to that of Dra- 
goons, which are broke up from Hungary, and are 
on their way to Italy, and which cw&fift of abosrt 
£4 or j|Ofto Men,to haikn their March duthcr with 
Ail Espediuoo. The 6 new Regiments of HutTaro 
thevate now raifing, are in £7 great a ferve&fdads, 
that they will be cotnplcar, and in a Condition to 
march by the middle of May. Prince Lews of 
Baden has written to Court, to cxcwle himierf from 
coming thither, his Presence being fo very esedS&ry, 
and fo mud: defir'il ess the Upper-Rhine. . 

Frssttftrtf Mar. st. The ALnjesAd' Uxelles b 
eosne to Strasburg, and is ro daw together a Body 
of fome Regiments of Horfe and ¥00 from the Ga- 
rifons of AKacc ; but will not fcften thefe of Strav 
.burg and Landau, wfekh ase already very weak. 
On the other hand, the Troops of His Imperial Ma- 
jeHy, and his A Die*, arc going to farm a Body near 
Cermefljtin in the Palatinate, of which Place, as well 
as of the Lines at Spires, Prince Lewis of Baden is 
«ape cHed to sake a View,' in three or four days. 
The Englifh and Dutch Minifters.the Count of Friic, 
end the Baron Vander Meer; and hkewife the Im- 
perial Envoy Count Lowenltcio, arc gone to Nord- 
lingen, and it is hop'd tfeat in a Oiort time we (hall 
Afar from thence of fome favourable Rciblutionafor 
the Security of the Empire. 

Liegr, Mar. 14. The French have taken the Can* 
ftcn de Longir, who was Secretary to the Dean de 
Mean,<ptrt of our Caftte.wbtre he jdas. Wen for fome 
tune a Prifoner, and have deliver'*? him to the Pro- 
vdft of Maubeuge, who has orry'd hJsa from hence, 
bet we do not know Whither.. 

Farm, Mar. 1 j. Our Letters from Italy fay. That 
moll of our Reinforcements' were Landed there ; 
that the Imperial and Ecdf fiaftkal Troops fcesi re- 
live very peaceably wah one another in the Country 
of Parma, and thar'the Dofce of Vendomr, at he 
was yifuing feveral Pofti. was within 100 Paces of 
fallirtg into the Hands of the Germans. The Duke 
of Chartrrs, the Prince of Conti, and feveral other 
Prinres of the Blood, are to make the Campaign in 



Flanders under the Duke of Burgundy ; and the* 
Duke of Maine is to Commacd upon the EJu nc 

Press the Aaftcrdam Cooram, Dated Mar. <j2. 

How.Feb.^5. We are takbghereallpoffible Pre- 
caution* for the Security of the Ecdeflaftical State 
in this prefcnt Conjuncture, and have defo'd ta mfc 
300* Men in the Cantons of Switzerland. The Pope 
has appointed the Duke of Berwick to be his Licu- 
tenant-Gcneral, and be i»_tp Command 6000 Men 
on the Frontiers of Naples : x He has alio fettled up. 
t» him a Penfion of «ooe Crowns a -year dunagLuc. 

From rhc Pars Oiine, Owed Mar. it. tyos. 

W»>fw. Febr.*f. ^» French Soldiers are arrirol 
te«,«ttd Meezpecced to he follow'd by 9400 more. 
A Courier tfcat am>c akher en the i4th.hasbrougat 
LtnanM »h ir h w e -a B c. afl ut!d ;ahat th- King, of 
Spaw defigos to bt&at awards the end of March ; 
end accordingly Ordesj are given to make the ae- 
fe&ry Preparanons againft his ArrivaL The cwo 
Troops of Horfe that were Commanded to the A- 
bruzxo are poftcd at Pdcara wfcfe 4 Body of Spaoifk 
root, and ptben in the Fort of Montono. 

**». Mareh. 18. We have Advice from Tooloa 
« the jtb ts&sm, chat the Wind having long ftood 
mvourabje, »»ooo Mm were already Cul'd fot!taly ( 
tBBti$o0 store were Embarking, and chat by the 
ttth it wag ooped they ssight all get thither. The? 
Count d* Eftrces aarivVi- there on' the Third inilant, 
ood f« all hao4c>s3«Porirto fit out the Sejuadrcn 
of $ Men of War ssn3 some Fregats, that are ap- 
poifttcdio carry be, King of Spain to Naples. His 
©8hotic& Majefty will go on Board the Itimlmr, 
ef 1 10 Guns. 

We have Advice by en Eaprcfs from Rome of rite 
tBrhof Pebraary,That notwtthAanding the premuc 
Inftances of the Imperial EmbafTadour. the rW 
had Condemn'd the Marquis del Vafto to lofc bis 
Head and his Eftate to be coafifcated^ for not ap» 



prating to Anfwcr the Charge acainft him of Pub> 
ikkly Scandalaing Cardinal janfort. 

ADVERTISEMENT. 

T will be found from the Foreign Prints,which fre*9 
me to time, as Occafion offers, will be mention d 



I 

in this Paprr, that the Author has taken Care to be 
duly funulh'd with all that comes fiamAbroad ia aay 
Language. And /or an AAurants that he will mk>* 
under Pretence of .having Private aatclligenee, ia»* 
pofe any Additions of fcign'd Grcumftancei to aa 
Aclion, but give hit EstnAs faktvand Imramalrya 
at the beginning of each ArdcJc be will quote th« 
Foreign Paper from whence \U taken, that the Pjib* 
lick, feeing from what Country a piece of Newt 
comes with the Allowance of that Government, may 
. be better able to Judge of the Credibility aid Fair- 
Mis of the Relation : Nor will he take upon him to 
give any Comments or Conjectures of his own, but 
will relate only Matter of Fact ; fuppofing othes 
People to have Sctoc enough to make Reactions 
for thcmfclves. 

74* Ctvrsae (si tht Title Jhrwi) wit t* PMlJb'i 
UsHft itiagJefplJ t*%ivt sJltbf ktatrrint ,Vn*# 
■*i fim 4U entry pifi turhut : Mi u tntfin'd r* btif 
tht CtKtfaf; tt fat tit PuUi't^tt Ur.fi half tht Ins* 
frrtiatntti, tf tglimtrj Nrmt'ftfttt. 



LOU DO It. Sold by £. M»B t r. next Door to «bc Km'f A*mt Tavern at fl*tt*Br'>Ji** 

43. The Whole of the First Number of the "Daily 
Courant/' the First Daily Paper in England, Lon- 
don 1702. The size of Page 6^4 in. by \\y 2 in. 



r: 133 n 



ttamb. 



9~fz 



PUBLICS 

OCCURRENCES 

hoxhFORKEIGN and DOMES 1 lc K. 
toJI«m t Tburfday Jew. aj/fc. icpo. 



IT it A^fwi, ihm tht Comntrtofoti ht f*r. 
mfhtd (HI * mnntlb ( r* if mj Clml o/Oc- 
currencn »*/■*■, oftener, ) wi'fc*» >*>. 

«o«« #/' fmtb tu*JUtrs»lt ikwgl «i »*V» 4T- 

?rW **»e oar Sotmi. 

In trdtr bar •»r e> ft« Pebltftxr mil t*tf 9-hm 
fmm mx *m 10 obrmo s Faithful Relation «/ <*U 
fntb tbt*£i ; *ni will ftnuularly n*k* bi*>fttf 
ishoide* to fmtbPt*\omt i<i Bofton whom bt Fwtrt 
19 S#vf rfffi /** ifcrir e»i mft tbt dtliftm Obftr. 
qgrt of fmtk mmwt, 

Tb*l Wbuh II OPtt* frofofri, •>, Firft, Tear 



from them, « what n In the Form We? 
gone for C«m«*«v mo Je tbem th>n* ■■ it.n.-tf 
impoflible for them to get well •hrrmfth . n< 
Aftairvof their Hotbaodry at ibi» time uf ii>< 

iiear, yet the *eafon bat Ixfn fa uoulaa'lt 
«0iirablc that they krtt fnd tiy want <H 
the many hundred t oi haiuh, that- are (tone 
from ihem ; wbtcb u looked upon at tM.r. 
e>fjl Providence » 

While the barharooi Udomi were lurking 
about Orttmifard, there were mrtTii'g <«»«Mie 
tie beginning of ihisri <nth a coople ot C'.il* 



Memorable Oecutreott of Divine Providence jj tn belong ng to a roan of that I o»n, one. 
rnmf not k rnilrStd or /o'jvrrn, *> tbtj ton ofun ^ ine:n a g t( j g i,j 0t t ^ v€f> thr otVer **~4 a- 
*r«. Secondly, Tb*t ftoptt'tvtry vh*'t mtjbc bout nne year*, both ol ihem fupputi-J to 

ttr m>dt'flA*d Imt CircmmfliMtl of Piflnjit Af. > ^ ( t \\ tn iruo ine n , na \ of I he l»M*t. 

«wrj, both <tfni «iW 4i fc«*K j »••(• *««7 "o* ; r\ very r*«iifl An, tm happened StV*. 
orlydtrtU iktr Thoughu 4* «// n<*', »« f •» »«r. /"»»•, the brginjunc rl ihit M-mih..kn 
feffie «>•?/ «//o to *jf>jt ibtir BuGaelTet «*"' N:« O'd <v. that w at of fame* hat a Silent and 
f/ottationt. fytorofc Tempir, but one that had long Eo- 

Ttiirdljr, Thtt frm tlri*( mty it i-m towsrdt ^^ lne rt p Ul „, 00 f ', s^,,, tn <\ , , ,» t 
»A* Coring, er** '»<•/? '*>« Chat mlngo^/fcji Si i- Afjw, having newly buried hu W ilr. 1 he 
fit of Lying, ••«■ fru*\lt sm.i»tf mi t »»t i- p CV || took advant^gt of the Melancholy 
/•re nxlnmg 1**11 »e rwrrrW, »«» »•«» »» »«* w bich he thereupon fell ir\'o s hi» Wivw o.f. 
tuft* to Itluvt it tr*t,rtp*iri»g io ilx ttfl fom*. section and induftry had long been the fu|*» 
Mini yir #»r hferMMh*. *Atd wbtn ibm «». port of hi* family, and. he ftemed J.onud 
a»jr/ , sjry material mifiake w ""y '■•■£ , * 41 " with an impertinent fear that be inoold n'<* 
$oll(Qed, ii [bdl ot corrected i« '^ next. come to want befne be dved, thoogh he h^ci 

Mortov 
it 9»Ui*f i . , 

•7PalfcRcport», mJKwflf made, **d fyt*i timfcif any harm Bot one evening efc:j- «r. 

-houfe, they litre 
"found h.m , «'^'*.' 'J 
jfcdioty? iheir C»/:m 
pi// In tbu fftt ( ■»/</■» /•/! ><iw«i »rx"«^" *• wkhal, he wai dead with bi* feci near tc'J'.h- 
h »k iomrtry ) r*^/r »W A^<f« of fto" f^f*** jng tlie Ground. 

•i A malicioui Raifer of a fait Report. i' Cpkttmital 'rvm asd A»'« P'^* » * r Y 
itjmfpoi'j ibt nom mli diitiks ihti Profnfdt, comrr .ot»f, in fome part* of the Cotntry, 
f«» /*efc *it*un4 io It loiUf of (» vtlli*9*t • whereof, tho* m^ny d^e hot. ^:t «N» »"^ 
CHmt. forely unfi'tcd for their irrnlo\"-.cnm but 

in fome part* a more <*»/»«»i«'" t'mr icr n-$ 
#»»n HE Chriftiaoited /•*-»» In (bmt to prevail in fuch fort th« it »&»"**•" 
T^ pamof /S25, have newly ap- lW .Family where u comes, antf pto.o 

J^ H^ ,ed id r ay0 , f „ r ^ei?im5.« ^S3.~iVrt Jasbren r«irg ,1 

^f*h» M « c V- rUP SlrVhSl.tVlm «Ji! after a^manncr very ErtrnorO-nan .» 
and pinching Ncceflities uoder ujeirlatcwani »y?«» .»•«» - ' j,.. ,(... 

ftiample may be worth Mentioning. W " ■ , «.«r,h*ufi.r kit not been, (n 

Tiiobtervedby the Hj»bandoien, tb« ^^J^SS olte*\hi\ faftvi 



»r»9ver, iW fmblijbt' of tbtft Occurrence* Tcrv careful frienth to look ?f.er him 
!/i>r/ totafgt, io*t wb*tt*t % tbert *>t m*. j.^ a j| fl ^ C y C upoxhim, leaft he ftioulo c?o 
f r-lfc-Rcporn, mmtioomflr »««>, m»i fon*i jimfdf any harm Bot on 
tmemg mi t if *ny mll-mndtd fcrfom w»// kt at »»c f rom tbem into the Cow- 
MW/ ra ir«tr «*y /kA falfe Report f» (" *> '• quickly fol)ov«ed him 'four 
^*«!eaf 4W Cmv& '** Firft Raifer of » % k • A Ao»',whichthey had ufrd 



44. First Attempt at an American Newspaper 



CHAPTER FIVE 
THE DRY MAT, OR COLD STEREOTYPING PROCESS 



Just as the deficiencies and shortcomings of the plaster of Paris 
process led to the invention of the papier-mache process of stereo- 
typing, thus in due time the drawbacks of the latter made the in- 
vention of a better method a necessity. The quality of the work 
done by means of the wet mat method could hardly be improved 
upon, therefore the activities of practical stereotypers and inventors 
were directed towards obtaining equally excellent printing results, 
doing away, however, with the many drawbacks encountered in the 
use of the wet mat process. 

The shortcomings of the papier-mache or wet mat method were 
few but far reaching. This steam table, or hot process of stereo- 
typing employs "wet mats" which are generally hand-made in each 
plant from day to day; a series of special matrix papers and high 
grade tissues are pasted together with a mixture of flour paste and 
gum arabic to make these wet mats. 

In almost every newspaper plant the preparation of wet mats 
and especially of such paste came under the duties of the foundry 
superintendent, and these experts usually had their own special and 
jealously guarded "secret" paste formula. (Ged and Stanhope exer- 
cised the same secretiveness.) There were, however, a number of 
printing supply concerns who made and sold secret pastes to the 
trade under various names such as pulchre paste, ivorite, nickello, 
electroline paste, etc., etc. It was to a certain extent due to this 
secretiveness practiced in practically every plant possessing a stereo- 
type foundry that stereotyping was about the only phase of news- 
paper production which had not kept pace with 20th century 
progress. 

Owing to the fact that all pastes used for the purpose of uniting 
the different paper layers of the wet mat have a tendency to sour 
and to mould, it is not practicable to prepare wet mats very far in 
advance. 

Then again, uneven pasting as well as fermentation in the paste 
often causes wet mats to blister and blow up when they are molded 
and cast. 

[135;] 



Deficiencies of the Wet Mat: To dry out the paste and the 
paper, the form of type with the wet mat has to be subjected to a 
high temperature, generally done on a steam table. It is obvious 
that the mat and the type cannot be separated until this mat has 
been thus hardened by heating, and in this operation the type 
is necessarily heated also. It is in this particular that the main 
objection to the wet mat process exists, the heating of the type 
being a positive source of destruction to the type. When needed for 
"make overs" for later editions the superheated forms must be 
rapidly cooled, subjecting them to uneven expansion and then con- 
traction, soon ruining even the most expensive foundry type. 

The stickiness and bother of the "paste pot" work and above all 
the inhuman necessity of the stereotypers working in an atmosphere 
of intense heat, thereby endangering their health, are foremost 
arguments against the use of wet mats. The comparative slowness of 
the wet mat process is also objectionable in newspaper work, where 
the gain of time after the copy is received in preparing the matter 
for the press is of greatest importance. Four to seven minutes of 
valuable time is consumed in baking the wet mats on the forms. 

In spite of the fact that with the wet mat steam table process of 
stereotyping such bodily inconvenience is suffered by the workmen, 
much invaluable time is lost and great expense incurred, newspaper 
publishers felt that as long as there was nothing thoroughly proven 
to be better, more rapid, and still giving the same quality of printing 
obtained with the old wet mat process, they were justified in stick- 
ing to the old method and in not discarding their steamtables. 

But in the meantime fertile minds were at work on the problem 
of making a matrix, eliminating the paste pot, the steam tables 
and their attendant vices, and saving invaluable time in getting out 
the daily newspaper. The end result of all this labor and experi- 
menting is the Dry Mat, enabling cold stereotyping. Up to the 
advent of the present day dry mats, so-called dry mats were made 
on a paper machine in one piece and not pasted together as is the 
case with the wet mat. They were beaten in with a brush in a cold 
state and no steam was used. Owing to inherent deficiencies of these 
dry mats themselves, the dry mat idea did not make converts very 
rapidly. Although very few foundries bothered to "pet" these dry 
mats enough to be able to use them, the idea was conceded to be a 
good one. The time saved was also looked upon as a very favorable 
factor, but the ever varying thickness of the dry mat, the pro- 
clivity to blistering, buckling, chipping and pulling, the uncer- 

C136] 



tainty of the proper humidifying, were not overcome until many 
years afterwards and after innumerable experiments and setbacks. 

Dry Pulp for Mats: In 1863 the idea of using dry pulp ap- 
peared for the first time. This method of manufacture was not prac- 
ticable, too difficult, and these mats could not be made on a com- 
mercial scale. 

The first attempt to use a dry cold process and to mold by roll- 
ing a mat only once was made by George Eastwood of Kingston- 
upon-Hull, County of York, England, in 1887. It retained certain 
features of the wet mat but introduced the idea of a dry mat proc- 
ess and should be designated as a semi-dry mat. The text of the 
specifications of the patent granted to Eastwood explains his proc- 
ess in the following manner: 

"According to my invention I follow what is practically a dry 
process in the manufacture of the matrices, so that the heating of 
the type can be dispensed with, and I back up the blanks with sand 
during the ordinary process of warming and drying the matrices, and 
I thereby obviate the liability of the blanks to become flattened by 
the pressure of the molten metal used in taking the castings. 

'Tor the purpose of my invention I make a mold of two parts — 
namely, a facing and a backing. The facing is composed of two or 
more sheets of tissue paper or other like material pasted together 
with a composition containing glycerine and a suitable starchy ma- 
terial, which composition keeps them in a flexible and elastic state, 
prevents the paper from becoming too hard before use, renders it 
sensitive to moisture, greatly reduces the contraction on application 
of heat, and hardens the matrix or mold when heated. The backing 
consists of a dry thick sheet of soft paper, blotting paper, felt, or 
other like suitable substance capable of receiving and retaining an 
impression, and one side of which when used, is covered with a thin 
sheet of soft paper which is thinly coated on both sides with an 
adhesive material. 

"In taking the matrix the facing is placed upon the type and the 
back of the facing is then covered first with a piece of muslin or 
other suitable thin textile material and next with a woolen or India- 
rubber blanketing, which (except when of India rubber) is pref- 
erably used warm. The whole is then rolled or pressed. This hav- 
ing been done, the blanketing and the muslin are removed and then 
the backing is placed upon the back of the tissue paper that forms 
the facing. That face of the backing which bears the composition 
being put in contact with the tissue paper, the composition on the 



backing should be nearly dry. The blanketing is placed upon the 
backing and the whole is again rolled or pressed. The matrix is at 
once formed and when removed from the type has simply to be 
warmed through to harden the composition. 

"Instead of the two rollings or pressings above described one 
rolling or pressing will suffice if the backing be placed upon the 
facing, in the first instance, with the blanketing over them, the use 
of the muslin in this case being dispensed with; but a good result is 
not so certain." 

This was the basic idea of a dry mat. It was not until after six 
further years of experimenting that Eastwood invented a dry mat 
which was the first dry mat in the present day definition. 

There has been some controversy as to whether the Englishman 
Eastwood or the German Schimansky was the original inventor of 
the dry mat cold process of stereotyping. A careful examination of 
the English and German patents of these men shows that Eastwood 
applied for his original patent on the 27th of November, 1893 (Eng- 
lish Patent No. 22732), and Schimansky for his first patent on the 
28th of December, 1894 (German Patent No. 86865). 

The honor of inventing the first entirely dry mat and making a 
new product which constitutes the basis of ail later dry mats, be- 
longs, therefore, to George Eastwood. 

The former experiments of Eastwood on the subject of cold 
stereotyping, which led to the entirely dry mat have been described 
above. The text of Eastwood's patent is worthy of being recorded in 
full, since his new matrix opened a new era in the art, the era of 
cold stereotyping. (Eastwood employs the Franco-English term 
"flong" in place of the general appellation "matrix" or "mat.") 
Eastwood describes his invention as follows, the parentheses con- 
taining annotations of the author of this book. "It consists in the 
manufacture of a flong from one thick sheet of blotting paper or 
other bibulous paper faced on one or both sides when dry with com- 
position or paste. The invention also comprises a special composition 
or paste for the purpose, the said composition or paste being one 
that will dry, consolidate and harden upon the surface of the paper. 

"In carrying out the invention the composition or paste (coating) 
is preferably applied to the bibulous paper by means of a brush and 
in a warm state. It is then allowed to dry, and when it is dry the 
flong is complete and can be kept in stock in the dry state for prac- 
tically any length of time. 

"In practice I find it desirable to face both sides of the paper 

CI38] 



The Bofton News-Letter; 

From msti®? May •. to mH^f Miy ~ 



M/tm.mlftr, 



li. lyoi. 










AtfJI Grsrimi Im afi 



I am, 

Afftflimim* Vfttr, 
ANNA \*QltiA. 



The King of % t th*, Aafwer to Htf Majefty. 
Mr L«ly and Sifter, 
I A:i ZT-J f "**•** »*»4f»-ift vTm* Mat 



Xwt MtjdHn moft 
Throtse. 

We ait truly Senilble of Your Majeftie* earaeft 
Endeavours to bmg the War to a glorious tod 
fpecdy Conclufioa, of which Your BLicftr has 
girea us fo fair a profpea,b/ Your Great wVdom 
and U»rfuc4 m engaging tJbj King of r>>«4 and 
Puke of *o«7 ta Your Alliance, (or recorerwg the 
Monarchy of •>«'■ from the Houfc of *«»*«r a^ 
refroruig ft eo the Houfe of 4ajfrM. 
•_* We /° raoft patrfuilr acknowledge Yow Ma- 
leftiea fingulw ait in me good management tad 
application of the Publick Money, whereby Your 
MipfL.t Exchequer hath greater Credit, in this fo 
npfnare a War, thin was ever known in the moft 

nourifhinsj timesof Poland Your moftfignaland I <» «fi *r>ur'M.Ji, ; ',,b^,it,"jbJh^^^/ 
unparaUefd Grace and IGoodnefi to Your People, «*i*fl Our c^m.i £,^,;„, Zlf„ ,h XT£? J 
in co^but.ng out of Your own Revenue towards f>*> Xj, t d.m t , .„i ,h* e.rfir^iL *f ,U L OvZ It 
the! P«bl.ck firrjee pw.culaxly Your Maje^ea Europe I d*Jt, t T », fatf, ,. V Hm £Z' b Z 
ewft feafonible aitftance to ihe Circle of Utbi*. 7w m/, Ctumf.h, a,,A «r/« nrrir >» r#«r taaiL 
The many Bleffingi we en/07 under Your Maje- £# tb* S»n»t 4 T«n Allies, 4-rf /&. i-eferf 4 
Uses moft aulpicioui Reign, and Your tender" re- Tnr SuljiB, And 1 fh*i tlmni ftSn i£» »/•* 
gard to the general Welfare & Happbefi of Your '»^»0 «d A/mmw, « i^/w mimiftjttiimu^ Dm, 
Sajfyet'h, juftly require our 'lasnoit rerurni of duty g»»d *»i /mm* timi. f fa^ uin'it 4 a Sir* tf Tw 
and gratitude. And Your Majefty may be afiured, «»i? p*iial* Sjtem, iktt Ttr Majtjfy Jut m*£i 
that Your faithful Ccmmom will fupport Your tlmictifibt B*4f <MaHeboroufih| 1* w Wtmftf 
Ma}efty m Your Alliance, and effectually enable ihttgoi l b™> frVm noutni, taJ rf ty Afes.vJ. 
Your Majefty to carry On the War with rigour : »«'»» V«*» Mrrin $f Tn* ¥*{*>. Mi ih* 1 mj$> 
to whkh Bomtog caa more coorjubutr, than a firm ' »tiiag mert tenufltj, than » tnt Offmindiiu\* 



M»>fi ^Auftria, •'•'»*» *W-' .»,«» 'j $£ m^J,' ff 

„..»wii ta tbemoft <>«r A> u it Htfl wit b SuatB *n?r dim* u r™» urilLZ 

Bourifbing time, of Peace.and Tou, moftugna! and 1A^ »r.»MM,'ffl,™j&Z*£Z&/ 



llasoa an»n« our fclres . We therefore crave leare 
iu ther n aflure Your Ma jeHy, that we will, ac 
cordlog to Your Majcitiei defur, carefully avoid 
any heats or diviuons that may sire cocouragemeot 
to the common Eocmies of the Church & State. 



To which rkrj 

cioia AafWr, io'S 



ja^eiry return'd Hex asofi Gr's- 
! following vordt. 



IJm *rj ml ftte/ci ■»'»* ;«« Affmtmtii if Uf. 
fntinl Mf ««rf4» frrfint MV, «W Jter tjiut tt. 
kfa^tdfutemii tf Mj rmltnttri It hing it it * hafp 
Cttseltjttn. 

ft* may tfiart j tut film, I Jhtl il«»)i)**jKt tbi 
ttm Ims up ■>/ tie Kjnrdtm tnd Omit nctbimg Ibsi mtj 
fftmttt lb* intttl ff't'f*'* f/Afr Ct*fl: 

Ha M*irftf of t.n t Un£% Gxmnfoiuxy Lmer 
m &* Kiss of S/*i», & the Ksag »1 */«• ' Aafwer. 
hfy Ind end Brtttxt, .... , v 

JHsre heard with great SiusFacljoa. rf Tour 
kdeg dttkr'd lUg dSp»> mi do bes^ly 



/bro wt »&£r Sincnity cad Grtiituit !es>, 

Ltif asd Sifter; YouratalF 
Affr&Mnare Brothfr. 

Advice froa ^nar tad f>«^. 
Die Pope's partiality in the Ma ir of the 3>«*^& 
Succeflion dilcoven it felf more aed more, His &. 
amuiation can do looger hold out Wif^t ds« force 
of his icdinstion : and confiderla| nil de torttt e a t 
within this linle while, there is ^eat ftaran to £ 
lierr, that a very final] thing wnold aerfwade bca 
to declare •penfy for Pratt. His HoiiaHs eaffd a 
Congregation of State, 00 nurnofe to Conuder, whe- 
ther or 00 he (boutd recal hb Kucda a-oa >%n^ 
becaufc the Arch-Duke had affiiffi'd the' EU7&I Tk 
tie, and for that the Eoperour retuftd ta gjre 'Mta 
audience. However me o^scSioqWas.S^ff'jns 
carry'd in the Negofre by tevcAl i&&&?wm 
fon of proof itatrne D^jplea bzre ffisafr B*jg tbaa 
tbeir toafter. 
YettamesadflofEll BiftnM^|g|)r 



45. First Newspaper to be Established in the English Colonies 

in America 



C139] 




Kumb. iS. 



Tttfc 



New- Y'odc Gazette. 



prcrai FttWarr a 8. toMoeday March 7. 17*2 <,«<$. 




jjaprt, ./Ceraany *W f *• X»»/ «/ Sj»ta. 

^feJ» at • * 

THe SboJecVs 00 b*h Sidei fiwtl bo aJV»v 
cd ffc chu ft, at thar own Hleafure, Coon* 
tib, Ageau, Auomiet, Solicitors and 
Biofccrs. 

a8. 1o iB the Ports end trading CKs* »*» 
*xh their Majettie-. (ball agree t»f»o, Naeieaal 
^pnfols (hall be eftjblilhed to pvoteat the Mrr. 
chants 00 both Sides, and they arc to eayay aD 
the reghti^othoriiiei, I ibrrtksand IaaeBfl*k*a« 
»be mod befriended Nation* do •nj«f. . 

ao. Thoft Confulsmtll be empoavVsedWTafce 
Cognia^nce of the Difercnon aad Difpatea be> 
tweea vhe Mrfcnauts and th* Ms/tm of- the 
Ships, end between the latter and their C#*& 
fa decide them •, (b that there Dull b« no Appeal 
frors tlwir Sentence to -de Jadgt of the f bee 
ff thtir Refldetice. 

j, |«s A»t$t5eJodg«Ce««*»«u>r«,«*GBith# 
«w«wv-V^^ira fpsre a eanSdarabatMagiftTi^ I9 
Spain, which the moft fs^esrrcd Nations were al- 
lowed to tbofe fbr thetrrftUw, with a Fwww as 
)adge potmpt » n *Ty to Cirl! *od Qrkninal C aaVa , 
amoagtbof- oi their own >Jati>o, it has bee* a- 
grecd, That 10 ok his Royal CathoUci Majety 
jr^Dtvfor the furore this Privilege to any Nation. 
the 6me Cull be likewil* granted to hi* Imperial 
J4aJeJiy'vSobic£b: Mean while^mpartial ft rpeedy 
Joftice (ball be done by the ordinary Maglftrates 
a$d judges, from whofc Jtntcnces 00 Appeal tea 11 
be made but oajj to t v e Council or Commerce 
•ji MjUtiJ. 

31 Toe Efcbeit, or any Right of t^ \'M Na- 
tare, ftwJl not be madcofe at with Refpeet to 
each other's Subjcds, hut the Hcirsef the Detraftd 
lb >ll fuccecd thcro, either by Will or «* txrrfimt, 
wi:hont any Leu or Hitsdraac?v *ad In Cafe »r 
Di» t >nco among two or more Hcir% the Jtfdgo of 
t h e, gi tf t we todcexk the Matter peremptorily. 

31. If a Merchant or ^ther Subject of either 0/ 
the c^atracring Parties mould chan^: e« d« with- 
in the others Dominion*, the Conlhl or looc 
other o' their poblUOlmifters, if there fee any, 
Hull repair to the Hcwfc ot the decearied, tni tike 
an Inventory of all his Merchandizes afcd BffWVi, 
wllkewiftof hu'Bonfr >nd Papera, in Order to 
frcure them for the Heirs of the Deetaied 

33. In cafe any flup heloqgmg o the rentracl- 
isg Parties or their ii'bjocja fb<>urd be wrecked 
opaa each Ctber*s Coalh, the FHcal Officers ftel! 
claa ao Right to It, and a'J plu&driog flsaU ix 



fevtrarf rorbWrfen; reoferer, A (J fiance it to be 
gjnn to tbofe rbo Cjffer ■Shipwreck, for faffag 
and fecnf jog all they can. 

^Ta* *iiv OrttooO^Ma pefly ftall, ondw bo Pre. 
tert whatfocTcr, fttTnariarf Price' ta 3a?lieV4 
rtaodiaesbelongingtobislirpeTuI MuirfTy'sdahta 
jea»,viwr they feaO be at Uberty to kQ them at 
t be oaWtnt Price: The ftmcUbcrty isgrsotalto 
the SpaniikjSub e£H in tho BoperoQrS Domioioas. 
f If the E3t£h of fbweof either PartiaSob- 
tt€t%, Ibovkl be coaUatod, aad that (braeCeocU 
belonging to asy other Perfon Sbouid happen to be 
a^ssogt&n^tt^OanfeteftoTtd'oU^'CaFeeri, 

j*. His Imperial Ma)eftr*s Ships rad SbbWb 
flsall te aHowed to carry and bring rrom the l^f- 
^te^tw let© all the King of 5p«'«*s Domioio«5 t a| 
forts of Froltt, RfiacH, aod Mercfuodizet, pro- 
rided h appaar, by Affidavits of the Depsries of 
the hdU Compaiiy efiablL/hed in the j*fam/&» 
ibtrimdt, that tbey Coosc IrorD thecorquered Pia* 
eeSjColooiasorradoTiejof therjidCompanv.ha 
whkhCaft tbey fosTenJcy the fame trivilegct 
gxaoted to the Sab>tfis of the United Province*, 
by tha Royal Letters of tbe i"j%h of jw» t and 
jd of^riv ti^v Moreover bisCatbrlW» M jctfr 
deckrea, ( Th*tbegraot3 to the Injuria! autyefo 
whatever haa been granted to dxSutrs-CeneraJ 
oi tbe United Prorinces by the Treacv lo ,f 4 8, 
both with refpeA to the hdti snd *d? otbtr thing 
applicable to tbe Cud Treaty, v> hiewiSt to the 
prefcat Peacv cooclockd berween thciT Majcfttet, 

37. A* to what relates to the Cnrorrerce of the 
(Wf . JJUUi, the Imperial Subffti ftiall to* 
^sy tbe fame Ad7anugtt wittl the £-*^a aad 
Ihuk. 

£ To •« Lmttmud ia tm mtxt 3 

1 Rumoafh6B(t ef tht GemraJ AfifwHj efth 
LUrgj cf FraOc** t fftfnttdte tue RjBg^ 
4£«injl ih Neyr Tut of Two per Ccot. 

St RE, m 

TH E Clrrpy of J^art, *♦* hart aflpiyi 
efteem'd It tbeirClory togivevotirMjKi>Y« 
and tho Kings your PredecelTors tftctual as yjcll 
as pohlirt Wrootsor rhclrmoftprofbund.^ibiTii 00 
aod Obcd:cDee, firsd thcmklves conihjlned to 
accornpanvtiienc» Homage, which they have the 
HonotjT to pay von this Dsy, with foil Cotapkinti 
and moll horahle Rrmfinfrranos 

The Edi." which your Mierty fr beenplea^'d 
tOMibli(h, fee railing ?m j crCr-r. uj-oo all yo«r 
SubjcOi Efiaus, feexn* iadced not to iataadt iht> 



46. New York's First Newspaper, Established by William Bradford 

in 1725 

n 1403 



with the composition; because by so doing I avoid any tendency of 
the paper to warp while drying. It is also well to apply a second coat 
of the composition after the first coat is dry. When this flong is to 
be used, the face upon which the mold is to be produced is pref- 
erably smoothed with sandpaper; but this it not essential. This 
face is then slightly dampened with water or with the composition 
by means of a sponge or otherwise (humidifying) and it may then 
be covered with one or more sheets of tissue or other suitable paper, 
damp or dry. (At the present day many foundries in England still 
paste one tissue on dry mats, producing extra humidification thru 
the wet paste.) Then it is preferably rubbed with French chalk or 
other suitable material which will absorb superfluous moisture. The 
flong thus prepared is placed upon the type or in a frisket or frame, 
and is then surrounded by heated air (a kind of scorcher) for a few 
seconds, so as to just soften the composition and render it plastic. 
When in this state it is pressed upon the form by means of a platen 
press. The mold is thus taken and becomes at once fixed. 

"It will be understood from the foregoing description that my 
flong is a dry flong with the composition or paste on the face. When 
the flong is used the blotting or other paper does not contain mois- 
ture, but the composition or paste, after being slightly dampened, 
as above described, becomes sufficiently softened (humidified) by 
the heated air or by contact with the form (when this is heated) to 
enable a perfect mold to be taken by the press. The special com- 
position or paste which I preferably employ for facing the bibulous 
paper consists of treacle or other saccharine liquor, glue, flour, 
whiting, borax and water. I do not limit myself to any particular 
proportions, but I recommend that the amount of treacle used 
should be about one-twentieth, by weight, of the combined weight 
of the other ingredients employed, exclusive of water." 

Eastwood then describes in length the proportions of his paste. 
His patent claims were: 

(1) A flong for producing matrices or molds for stereotyping, 
consisting of a thick sheet of dry bibulous paper having on its face 
a dry composition, substantially as hereinbefore described. 

(2) A flong for producing matrices or molds for stereotyping 
consisting of a thick sheet of bibulous paper having a normal unim- 
pregnated interior and having on its face a coating of a dry paste 
composed of saccharine liquor, glue, flour, whiting, borax and water 
in approximately the proportions specified. 

(3) A composition for coating the bibulous paper or flongs used 

C 141 3 



for producing matrices or molds for stereotyping, the said composi- 
tion consisting of treacle, glue, flour, whiting, borax and water in 
approximately the proportions specified. 

Thus, thru Eastwood the dry mat appeared on the market. The 
first product was given to the foundries in England in 1887, and 
after having applied for his second patent the new dry mat was in- 
troduced. 

In October, 1895, an American cold type stereotyping outfit (the 
Potter) was advertised in trade journals as ready for shipment, and 
a stereotyping expert stated that "now country printers can do their 
own stereotyping," meaning that the monopoly of making stereo- 
type plates only in the large foundries in the big cities could be ac- 
cepted as over and done with. "No beating of type to spoil the face, 
nor heating of type to make it soft and elongated. The molding is 
done on scientific principles and in about one-twentieth of the time 
required by the old papier-mache method. The manufacturer sup- 
plies the matrix, with full instructions for use. The form is laid on 
the molding machine, the matrix is placed on the form and by the 
rotating of a heavy iron cylinder the matrix is pressed into the form 
and the mold is made. This mold is then taken from the form, placed 
on a hot plate to dry, and is then put in a casting box, into which 
hot metal is poured and the cast is made." 

An advance step in the making of stereotype dry mats was made 
in 1895 by Hermann Schimansky of Berlin, Germany. He con- 
tended that dry mats made in accordance with the specifications of 
prior inventors were so constituted that the free spaces which were 
to remain white in the printing were filled up at the back of the 
matrix by covering with pieces of cardboard, as otherwise the hot 
lead would press down the very thin matrix in these spaces during 
the casting. Schimansky's invention (patented in 1899) was sup- 
posed to obviate this drawback and consisted in using perfectly dry 
matrices of vegetable fibre which were characterized by great 
porosity produced artificially, so that the impression of the type 
to be stereotyped takes place by simply destroying the porosity at 
the pressed parts, thereby rendering the mold directly suitable for 
the casting. Thus Schimansky claims he obviated the manipulation 
of covering up ("backing up") the free spaces, as his mat retains 
the original thickness at all free places which are not impressed. 
Schimansky recommends for the making of his mats all kinds of 
vegetable fibres — such as wood, cellulose, hemp, cotton or flax. In 
order to obtain the porosity of the mats, the inventor proceeded as 

C142H 



follows: The fibres are first immersed in sodium carbonate and then 
in an acid, for example vinegar — thereby developing as a gas car- 
bonic acid, which effects the loosening of the mat. In this manner the 
porosity of the mat is obtained by loosening alone. Presumably the 
parts of resinous matter clinging to the fibre dissolve. In order to 
bend the fibre to form a mat, the fibrous material is treated in a 
long-sieve (Fourdrinier) paper machine. Finally these mats are 
coated on one side with a thin coat or layer of starch paste, to 
which five per cent of glycerine has been added, in order that the 
adhesion of the metal to the vegetable fibre may be obviated in the 
casting. The matrix thus produced ready for use may be kept in 
stock in any quantities in printing shops and used at once when 
required. Schimansky gave his dry mat the name "Porosin Matrix." 

All of these improvements did not permit of obtaining a matrix 
of sufficient depth and faultlessly smooth surface, since the Eastwood 
as well as the Schimansky mat did not possess a surface which could 
receive sharp and sufficiently deep impressions from the type with- 
out tearing. On the other hand, the mats were not firm enough to 
allow the formation of sufficiently deep interstices at the blank 
spaces of the type which could resist the pressure of the poured in 
metal on repeated casting. Another drawback of these first dry mats 
was that the texture of the paper employed made itself appear on 
the cast plate. 

Johann Egyd Weigl of Vienna undertook in 1901 to remedy these 
drawbacks by using a different process, which he claimed produced 
a plastic and impressionable dry mat which would neither crack 
nor tear, and having a perfectly smooth surface. Weigl's mat was 
practically a wet mat made ajmost identically in the same manner 
as a wet mat, namely by pasting different sheets and layers of paper 
together with different pastes, then drying same and stereotyping 
with this mat as with the cold process. The single sheets were thor- 
oughly bound thru calendering and after drying formed a single 
indivisible matrix. Weigl manufactured his dry mat by brushing 
a sheet of supple, plastic cardboard with a paste of vegetable glue, 
glue of albumen and alcohol to which was added glycerine and cal- 
cium chloride, laying on a gauze-like fabric prepared in mucilage 
of gelatin and pressing thereover a sheet of unsized paper, the outer 
side of which unsized paper was coated with mucilage of carrageen- 
mass and albumen glue and pressing thereon several sheets of tissue 
paper. It is very easy to understand that such a manufacturing 
method would tend to make the price of the mat out of all question. 

[143] 



The patent rights upon the Schimansky invention were acquired 
and the manufacture of such dry mats carried on by a paper factory 
in southern Germany. The results, however, obtained in the begin- 
ning with the new dry mat did not warrant the making and selling 
of the product on a commercial scale. The factory simplified the 
manufacturing process, finally making a good dry mat, which it 
sold to German and foreign newspaper offices and which is still 
being marketed as the "Porosin" mat. Schimansky's dry mat was 
adopted by the great German daily "Lokalanzeiger" of Berlin, and 
based upon this success the inventor made a trip to the United 
States with the intention of disposing of his American patent. Sev- 
eral paper mills were more or less interested; Schimansky however 
returned home without having met with the hoped for success. 

Results of These Dry Mat Experiments: Although both East- 
wood's and Schimansky's inventions were not satisfactory in a com- 
mercial sense, they certainly influenced a large number of paper 
makers to experiment with dry mat manufacturing, and finally led 
to the excellent present day product. 

Several German firms (Claus, Niezsche, Benesch, Rosenthal, 
Geissler, etc.) took up manufacturing of dry mats as a side line 
in their paperboard mills, and in due time the results of their pio- 
neering work made the dry mat their principal product. For many 
years Germany was the only source of supply for dry mats, the 
product going to all countries in Europe and overseas. Karl Kempe 
of Nuremberg was the first (1882) to sell ready-to-use paper mats 
to the printing trade. 



C1443 







givm it forth to lis* In»»& 6 

;§tiMf:titt*;Wl 




lie c&et $f chance, bat fee 'remit of nsectpaic&J <*m»! 
' If *maf^ is tbe nttft*: ; of ' 



m^M^'pm^t t# f tie ^ 





nil j'-jwt &w can cofeicefw,*-*! 



mm 



we l&ve im »'Iebh 



K*feSa 



"I i 



i 



<ib|*atdk* TIm 



*b&, ?«?,&>. thm- 4h®w-er$> «Mt feat? I 
.' Sir • -CiiBi9*o*Aga MT*enY 
h Id ' W fctii»4 k „ i&t ferifeQng ' 
•«o » Hie. 'feat triune .el praise, 
fe «f &8fem$ to the ki«ta&r of . the 

hhb. ;''1ft jM^$$ *H4$ fUfclwr, 

[feral iatoftfee ^agf** <k* tie !0t!» m& &£»• *«*>• I 

. London 'Times/' Facsimile of the Issue of November 29, 1814, the First News- 
paper Printed on a Cylinder Press with the Aid of a Papier-Mache Matrix 



attend sp®^ «aK! ' 

<*fwsitl«i8* iHbe 
with 'pfcpct j Itself 



«a 



C 145 3 




o 

GO 



>> 



■*-> 

3 

2 

< 
< 

00 



CI46] 



CHAPTER SIX 
STEREOTYPING IN NORTH AMERICA 



In Europe, where stereotyping was first invented, and where for 
centuries all activities relative to improvements in the old methods 
and the inventing of new methods were centered, there has been, 
compared with other phases of the printing art, a dearth of record- 
ings concerning one of the most important printing innovations, 
namely the art of stereotyping. Here in America the same condi- 
tion prevailed. The entire literature dealing with stereotyping in 
America consists of three practical handbooks, i.e., manuals, in- 
cluding a few historical notes in their prefaces. Even in encyclo- 
pedias dealing with printing one finds but short articles on stereo- 
typing. Thus it has been a difficult task to. assemble data pertaining 
to the invention, adoption and development of the stereotyping art 
in this country. In fact, the main sources of information can be ex- 
tracted from occasional trade journal articles, from letters exchanged 
between printing plants, controversial articles, criticisms of stereotyp- 
ing, and such information as may be gleaned from patent publica- 
tions. Only by recording excerpts from this sparse material can one 
obtain a picture of the development of stereotyping in America. 

Many are the practical American stereotypers who could have 
described the host of interesting events of their times, but more 
than 100 years have passed since the introduction into this country 
of papier-mache mats, and it is almost half a century since dry mat 
stereotyping first appeared on this side of the Atlantic ocean. It is 
almost an impossibility to find such "old timers" still alive in our 
midst. Despite many efforts to ferret out whatever personal docu- 
ments they may have left behind, it was not possible to secure such 
material. Practically everything we know was handed on by word 
of mouth and hardly anything was recorded in writing. Some recent 
happenings in the stereotyping field, however, have been learned from 
stereotypers still active in plants throughout the country. Therefore 
the writer has compiled his material from letters, patents, cata- 
logues, price lists, instruction sheets and so forth, and thereby is 

IT 147] 



able to present a fairly accurate picture of what has, up to our time, 
transpired in the field of stereotyping in America. 

The first printing in America was done in the year 1540 by the 
Jesuits in Mexico, the first book being a religious work entitled "A 
Manual for Adults." 

The first printing press in the United States was erected and 
operated in Cambridge, Mass., in 1638 under the charge of Stephen 
Daye, and the first book he published was the "Bay Psalm Book" in 
1640. For this press the colony was mainly indebted to the Rev- 
erend Jesse Glover, to whom some gentlemen of Amsterdam also 
gave "towards furnishing of a printing press with letters, forty-nine 
pounds and something more." 

In 1745 an attempt at stereotype printing was made in Phila- 
delphia by Benjamin Mecom, nephew of the great Benjamin Frank- 
lin. Mecom cast plates for several pages of the New Testament and 
made considerable progress toward the completion of the book, but 
he never finished it. 

Isaiah Thomas, in his "History of Printing in America" (Wor- 
cester, 1810) made the following note: "The ingenious Jacob Per- 
kins of Newburyport, Mass., has lately invented a new kind of 
stereotype for impressing copper and other plates. From the plates 
so impressed most of the bank notes of Massachusetts and New- 
hampshire are printed at rolling presses and are called stereotype 
bills." 

Glover, a wealthy dissenting clergyman, bought his good printing 
press and type fonts in England in 1638 and started for New Eng- 
land with them. However, he died on the trip, but his widow brought 
this, the first printing press, to America. 

There are conflicting statements as to whom belongs the honor 
of having first introduced stereotyping in America. It has been 
claimed that an Englishman named John Watts was the first, arriv- 
ing in New York from London, and starting a printing shop at 15 
Murray Street in 1809. Watts spoke French and it appears that the 
stereotyping process he used was a combination of the Didot and 
Stanhope systems. In 1812 he made stereotype plates, and in 1813 
a book was published, entitled "The Larger Catechism. The first 
book ever stereotyped in America. Stereotyped and printed by J. 
Watts and Co., New York. June, 1813." In 1815 he moved his little 
plant to 154 Broadway. In 1816 his name disappeared from the 
City Directory, he having sold his foundry to B. and J. Collins, a 
couple of Quaker printers. Watts left America and was traced to 

ens: 



Austria where from 1820 on he conducted a stereotyping shop until 
his death. 

In "The Typographical Miscellany," printed in Albany, N. Y., 
in 1850, Joel Munsell reprints an article which was taken from 
"The Long Island Star" of October, 1811. The article is about 
Francis Shield, a typefounder, and says: "Mr. Shield is also in pos- 
session of the art of taking stereotype plates, and has specimens in 
his possession." x 

It has been contended that David Bruce did not go to England to 
learn the stereotyping art until 1812, and thus it would seem that 
Francis Shield was the first man to bring stereotyping to America. 
However, in the light of thorough research it can be accepted as a 
fact that to David Bruce belongs the honor of introducing stereo- 
typing in America. 

The Bruce family of printers and typefounders were descendants 
of John Bruce, a farmer, of Wick, in the county of Caithness in the 
far north of Scotland, to whom on November 12, 1770, a son, 
David, was born. David went to sea, and before nineteen summers 
had passed over him he had seen a great part of the northern hemis- 
phere. His family had meanwhile moved to Edinburgh, and there 
in his nineteenth year David apprenticed himself to a printer. Hav- 
ing acquired a thorough knowledge of his craft, as his work proves, 
he is next found in 1793 arriving in New York, a city of 40,000 in- 
habitants, something less in importance than either Boston or 
Philadelphia, where he found employment as a pressman on a daily 
newspaper. Next year, 1794, he was working for Hall & Sellers, suc- 
cessors to B. Franklin and David Hall. David Bruce sent money 
home to bring his brother John to Philadelphia, but in the meantime 
John had gone soldiering against Bonaparte in Egypt, so his parents 
sent George Bruce, aged fourteen, in his stead. George reached 
Philadelphia on June 26, 1795. The two Bruces were not without 
friends. David had known Archibald Binney in Edinburgh, and 
when Binney and James Ronaldson and David Ramage arrived in 
Philadelphia on one ship in 1795 they soon found David Bruce and 
his young brother. Binney & Ronaldson set up the first permanent 
typefoundry in 1796 (which finally developed into the American 
Type Founders Company), and in the same year Ramage opened 
the first shop for building printing presses. Here were got together 
five young Scotsmen who afterwards achieved both wealth and 

1 "Typographical Miscellany", by Joel Munsell, page 114. 

£1493 



fame, although their combined cash capital was less than $600. 
George Bruce was put to learn bookbinding, but not liking his em- 
ployer he ran away to sea. Returning soon to Philadelphia, his 
elder brother persuaded him to apprentice himself to Thomas Dob- 
son, printer. After two years, in 1798, Dobson's plant was destroyed 
by fire, and an epidemic of yellow fever prevailing, the brothers left 
the city and walked across New jersey to New York City. Not 
finding employment there, they walked to Albany, where they 
worked for Webster Brothers. In 1799 they walked back to New 
York City. In that year the first American printer's union, the 
Franklin Typographical Association, was formed in New York, of 
which David Bruce was elected vice president, while George was 
secretary. The young union formulated a demand for higher wages. 
Compositors and pressmen were getting $6 a week of seventy-one 
hours. They demanded $7 and got it; nothing was said about the 
hours, but overtime was price and a half. 

In 1803 and for two years thereafter young George Brace's name 
appears in "The Daily Advertiser" as "printer and publisher for the 
proprietor." What David was doing we know not, but both had 
married, and George was already a widower. In 1806 there was a 
printing outfit, with one hand press, to hire. The Bruce boys hired 
it, and began to print Lavoisier's "Chemistry" in a small room in a 
building on the southwest corner of Pearl and Wall Streets. Their 
friends in Philadelphia, the prospering typefounders and the pros- 
pering press builder, gave them credit for types and materials. Their 
work was better than New York publishers could get elsewhere. 
They also prospered, and in 1809 removed to 27 William Street, 
where they kept nine wooden hand presses busy. When the pub- 
lishers failed at times to keep them busy they published books on 
their own risk. It would seem that honest industry, working more 
than eight hours a day, had little trouble in getting ahead in those 
times when the city was literally "little old New York." The Bruces 
were well read, studious men. They would select a standard book to 
print on their own account. They would then ask publishers and 
booksellers throughout the land to agree to take and pay for cer- 
tain quotas, printing the bookseller's name on the title pages of his 
quota. In this way they would have a sure venture. Among others 
they issued a series of Latin classics and a New Testament and a 
complete Bible. There was thus no lost time in the shop — no non- 
chargeable hours. Compositors and pressmen working for $7 obtained 
good board and lodging for $2.50; working twelve hours a day, with 

C 150 3 



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occasional overtime, with few holidays, and everything shut down 
close on Sundays, there was little opportunity to squander their 
earnings. 

In 1812 David Bruce, Sr., went to England to learn the art of 
stereotyping, recently revived under the auspices of Earl Stanhope. 
The earliest and best method of stereotyping was from plaster of 
Paris molds. We do not know what prompted David to learn stereo- 
typing, but probably it was the advent in New York of one John 
Watts, who brought a knowledge of stereotyping to this country, 
and issued the first book from stereotyped plates in America in 
1813. Watts, disappointed in his venture, went back to England, and 
shortly after his return went to Holland and Germany, selling the 
secrets of the process. David Bruce, Sr., found the English stereo- 
types secretive. He saw their work and got in touch with some of 
the workmen, and discovered enough of the process to put it in 
practice in New York. While away he kept his brother partner ad- 
vised of his progress and of his visit to his relatives. These inter- 
esting letters are now in the Typographic Library and Museum in 
Jersey City. Unable to buy any of the apparatus used by the two 
English stereotyping firms, David had to design and have made in 
New York his furnaces, molds and other appliances. While these 
were in the making another obstacle presented itself: both the ex- 
isting typefoundries refused to cast the high spaces and quads neces- 
sary to the clay process. Fortunately for the Bruces, in that year, 
1813, two brothers, Edwin and Richard Starr, skilled typemakers 
employed by Elihu White, had a desire to become master type- 
founders. They had accumulated a typemaking outfit, and had fin- 
ished a set of nine point (bourgeois) matrices. Lacking capital, they 
were willing to take the Bruces in as partners. A font of nine point 
types and other accessories were cast, and in 1814 David Bruce 
made two sets of plates for a complete Bible. One set was sold to 
Mathew Carey of Philadelphia, the other was used to print several 
editions of the Bible, which the Bruces disposed of profitably. Be- 
fore a year had passed a disagreement arose. The Starrs were 
bought out by the Bruces to save their investment. They tried to 
sell their outfit to the two existing typefoundries, but it was so in- 
complete that they could get no offers. Thus they had the nucleus 
of a typefoundry with no knowledge of the art, and no skilled em- 
ployees. How they surmounted this unfavorable condition we do 
not know. Doubtless they found a skilled workman, or more than 
one, and George Bruce began to perfect himself in letter punch cut- 



ting. In 1815 they issued a few leaves of specimens of body types, 
adding to them gradually. They sold their profitable printing busi- 
ness to two employees. In 1816 their type and stereotype foundry 
was in Eldridge Street. George managed the typefoundry and David 
the stereotype foundry. In 1814 David invented the first plate shav- 
ing machine. The English stereotypers were leveling their stereo- 
type plates by holding them against a revolving disk equipped with 
knives. By their method they could not regulate the height of the 
plates. Bruce's flat bed planer went into use everywhere and is 
today more than ever an indispensable machine in electrotyping and 
stereotyping establishments. 

In 1818 the Bruces erected a building on Chambers Street, which 
was the home of the typefoundry until 1895. In 1820 David re- 
tired, purchasing the White Hill Estate. He was then fifty years of 
age. George in the same year sold the stereotyping equipment and 
concentrated on typefounding. In six years he had become the leader 
in that art and industry. He died on July 5, 1866, aged eighty-five, 
leaving his business to his surviving son, David Wolfe Bruce, who 
carried it on until his death in 1895, leaving it to three heads of de- 
partments, who eventually sold it to a competitor. 

David Bruce, Sr., died in Brooklyn at the home of his son on 
March 15, 1857, aged eighty-seven years. 

A large number of printers followed in the footsteps of the 
Bruces in installing stereotype foundries. The following merit closer 
mention : 

Tillinghast King Collins was born in Philadelphia on October 
14th, 1802 and died there in 1870. He lost his father at an early age, 
and before he was thirteen years old entered the printing office of 
the celebrated Mathew Carey. He remained with this great publisher 
but a short time and was then apprenticed to James Maxwell, from 
whose office he graduated with high repute as a skillful compositor 
and pressman. He then removed for a time to Washington, D. C, 
and upon his return to Philadelphia he entered the office of James 
Kay, the law publisher. In 1833 he united with Robert Wright in 
opening a printing office with only one hand press. This partner- 
ship existed about two years, when Mr. Wright retired, and Mr. 
Collins removed his office to 1 Lodge Alley, now 705 Jayne Street, 
where he formed a new partnership with his own younger brother, 
and the firm, under the name of T. K. & P. G. Collins, soon became 
known for the superiority of its typography. 

To the practical part of his special business Mr. Collins paid 

C 154 3 



much attention, and the patent roller-boy for hand presses, and the 
immovable rules which surround the blocks on which certain stereo- 
type plates are placed, are due to his inventive talents. 

In 1810 Cadwallader David Colden published a paper presented 
to the American Medical and Philosophical Register in that year, 
in which he reported a new method in printing he had discovered. 

Colden was an American lawyer and a nephew of the naturalist 
Colden, was born near Flushing in the State of New York on the 
4th of April, 1769, and after having completed his studies he prac- 
ticed law in New York in 1791. He soon attained high rank in his 
profession and was made a member of the legislature. 

In 1818 he was elected Mayor of the City of New York, a mem- 
ber of Congress in 1821, and a State Senator from 1824 to 1827. He 
was then elected Lieutenant Governor of the State of New York, and 
died in Jersey City, N. J., on the 7th of February, 1834. 

The new method of printing described by Colden in all its steps 
in the article he submitted to the Register, was later known by the 
term "stereotype," and it is a curious fact that the stereotyping 
process at that time claimed to have been invented by M. Herhan 
of Paris and practiced by him in that city under letters patent 
granted by Napoleon, is precisely the same as that described by Dr. 
Colden. It appears that when Benjamin Franklin went to France he 
communicated Dr. Colden's "new method of printing" to some 
artists there, and that it lay dormant for about sixteen years when 
Herhan, a German who had been an assistant to M. Didot, the re- 
nowned printer and type founder of Paris, but then separated from 
him, took it up in opposition to M. Didot. 

Experts in Paris examined M. Herhan's method of stereotyping 
and described it to be exactly what Governor Colden had invented. 
This fact established, there can be no doubt that Herhan was in- 
debted to America for the celebrity he attained in France. 

There is no evidence that Colden's process was practiced by 
stereotypers in America. 

In the latter part of the year 1815 Jedediah Howe of Connecticut, 
hearing of the success of the Bruce brothers in the newly invented 
art, came to New York and commenced a stereotype foundry on 
Thames Street. Mr. Howe obtained his fair proportion of the lim- 
ited and uncertain stereotyping business of that early day. But in 
the course of eight years other foundries started and an exceedingly 
keen competition followed. Mr. Howe was thence induced to remove 
his establishment to Philadelphia, which he did in August, 1823. The 

C 155 3 



late Lawrence Johnson was already there, having commenced a 
stereotype foundry about the year 1820. 

Adding type-founding to stereotyping, Mr. Howe formed a part- 
nership with Mr. Johnson (which continued until the death of the 
former in 1834). Although partners, the two foundries were carried 
on by the new firm as if they were separate establishments. 

The publishers of Philadelphia had, previous to the arrival of 
Mr. Johnson, sent their orders for the few books they ventured to 
subject to this process to the stereotype founders of New York. 
There was a reluctance to incur the extra expense of casting after 
setting up the types, for at that time this caused a double expendi- 
ture and capital was hardly abundant enough to afford such a lock- 
ing up for future benefit. Nothing, perhaps, could more forcibly 
show the necessity of such a process as stereotyping than the nature 
of the rude, imperfect and expensive system which preceded its ad- 
vent. Only half a dozen years before, Mathew Carey of Philadelphia 
had set up in type all the pages of a quarto Bible and Testament, 
keeping the forms continually standing in a fireproof room and 
printing editions as sales demanded. It is probable that this enter- 
prise cost Mr. Carey four or five times as much as the price of a set 
of stereotypes for the same work, and yet we believe the venture 
was a successful one in its material results. It may interest printers 
and type-founders to note that about a dozen years ago these old 
forms of type were sold as metal to Mr. Isaac Ashmead, and that 
from the minion side notes he collected several casefuls of good type, 
the unexposed portion of which still retained much of the original 
hardness and sharpness — a fact reflecting great credit on the manu- 
facture of Messrs. Binney and Ronaldson, from whose foundry the 
fonts were purchased. 

Bibles and school books were the first to be stereotyped, and 
then gradually came books of great and continued popularity, in- 
cluding the English classics in prose and verse, and the books of 
popular authors like Washington Irving and J. Fenimore Cooper. 

The slow and cautious manner, however, in which American pub- 
lishers availed themselves of this new invention was rather dis- 
couraging to the beginners. Gradually, however, the booksellers were 
led into stereotyping, though at first not very profitably, for the first 
large work stereotyped by J. Howe for W. W. Woodward — "Scott's 
Commentary on the Bible," in five quarto volumes — proved so 
heavy an undertaking that Mr. Woodward broke down under it and 

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53. The Stereotype Plant of David and George Bruce, 15 Chambers 

Street in New York City 



r: 158 3 



left the plates on the hands of Mr. Howe to his great embarrass- 
ment. 

Mr. Johnson was more fortunate in stereotyping a book not 
very dissimilar in character and magnitude, "Henry's Commentary 
on the Scriptures," undertaken by Tower and Hogan, and carried 
on successfully to a remunerative result. 

On the death of Mr. Howe in 1834 John Fagan, who had been 
employed in the stereotype foundry for some time, purchased, en- 
larged and continued the establishment. 

Lothian, George Baxter: A celebrated type-founder of New 
York City, one of the experimental pioneers in machine type-casting 
and type-rubbing, and also in the present method of kerning type. 
He was the son of Dr. Robert Lothian of Scotland, who made an 
ineffectual attempt to establish a foundry in New York in 1806, 
but failing, sold his material to Binney and Ronaldson of Phila- 
delphia, and died shortly afterwards. The son, George B. Lothian, 
remained for some time with a bookseller in Philadelphia, where he 
became much interested in the theatre and appeared in public in a 
round of Scotch characters. In 1810 he was employed by John Watts 
of New York, the first stereotyper in the United States; but 
Lothian's singularly irritable temper and license of speech led to a 
difficulty which resulted in his being committed to jail. He after- 
wards worked for Collins & Hanna as a stereotype finisher for about 
two years, leaving that employment to establish a type foundry in 
Pittsburgh, Pa. Failing in this undertaking he returned to New 
York, where his material was purchased by D. & G. Bruce, who 
also furnished him with employment. This engagement he aban- 
doned in order to study for the stage, but was compelled to re- 
linquish that pursuit on account of his defective verbal memory, 
although otherwise he was remarkably fitted for the theatrical pro- 
fession. In 1822 he manufactured type for the Harpers and others 
in partnership with Alfred Pell, but this connection was soon broken 
by a personal encounter, and Lothian's interest was purchased by 
Mr. Hagar. In 1829 he was again manufacturing successfully and 
proposed a partnership with James Conner, a man of remarkable 
self-control; but in one of the preliminary conversations upon their 
affairs Lothian used such exasperating expressions that Conner broke 
off the arrangements and nearly pitched Lothian out of the window. 
The Harpers continued to employ him, bearing with the eccentrici- 
ties of his temper on account of the excellence of his type, and Mr. 
Hagar also undertook a partnership with him in 1840, but this 

[159;] 



connection, the last attempted by Lothian, was ruptured in less than 
half a year. Domestic sorrow was added to Lothian's business mis- 
fortunes: his wife and children died, and in declining health his 
mind was seriously affected. He died in 1851 attended by a single 
female domestic. He left a handsome competency, judiciously be- 
queathed. 

Perkins, Jacob: A distinguished American inventor, regarded 
as having introduced one of the greatest improvements in the art 
of plate-engraving. He was born in Newburyport, Mass., in 1766. 
Apprenticed at an early age to a goldsmith he soon exhibited his in- 
ventive genius by introducing a new method of plating shoe buckles, 
and was quite successful in their manufacture. When only about 
twenty-one years of age he was employed by the State of Massa- 
chusetts to make dies for copper coinage. He next invented a ma- 
chine for cutting and heading nails, patented in 1795, and shortly 
afterwards turned his attention to that branch of industrial art in 
which he afterwards gained so great a reputation. Copper had been, 
previous to this time, the only material used for plate engraving, 
steel having been used but in one instance, in England, in 1805, in 
a print in a book entitled "The Topographical Illustrations of West- 
minster." By the invention of Perkins a steel plate engraved by the 
method used in copper plate is hardened so as to transfer the design 
by pressure upon other plates of softened steel, which can in turn 
be hardened and used to transfer the design to an indefinite extent. 
A peculiar style of note, with a stereotyped check, invented by Per- 
kins, was, in 1808, by a special Act of the State of Massachusetts, 
directed to be used by all the banks in the Commonwealth as a 
thorough protection against counterfeiting; and it was used in some 
New England banks until a very recent period. His substitution of 
steel for copper and his invention of transfers were especially ap- 
plicable to bank-note engravings, and in 1814 Perkins removed to 
Philadelphia and became associated with the firm of Murray, Draper 
& Fairman. Asa Spencer, also connected with the same firm, shortly 
afterwards succeeded in applying lathe work to bank-notes, secur- 
ing what was at that period considered an absolute protection 
against counterfeits. The directors of the bank of England had en- 
deavored, in 1800, to furnish notes secure from imitation; but 
forgeries had multiplied, and in 1818 they offered liberal proposi- 
tions for competition. Attracted by this opportunity Perkins went 
to England, accompanied by Mr. Fairman and a number of exper- 
ienced workmen. Unfortunately for his success a London wood en- 

C 160] 



graver succeeded, after a number of efforts, in making a wood-cut 
copy of one of Perkins' pieces of lathe work, and he was therefore 
compelled to withdraw from the contest, and the manufacture of 
the notes was awarded to Applegarth & Cowper in 1820. Perkins, 
however, obtained the privilege of making the notes for the Bank of 
Ireland, and for this purpose entered into partnership in London 
with the distinguished engraver Heath, a connection which con- 
tinued until the death of Perkins in 1849. 

James Conner was born April 22nd, 1798, near Hyde Park, 
Dutchess County, New York, died May 30th, 1861. He was the 
founder of the Conner Type Foundry of New York, which since his 
death has been conducted by his sons under the firm name of James 
Conner's Sons. After serving an apprenticeship to the printing busi- 
ness in a New York City newspaper office, he worked for some years 
as a journeyman printer, chiefly in book stereotyping offices, be- 
ginning his labors as a stereotyper in the office of Mr. Watts, who 
in conjunction with Mr. Foy was one of the first, if not the first, 
to stereotype successfully in the United States. Subsequently he 
started a stereotyping establishment in New York, to which an ex- 
tensive type foundry was afterwards added, and he prepared plates 
of a number of valuable standard works, some of which he sold 
while others he published on his own account. Later in life, after an 
adventurous career, his business attention was concentrated on his 
type foundry and he made strenuous efforts to increase his variety 
of faces as well as to improve the facilities for manufacturing type. 
A biographical notice of Mr. Conner, which appeared in 'The 
Printers" of May, 1859, gives the following account of some of his 
experiments : 

"Among these, elaborated by the process of chemical precipita- 
tion, was the casting of letters from an electrotyped matrix. Previous 
to Mr. Conner's successful efforts in this direction, Messrs, Mapes 
and Chilton, chemists, had experimented to produce a facsimile of a 
copper-plate which Mapes wished to use for his magazine. Ascer- 
taining the perfect success of the experiment under other hands, he 
was anxious to have their battery tried on a copperplate. It was, 
to his and Mr. Chilton's joint delight, successful, and a very favor- 
able report was inserted in many of the European scientific periodi- 
cals. So gratifying, in fact, were the results of the experiments made 
in this direction, that improvements were suggested from time to 
time. 

"In the course of his experimenting, Conner took a Long Primer 



Italic capital T, and inserted it through a piece of stereotype plate. 
This was attached to a copper wire by soldering, some zinc was at- 
tached to the other end of the wire; a weak solution of sulphuric 
acid was made and placed in a vessel; a solution of common blue 
vitriol in another apartment; then the matrix and the zinc were 
placed in their respective apartments, and the process of extracting 
the copper from the sulphate, through galvanic action, commenced, 
and the copper obtained was thrown on the intended matrix. 

"Conner and his assistants then took a small cut of a beehive, 
and setting this also in the same way, obtained a perfect matrix, 
which is now in use at Conner's foundry. These successes encouraged 
him to other experiments on a larger and more valuable scale. Mr. 
Conner, therefore, ordered a fancy font of type, which he originally 
had cut on steel, selecting therefrom a perfect alphabet, points, and 
figures, and then shaved a stereotype plate on both sides. This he 
lined off into sizes, equal to the matrices he desired to make. He 
then made the necessary openings through the plate, and inserted 
the types designed to be precipitated on, which he cut off and sol- 
dered on the back. This proved a highly successful experiment, as 
it gave him a perfect set of matrices at one precipitation. This plate 
is still to be seen at Mr. Conner's establishment, as originally made, 
and is regarded as a great curiosity — being supposed to be the first 
alphabet thus made, in this or any other country." 

One of the most extensive and successful type founders in the 
United States was Lawrence Johnson, born January 23rd, 1801 in 
Hull, England. He was apprenticed to the printing business in the 
plant of John Childs & Son at Bungay, England, at so early an 
age that he had served an apprenticeship of seven years before he 
emigrated with his parents to the United States, where they arrived 
in 1819, landing in New York. Here he worked with extraordinary 
diligence as a compositor in the printing office of Mr. Gray, often 
protracting his labors sixteen or eighteen hours per day. About the 
year 1820 he became deeply interested in the comparatively new art 
of stereotyping and with a view of obtaining a knowledge of it he 
worked for some months with B. and J. Collins of New York, after 
which he removed to Philadelphia, where, with but a small capital 
and limited experience he established a stereotype foundry. Despite 
numerous difficulties he built up and conducted a large and pros- 
perous business as a stereotyper, and after this had been successfully 
prosecuted for more than ten years he added type founding to his 
previous calling. 

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In 1818, or soon after, a type and stereotype foundry was estab- 
lished in Boston and another in Cincinnati, principally thru the 
enterprise of the late Elihu White, who, having the means of mul- 
tiplying matrices with facility, took this method for the extension 
of his business. Others followed his example and type foundries were 
established in Albany, Buffalo, Pittsburgh, Louisville and St. Louis, 
with several additional in New York, Boston, Philadelphia and Balti- 
more. The business, in fact, was overdone and failures and suppres- 
sions took place as competition reduced prices of types. 

An interesting article appeared in "The Long Island Star" 
(Brooklyn) on the 23rd of October, 1811. The original issue is con- 
served in the archives of the Long Island Historical Society. Chrono- 
logically it belongs in this chapter, and reads as follows: 

"Interesting to Printers." 

"We have the satisfaction to inform the Printers of the northern 
and eastern sections of the United States, of the establishment of a 
manufactory of Printing Presses in the city of New- York, by Mr. 
Francis Shield, from London. Mr. S. has made two common presses 
since his arrival, one of which is in the office of the Long-Island 
Star. They are highly approved by the best judges, and have never 
been exceeded, if equalled, by any manufactory in our country. 
Mr. Shield likewise makes very neat and accurate Chases, Com- 
posing-sticks, Rules, &c. &c. 

"The improvements in the printing-press made by Earl Stanhope 
(which are now getting generally into use in England) are but little 
known in this country. They are detailed in Stower's Printer's Gram- 
mer, published two or three years since. The Press is entirely of cast 
iron — the plattin covers a whole sheet, which is impressed at one 
pull — the increase of power is such, that the strength of a child is 
sufficient for the heaviest form — they are entirely detached from the 
side of the room, the lightness of the pull not requiring a brace, 
and they take up much less room than the common press. We have 
never heard of more than two of these presses being brot into the 
United States, one of which is now owned by Messrs. Bruce, of New- 
York. This press is imperfect in some of its parts: but enough may 
be seen to satisfy any printer that the principle is correct, and a 
very great improvement. 

"Mr. Shield is also in possession of the art of taking Stereotype 
plates, and has specimens in his possession. A particular account of 
this art may be seen in the book abovementioned. His manufac- 

C'65 3 



tory is, at present, at No. 14 Beekman-slip ; but a new building is 
now erecting in First-Street, to prosecute the business on a more ex- 
tensive scale. Orders, postpaid, are received by Mr. John Tiebout, 
No. 258 Water-street. 

"We are happy to add to the above, the interesting information, 
that the Type Foundry of Messrs. White & Co. of Hartford, Con. is 
shortly to be removed to New- York; we may therefore expect the 
printers of this section of the union to be less subjected to imposi- 
tions than heretofore. This foundry has recently produced type of a 
peculiarly beautiful cut, and well adapted to service. New- York, we 
may confidently expect, will soon rival her sister cities in these first 
of all arts. 

"We should not omit to mention that a Printing Ink manufac- 
tory has been some time established by Mr. R. Prout, No. 278 Green- 
wich Street, who makes ink of the best quality." 

The experiments of Starr & Sturdevant, under the patronage of 
the Boston Type and Stereotype Foundry, an incorporated company, 
promised at one time to be very successful; so much so that at one 
period they had in operation several machines of their construction, 
and felt encouraged that they would be able to overcome every 
difficulty and soon present to printers if not perfectly solid, at least 
reliable, merchantable type. But they were disappointed, and after 
the loss of a large portion of their capital they abandoned alto- 
gether the use of machinery and fell back to the old system of hand 
casting. 

Thomas MacKellar was born in New York in 1812. At the age 
of 14 he entered the Harper Brothers printing office to learn the 
craft. He moved to Philadelphia in 1833 and became the foreman 
of the stereotyping department of L. Johnson & Company's type 
foundry. The business of stereotyping was then in its infancy in 
this country and many obstacles had to be overcome. Nevertheless, 
the imprint of this establishment soon began to appear on many 
standard and popular works published in Philadelphia and else- 
where. In 1854 MacKellar became associated with Lawrence John- 
son, and when Johnson died in 1860 a new firm was founded bear- 
ing the name MacKellar, Smiths & Jordan. 

Thomas MacKellar was not only one of the foremost stereotypers 
of his time, but was a popular poet as well, as evidenced by his 
works such as "Droppings from the Heart/' and "Rhymes Atween 
Times." 

Mr. MacKellar's remarkable poetic ability is shown in the text 

CI66] 



of the specimen books issued to the trade by the Johnson Type 
Foundry, wherein he elevated the certainly prosaic theme of a busi- 
ness catalogue into a work of art. His method of interesting his pros- 
pective customers in stereotyping was unique, being contained in 
the catalogue in the form of an imaginary visit to the stereotype 
foundry of his concern. It merits being recorded in this compilation 
on the history of stereotyping; the following is the text: 

"Mr. Typograph, how are you, sir? Glad to see you. How is 
business with you? Plenty to do, and customers paying up? You are 
so prompt in paying us, that we have no doubt you have a noble set 
of customers. You wish to add to your stock our new things? All 
right, sir. You have a fine office already, but you want to keep 
up with the times, and give your patrons the best the type-founder 
can invent? That's the way, sir. The man on the lookout sees the 
sun earliest. Mr. Faithful, show our new things to Mr. Typograph, 
and take his order. 

"You say, Mr. Typograph, that you have never gone over a type- 
foundry? We shall be happy to show you every thing. 

"We will proceed to the stereotype department of our business. 

"To you, Mr. Typograph, our composing-rooms present nothing 
new, except, perhaps, in the enormous size of our founts of plain 
type, and the great number of jobbing founts. So we will only say, 
that in ten years we have set up in these rooms and stereotyped 
more than eight hundred considerable works, — most of them consist- 
ing of a single volume, but some of from two to twelve volumes 
each, — besides a multitude of smaller books, tracts, &c. Among the 
rest we may mention two Quarto Bibles (one of them, published by 
Peck & Bliss, the grandest ever got up in America), Lippincott's 
two great Gazetteers, Dr. Kane's Explorations, The North American 
Sylva, Thiers' Napoleon, and Macaulay's England. Allibone's mag- 
nificent Dictionary of Authors and Books is not yet completed. 
After the pages have been set and carefully read, they are sent down 
to the casting-room. Let us go down and see how they fare there. 

"In the electrotype-room, everything is as black as the brow of 
a coal-heaver: in the casting-room, all is as white as the neck of a 
belle. Take care, sir, or your coat will commit a larceny of our plas- 
ter. The form of type is laid on this stone, and nicely oiled: and 
then a mixture of plaster and water — doesn't it look like a good 
wife's buckwheat batter? — is poured over it, and gently rolled in. 
In a short time the plaster sets, and the mould is removed by screws 
as tenderly as a nurse handles a baby. It is then dried in this hot- 



tempered oven, and, after the moisture is all evaporated, it is laid 
in a pan and fastened tightly, as you see, and plunged into this 
terrible bath of a thousand pounds of molten type metal. Phew! 
you exclaim, what warm work! Yes, sir; but from that fiery sea of 
lead soon emerges the pan, and its hissing heat is gradually over- 
come by the water in the trough into which the pan is lowered. Now, 
caster, break it out. There, Mr. Typograph, is the plate, fixed, — im- 
movable, — stereotyped. The mould is ruined; but the plate is com- 
paratively immortalized. It is rough yet, and, like an uncouth boy, 
needs polishing. 

'This next room is the stereotype finishing-room. Here the 
plates are carefully examined, picked, shaved, trimmed, and boxed, 
ready for the printer. Take a plate in your hand and examine it: 
it will bear inspection. You say it is far better than the untrimmed, 
uneven plates of English founders? We know that, sir; for we have 
often had to re-finish English plates imported by some publisher 
who imagined he could save a little by ordering a duplicate set of 
plates of a popular foreign book. A mistake, sir. Both in type- 
founding and in stereotyping the Americans have driven the for- 
eigner from the field, — and in the only legitimate way, too: simply 
by surpassing him." 

Up to this period the Stanhope plaster of Paris method of 
stereotyping was the one used in the foundries in the U. S. A. An 
article appeared about the year 1874 in an American periodical 
which described the process as operated in the United States, and 
at the same time contained criticisms offered by practical stereo- 
types. The following is an excerpt of the article: 

"Several methods of stereotyping are now practiced. Many of 
the leading newspapers of England and America are printed from 
stereotype plates cast in moulds made of prepared paper: this mode 
is, however, very inferior and is not applicable to fine books. 

"Matter for stereotyping is set with high spaces and quadrates. 
The forms must be small, containing about two pages of common 
octavo. A slug typehigh is put above the top line and another below 
the foot line of each page, to protect the ends of the plates from 
injury when they are passed through the shaving-machine. Bevelled 
slugs, in height equal to the shoulder of the type, are placed on both 
sides and between the pages to form the flange by which the plate 
is to be clasped by the hooks of the printing-block. 

"Before the form is sent into the foundry the type must be care- 
fully compared with the proof to detect any errors which may have 

C 168 3 




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.-.•.' Bootes; of all .descriptions Stereotyped ■'. or El^6t^>tv|>eil. ; '/»7>»?p%. aiiil; 

Publishers <md : ■\utlioi'* are -referred to the- numon-ms works thai 
have been Stereotyped tit, this Est abli 4niteok Irojo k^anmiHioeeinesH 
to the present time, a ^ jruaruHti« v rt..tot v our fullilou'iif of contralto -\v,i tit 
accuracy and good ,f aste>, : By the employment of. large ,'iouhts of Type 
we are enabled to complete work, when reipnsvd, with isreaf despatch. 
: ExteiouYe preparation-; have. been nutde for applying the A^t'of " 

•and we ftreready to furnish ..Copper Plates from all kinds of Type Work 






nia 



59. Advertisement. 1855 
[170 3 



been left uncorrected. Care must be taken to lock up the form per- 
fectly square and quite tight, to prevent the types from being pulled 
out when the mould is raised from the pages. It must be evenly 
planed down and no ink or dirt or incrustations from the ley be 
allowed to remain on the surface. 

"The face of the type being clean and dry, and the bottoms free 
from particles of dirt, the form is laid on a clean moulding-stone, 
and brushed over with sweet-oil, which must be laid on as thinly as 
possible, care being taken that the entire surface of the types is 
covered. A moulding-frame, with a screw at each corner (called a 
flask), and fitting neatly to the form, is next placed around it. 

"The material for moulding is finely ground gypsum, nine parts 
of which are mixed with about seven parts of water and well 
stirred up. A small quantity of the liquid mixture is poured over 
the pages and gently pressed into the counter of the types with a 
small roller, for the purpose of expelling confined air; after which, 
the remainder of the gypsum is poured in, until the mould is 
somewhat higher than the upper edge of the flask. In a few minutes 
the mixture sets, and the upper side is smoothed over with a steel 
straight-edge. In about ten minutes the mould is gently raised by 
means of the screws at the corners of the flask; and after being 
nicely trimmed at the sides, and nicked on the surface-edges to 
make openings for the metal to run in, it is placed on a shelf in an 
oven, and allowed to remain until the moisture has quite evaporated. 

"The casting-pans may be large enough to hold three or four 
moulds. The dried moulds are placed in a pan face downward, upon 
a movable iron plate called a floater. The cover of the casting-pan, 
which has a hole at each corner for the passage of the metal, is 
then clamped to it, and lifted by a movable crane and gently 
lowered into the metal pot — containing, it may be, a thousand 
pounds of liquid metal, — till the metal begins to flow slowly in at the 
corners. When the pan is filled it is sunk to the bottom of the pot. 
The metal should be hot enough to light a piece of brown paper 
held in it. After being immersed eight or ten minutes the pan is 
steadily drawn out by means of the crane and swung over to the 
cooling-trough, into which it is lowered and rested upon a stone so 
as just to touch the water, in order that the metal at the bottom 
of the pot may cool first. The metal contracts while cooling and 
the caster occasionally pours in a small quantity at the corners 
from a ladle till it will take no more. 

"The plates are carefully removed from the solid mass which 

[171] 



comes out of the pan, and the plaster is washed from the surface. 
If, after examination, the face is good and sharply set, the plates 
are passed over to a picker, who removes any slight defects arising 
from an imperfection of the mould. They are then trimmed and 
passed through the shaving-machine till all are brought to an equal 
thickness. The flanges are neatly side-planed, and the plates are 
then boxed, ready for the printing press. 

"In England the plates are merely turned on the back, and conse- 
quently vary in thickness. This must be a source of continual 
expense and annoyance to the pressman. The flanges, besides, are 
very imperfectly made, — so imperfectly that they cannot be used 
on American printing-blocks; and English plates, when imported 
into this country, are therefore sent to a foundry here to be brought 
to an equal thickness and to be properly side-planed. The American 
shaving-machine and printing-block are scarcely known abroad, 
though far superior to foreign arrangements." 

Another article, which we offer to the reader, also illustrates the 
attitude taken about 75 years ago by practical printers in reference 
to the new art of stereotyping, to wit: 

"It is a noteworthy fact that though the art of stereotyping was 
known and practiced in Europe more than a century, the process 
was so awkward and imperfect that it interfered very little with the 
usual mode of letter-press printing. The Old-World people were 
slow in making improvements on the original rude and defective 
methods — a serious drawback to the use of the first stereotype plates 
being their want of uniformity in thickness, which caused both labor 
and vexation in the printing and disposed the old-fashioned press- 
men to set their faces against the innovation. Comparatively few 
books were therefore stereotyped, and for a long period the art lay 
in abeyance. 

"But when stereotyping was introduced into the United States 
our skillful and ingenious mechanics soon placed it upon a very 
different footing. Discarding the bungling turn-lathe, whereby the 
English were wont to shave their plates, the American stereotyper 
submitted at once a simple machine of easy operation, which did 
its office so well that during the more than 50 years which have 
elapsed since its introduction, scarcely any essential improvement 
has been found necessary. The early antagonism to the art of stereo- 
typing was further abated by another very important improvement. 
This was made in the packing of the plates. Incredible as it may 
appear, when we consider the great proficiency of Europeans in most 



of the arts, their stereotypers awkwardly placed the plates in 
wooden racks, thus occupying large spaces for each work, and so 
encumbering the printing-offices as to preclude the reception of many 
sets of plates. The first set of stereotype casts of a Bible sent from 
England to Philadelphia for one of the religious societies of that 
city, may be remembered by the older printers as occupying the 
entire side of a moderate-sized room; and if the stereotype plates at 
present in the large cities were to be stored in this old-fashioned 
way, entire blocks of warehouses would be needed for the purpose. 
Packed in boxes, as they now are in the compact American method 
(likewise devised in the very origin of American stereotyping), a 
cellar or a vault suffices for the accumulated plates of a large 
publishing-house or an extensive printing-office. 

'Though we derived stereotyping and electrotyping from Old- 
World inventors, the decided improvements made by our country- 
men entitle us to a large share of the general merit. The stolidity 
with which our cousins of Britain cling to their antiquated methods 
is amusingly illustrated by the following reminiscence. A prominent 
American sterotyper and printer, visiting London, called on one 
of the largest stereotyping firms of that city for a friendly confer- 
ence, and by chance saw in the yard of the establishment two of 
Hoe's American shaving-machines. They stood exposed to the ele- 
ments, crumbling to rust and ruin under complete neglect. Our 
countryman inquired into the reason of this strange disuse of such 
excellent machinery. The Englishman answered that such was the 
disinclination of his stereotype-finishers to adopt new improvements 
of any kind, and such also his own reluctance to urge his workmen 
against their will, that he had never had the machines placed in his 
foundry, and consequently they lay unused and decaying." 

Genoux placed a wet or papier-mache mat on the market in 
France in 1830. The circumstances which lead to the introduction of 
this process in America rooted in England. 

Though 'The London Times" in 1856 had adopted a modern 
papier-mache process of stereotyping, it used the process, not for 
pages, but only for columns, which were fastened on the type- 
revolving cylinder of Hoe's press by means of V-shaped rules. In 
the same year a proposition was made to 'The New York Tribune" 
by English stereotypers to establish a plant in New York and to 
stereotype the "Tribune" at so much per column. Nothing, however, 
came from these negotiations. Newspapers in New York and in 

IT 173 3 



other large cities continued to buy new outfits of type practically 
every three months. 

When the War of the States broke out, circulation had increased 
so rapidly that it was impossible for either "The New York Tribune" 
or "The New York Herald" to meet the demand for papers, and 
Richard Hoe was negotiating with Greeley and Bennett for the con- 
struction of 20-cylinder type-revolving presses to meet the situation. 

Meanwhile a noted steel engraver, Charles Craske of Norfolk, 
who was the proprietor of an electrotyping plant and well-known to 
all printers in America, practiced stereotyping by the clay process 
and had achieved a notable success with it. He then turned to ex- 
perimenting with the papier-mache process in an attempt to apply 
it to newspaper pages. His experiments were carried on in rooms 
provided by "The New York Tribune," which paper had reached 
the point where it must have the faster presses already mentioned 
or set its pages in duplicate as had been the practice of "The London 
Times" before it adopted the papier-mache process. 

In 1854 Mr. Craske made the first curved plate for a Hoe 
rotary press in the office of "The New York Tribune." The experi- 
ment did not bring entire success, however, inasmuch as the process 
was not permanently adopted at this time. 

Craske's idea was to cast the whole page after the manner now 
employed, but in his experiments, covering over two years, he failed 
to make satisfactory progress because he attempted to cast the plates 
type-high. It was only when he reached the conclusion to cast a 
thin plate and then to compel press builders to change the cylinder 
that he succeeded in overcoming his difficulty. On August 31st, 1861 
the Tribune commenced to print from curved stereotype plates of 
whole pages. 

Data on Charles Craske appeared in a biographical sketch which 
appeared in 1894. He was born in London, England on February 22, 
1822, and was educated in the well known Blue-Coat School of 
that city. He came to America in 1837 in his sixteenth year, and 
learned the art of steel and copper engraving, which he carried on in 
New York for twenty-five years. In 1850 he introduced a new 
method of stereotyping, that by paper molds or matrices. By this 
mode two important features were introduced, both of them new. 
One of them was that any number of plates could be made in rapid 
succession from the form, and the other was that, although the 
matrix was made flat, corresponding with the surface of a page, 
yet as it was flexible it could be placed in a casting box of any 

C 174 3 




60. a) Metal Pot, Drying Surface and Press 

b) Combination Finishing Table 

c) Casting Box 

(From Miller and Richard's Miniature Foundry) 



C 175 3 




61. Charles Craske 



CI76] 



desired curve and a plate obtained of that curve. In 1854 he 
stereotyped a page of the "New York Herald/' and in 1861 he 
began regularly to make plates for the "Tribune." This proving 
successful, he shortly after made a contract for stereotyping the 
"Sun/' "Times" and "Herald." The material used is a soft, wet and 
thick paper. The sheet is laid upon the form, beaten in with brushes, 
and then the form is put into a press where much power is applied. 
The page of type and the platen of the press are both heated, thus 
making the time for drying the matrix much shorter than it would 
be otherwise. When the sheet is taken off it is like a huge sheet of 
cardboard, somewhat scorched in places, where the type or indenta- 
tions are to be found and where the spaces or projections are seen. 
After the introduction of this method, Mr. Craske carried on the 
business of electrotyping and stereotyping in New York City, but 
discontinued engraving. 

At an outing of the (New York) Sun Employees Pleasure Asso- 
ciation in the Eighties, an old stereotyper told of early days when 
it took four men all night to cast four plates. The following is the 
story told by this anonymous employee: 

"In 1864 the four leading papers of New York City — namely, 
the 'Sun/ 'Times,' 'Herald' and 'Tribune' — were stereotyped by 
contract. Charles Craske, whose place of business was in Ann Street, 
employed all the stereotypers and acted as superintendent. The Sun 
at that time was owned by Moses S. Beach. His two brothers, Joseph 
and Henry, were with him, Joseph being publisher and Henry 
managing editor. 

"Henry lived in West Hoboken and could be seen every morning 
at two o'clock wending his way to the Barclay Street ferry, dressed 
in trousers much too short for him and wearing brogan shoes and 
blue homespun socks which showed between the bottom of his 
trousers and the tops of his shoes. He carried a lantern and an 
umbrella tied in the middle. 

"The 'Sun' at that time was a four page paper. Two pages, 
the second and third, were locked up in a chase at one time. They 
were rolled in the stereotype room, where the stereotypers had to 
take a matrix and cast two plates which constituted one side. 

"Do I hear some one say, 'Only four plates a night and four 
men to do the work? Them were the happy days!' 

"Permit me to say that the stereotypers have always had their 
troubles. It took at that time forty-five minutes to get two plates, 
and if the men were successful in getting the casts without breaking 

C177] 



the mould they wanted to put a frame around them. As the matrix 
was being relieved from the plate it would very often break in sev- 
eral places and leave pieces stuck to the face of the plate. Needles 
were used to pick the paper out of the letters. Sometimes the places 
were dampened and the plate, being hot, would create steam, which 
assisted in removing the paper. 

"Mr. Craske, who worked with the men at that time, always 
carried a cigar in his vest pocket, and every once in a while would 
bite off a large piece and chew it instead of the ordinary chewing 
tobacco. While trying to remove the pieces of paper from the hot 
plates (in order to save time) he would squirt a large mouthful 
of tobacco juice over them. The result was that every one had to 
stand aside and raise his hands to guard his nostrils from the 
offensive effluvia arising therefrom. 

"In 1866 Mr. Bullock put his perfecting press on the market. 
The 'Sun' had one installed, but it was nearly a year before they 
got it running, the chief difficulty being with the delivery. The 
stereotypers were then called upon to make sixteen plates a night 
instead of four, which created a great deal of worry and excitement. 
Every effort was made to improve the matrix so that it would take 
the required number of casts and also to make better time in getting 
the plates to the press room. 

"In 1868 Mr. Dana purchased the 'Sun' and the business was 
moved from the corner of Nassau and Fulton Streets into the 
building which it now occupies. The stereotype room was located on 
the top floor, where the steam tables stand at the present time. Wood 
and coal were used to melt the metal, and when there was a hard 
storm (the chimney being poorly constructed) it would smoke 
fearfully and fill the composing room with a cloud, causing tears to 
stream from the eyes of the compositors. The sweepings of the floor 
being thrown in the metal pot, a mixture of dirt, paper, old leather 
and woollen rags emitted a delightful odor, and Mr. Watkins one 
night in anger said, 'You stereotypers make more noise and stink 
than any other department in the office.' 

"Four new perfecting presses were put in and new machinery 
was purchased for the stereotyping department. The matrix, instead 
of being beaten in by hand, was run through a mangling or mould- 
ing machine, thus saving one and a half minutes. The matrix has 
been improved further, so that instead of four plates a night, as in 
1864, between five and six hundred plates are taken on Saturday 

C 178 3 



nights at the present time. Instead of two casts twenty are now 
taken from one mould on the baseball edition, and instead of two 
forms eighty-five are sometimes moulded on Saturdays. If the 
present management continues to exercise the energy it has in the 
past, there is no telling how many casts may be required in the 
near future." 

There has been little fundamental change in stereotyping news- 
paper pages since August, 1861 when the "Tribune" adopted the 
papier-mache process. 'The New York Times" soon adopted the new 
process, as did "The New York Herald." Because of this process 
it was no longer necessary to add additional cylinders to the press. 
Pages could be duplicated to the number desired and several presses 
could be employed at the same time to print the same edition of the 
newspaper. Craske not only revolutionized newspaper stereotyping 
in America, but he also changed completely the construction of 
American printing presses. By 1880 45 daily newspapers in the 
United States were printing with plates made by this papier-mache 
process. They were distributed among the following states: Penn- 
sylvania 10, New York 9, Ohio 6, Illinois 6, Massachusetts 2, 
Maryland 2, California 2, Missouri 2, Wisconsin 1, Minnesota 1, 
New Jersey 1, Kentucky 1, Indiana 1, Michigan 1. 

It should be recorded that "The New York Sun" was stereotyped 
for a few months from clay molds on single columns, but on account 
of some of the columns breaking from their fastenings and injuring 
the presses they were discontinued. Later on the "Sun", following the 
example of the other New York newspapers, adopted the wet mat 
process. 

An interesting example of early "stereotyping" (although the 
plate is not made of metal) on file in the Government Printing 
Office is a plate used in printing the Congressional Record in the 
year 1857. 1 A description of the method of manufacture with the 
formula of the material used has been written by Michael Shean, 
a former official who worked with the inventor on these plates in 
the late days of the use of the process. An extract from his descrip- 
tion should be of interest: 

"The composition entering into the production of the plates used 
for printing the proceedings of Congress during the years from 1850 
to 1860 is as follows: 

1 John A. McLean, Superintendent of Plate Making, Government Printing 
Office, Washington, D. C. 

[179] 



5 pounds of Silica 

2 pounds of Gum Shellac 

5 ounces of Tar 

1 ounce of Boiled Linseed Oil 

"Silica, tar and boiled linseed oil are mixed thoroughly and 
spread out on the back of a flat stereotype melting furnace. This 
flat platen surface on the back of the furnace is always hot when 
the fire is burning for melting the stereotype metal, and on this 
the composition is kept in a soft or plastic condition. 

'The gum shellac which is broken into fine particles is now 
added to the other mentioned ingredients, thoroughly mixing them 
together. 

'The next operation consists of rolling the soft pliable composi- 
tion into a fairly uniform sheet and cut into size according to the 
subject for molding and its dimensions." 

Mr. Shean in his article then goes on to explain how the plastic 
material is pressed into the clay mold or matrix, being locked in a 
steel frame so that bevels on three sides and a flush head are 
molded on the finished plate. 

Stereotyping had come to stay and practical printing experts 
began experimenting in stereotyping, and many were the improve- 
ments made in the art in the United States. It would be beyond the 
scope of this short book to make mention of the hundreds of patents 
issued to American inventors for improvements in the art; how- 
ever, a number merit mention, partly on account of the age of the 
patents and partly for the benefits they afforded those devoting 
their labor to stereotyping. The wet mat process was considered the 
best method, and experimenting was done on the wet or papier- 
mache matrix. 

It will be observed that this catalogue of patents is not restricted 
to those pertaining to the papier-mache process, but includes all 
the different methods of stereotyping dating back to the year 1819. 
While most of the older patents have no value now in a practical 
sense, they are considered of sufficient historical interest to entitle 
them to a place in this list. 

It is interesting to note the increasing importance of the art 
with each succeeding decade of the century, as indicated by the 
number of patents issued. Previous to 1840 we find record of but 
two patents. From 1840 to 1850 but two patents are shown. From 
1850 to 1860 there were eleven patents granted. From 1860 to 
1870 there were eighteen. From 1870 to 1880 sixty were granted. 

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[181 3 



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63. Equipment for Plaster Stereotyping 



C 182] 



From 1880 to 1890 one hundred and sixty-three were issued, and 
for the first two years of the present decade the number is fifty-seven. 
If the remaining eight years are as prolific the total number of 
patents for the current decade will reach two hundred and eighty-five. 

Clement Davison, Saratoga, N. Y., November 26th, 1844. A 
patent for an improved method of moulding and casting stereotype 
plates, also cutting, chiseling and finishing the same. 

Charles Hobbs of New York City, September 2, 1851, invented 
a method of making stereotype plates. His patent covers molding 
and casting any given number of plates at one operation and 
making them more rapidly and more perfect than heretofore. He 
accomplished this thru exhausting the air from the plaster and from 
the type before applying the plaster to the type when making molds. 
Further, he saved material by making the molds with two faces, 
thus making one mold instead of two. 

In casting the molds he stood them on edge with a body of stereo- 
type metal above them, thus having the largest body of metal above 
the molds. 

In his apparatus he cast ten to twenty times as many plates 
as could be cast in the ordinary way, and he had only to take off 
the top wedge and two side wedges in order to release the whole of 
them, whereas ordinarily the operator has to knock off all the metal 
around the edges of each cast before he can get at the plates. 

In his apparatus the molds were stood on edge, and having two 
faces the metal flowed alike on both sides, thus the pressure of the 
metal was equal on both sides of the molds, which prevented them 
from breaking while they were cast. Finally, he cast with the metal 
at a much lower heat. 

Hobart P. Cook, Albany, N. Y., August 3rd, 1852. Casting 
stereotype plates by the application of pressure upon the surface of 
the melted metal. The pressure forces the melted metal through a 
tube and upon the mould — the face of the mould being turned down 
to receive the metal making the casting. 

John L. Kingsley, New York, June 14th, 1853. The nature of 
this invention consists in making moulds for stereotyping of India- 
rubber or gutta-percha, by mixing the gums with metallic or earthy 
substances, and by expelling all air from the mould while it is 
being filled, to render the cast in all respects perfect. 

Wm. Blanchard, Washington, D. C, February 22nd, 1859. 
The improvement consists in casting stereotype plates, by immersing 

£183] 



a metallic mould-plate, with a mould of matrix forms upon and 
adhering to it. 

M. S. Beach, Brooklyn, N. Y., July 29th, 1862. The object of 
this invention is the production of a composite stereotype, of which 
one part is a stereotype or electrotype of the finer portions, made 
by any approved process, and the other part is made from papier- 
mache, or other matrix, which receives and embodies in itself the 
first-named part. Use is also made of a movable or adjustable bed 
or block made of type-metal or other similar, substantial and yet 
yielding material, upon which the stereotype is placed, and under 
which instead of under the stereotype itself, the underlays are 
adjusted. 

Clemoire F. Cosfeldt, Jr., and Thomas T. Pears, Philadel- 
phia, June 7th, 1864. In this apparatus the melting-pot is suitably 
fixed in a furnace. Near the bottom of the pot is a pipe for conduct- 
ing off the melted metal; at the end of this pipe is a device for 
regulating the flow of the melted metal. 

J. D. McLean, New York, June 28th, 1864. The object of this 
invention is to obtain a machine of simple construction, by which 
moulds or matrices for producing stereotype or electrotype plates 
for letter-press may be formed directly from dies, for the purpose 
of avoiding the labor and expense of setting up type, and casting 
or forming moulds therefrom, and the invention consists in the 
employment of devices for effecting such object. 

Ariel Case, New Haven, Conn., April 24th, 1866. A stereotype 
block. The stereotype plate is mounted upon quadrats set up in a 
chase; the clamps which hold the edges of the plate are inserted 
among the quadrats. 

Johnson of Philadelphia examined the new papier-mache process 
on the spot in France. He bought the rights to use the Genoux 
patent in foreign countries but refused to use the Genoux equip- 
ment. His objection was that it was too primitive. However, in the 
end he bought the equipment, stored it and made his own machines. 
Johnson's agent then left for London where he installed the wet 
mat system of stereotyping at "The London Times," owned by the 
Walter family. 

Simon H. Mix, 1860. The nature of his invention consists in 
interposing between the type form (when set up to receive the 
plaster of Paris as a matrix) and the plaster of Paris or other 
material for the matrix, a very thin sheet of tin or other soft 
metal foil, and pressing the same into and upon the types and form 



so as to receive the exact impression thereof, and then placing 
thereon the material to form the matrix, the foil thus used to be 
left on the plaster of Paris mold when immersed in the bath of type 
metal, or to be stripped off before immersion as may suit the 
operator 

M. Nelson in 1870. He bases his claim upon the use of a woven 
or knitted fabric coated with a composition impressed upon the 
types to produce the matrix, and then inserted the same in a mold 
provided with non-conducting material so that the metal would not 
chill but perfectly fill the interstices of the matrix. 

He makes use of a fabric such as Canton flannel, and coats the 
same with a composition, either by a brush or by dipping, the 
former preferred. The composition enters into the surface, and the 
projecting fibers become the means for holding all particles of the 
composition, so that the matrix will separate from the types and 
none of the pieces of the composition remain upon the surface of 
the types. 

The composition he employs is made of Paris white, well boiled 
flour paste, mixed to the consistency of cream, the white of an 
egg, introduced into about five pounds of such composition; the 
same is thoroughly mixed and applied as aforesaid, and allowed to 
dry, or nearly so. 

When the matrix is to be made the sheet should be damp. This 
may be effected by the use of a sponge, and water applied to the 
back of the fabric. He also prefers to rub plumbago upon the 
surface of the fabric prepared as aforesaid. 

The matrix is made by laying a piece of this fabric upon the 
face of the types, then a sheet of India rubber or other elastic 
material, and subjecting the same to pressure in a suitable press, 
which indents the fabric between the types and takes a perfect 
impression of the faces of the types, in the composition upon the 
surface of the fabric. 

M. Galley in 1872 invented a mechanism to permit stereotypers 
in one plant to produce stereotypes at some other distant plant. 
He states that the object of his invention is, first, to do away with 
the necessity of the use of movable types, either in forms or parts 
of forms for letter-press printing, or in forms or parts of forms 
from which stereotypes are prepared for press; and second, to 
enable operators who are preparing matter for press in one locality 
to reproduce the same in other localities at the same time, either in 
the form of stereotypes or stereotype molds; also, to enable the 

n 185 3 



operator, if he desires, to produce the mold or stereotype only at a 
distance. The first part of his invention consists in a mechanism 
which shall mechanically arrange and rearrange an alphabet or 
alphabets of dies, which dies shall form impressions in the material 
for a mold corresponding with the composition of matter desired in 
a stereotype; and in the same or similar mechanism with a substitu- 
tion of female dies and other appliances, changes and attachments 
made necessary by such substitution of dies, and the work to be 
done, as shall enable the operator to produce directly the stereotype 
instead of the mold. The second part of his invention consists in 
working a machine by means of electrical connections, when such 
machine is used for preparing matter for letter-press printing, either 
in arranging types for press, in making molds formed by a mechan- 
ical arrangement of dies, or in producing directly by mechanical 
means a stereotype. 

Willard S. Whitmore of Washington, D. C, in 1881, in his 
invention relating to paper molds or matrices for casting stereotype 
plates, proceeded as follows: Instead of making his mat up of alter- 
nate layers of unsized paper and sheets of tissue paper pasted to- 
gether, and in order to remedy the drawbacks of pulling in wet 
mats, Whitmore constructed a new composite mold which was 
formed of a sheet of unsized paper, covered same with a layer of 
paper pulp which had never been set by drying. He formed the 
plastic pulp by adding to it in a watery state a little glue, gum 
or other adhesive agent. The Water was then squeezed out by pres- 
sure, when the pulp was laid upon a heavy piece of unsized paper 
which had received a coating of paste made of starch, flour or some 
albuminous substance and allowed to stand a while under light 
pressure, so that the paste could combine more thoroughly with both 
the pulp or plastic and the heavy stereotype paper. The advantage 
Whitmore claimed for his mat was greater plasticity, toughness and 
economy, requiring but one layer of pulp, while the old wet mat 
required three or four layers of paper. 

Benjamin B. Huntoon of Louisville, Ky. in 1881 took paper 
from the common or poorest stock, but of extra thickness; and in 
order to prepare it for his purpose he first subjected it to heat 
sufficient to char or carbonize it, or by dipping it (a sheet at a time) 
in molten metal, or by baking it (after slight dampening) upon a 
steam-chest under slight pressure, or by moistening it with acid, 
and when this moisture had sufficiently evaporated to leave it but 
slightly soft and pliable it was ready to receive the impression, 

C 186] ' 




C 

'EL 



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-I— I 

GO 



O) 






C 

s 

cr 



C187 3 




[188] 



which was made by passing it thru an ordinary printing press 
provided with suitable type in a cold state, either with or without 
a paper backing; but if a backing was used it was only intended 
to assist in removing the matrices from the type. The process of 
drying was accomplished by means of a steam heated surface. 

George Damon and Elias Peets in 1888 produced a metal- 
faced mat with a papier-mache backing. Their method in detail 
was as follows: By means of the type they first took an impression 
in papier-mache, thus forming a matrix. Stereotype metal was 
then poured into this matrix and an ordinary stereotype plate 
formed. The plate was then coated with melted wax, and before the 
wax had entirely hardened powdered plumbago was dusted over the 
whole surface. The plate thus prepared was immersed in a copper 
solution and a film of copper deposited upon its face. The plate 
was then placed upon a beating table and a sheet of dampened 
stereotype paper laid over it, which was beaten into the irregular 
copper surface. Thereupon a thin coating of pipe clay was spread 
over the entire surface, which was then removed from the depressed 
surfaces (which occur where paragraphs or blanks are found in the 
type), and into these depressions were then placed small strips of 
compressed, properly cut stereotype paper, and over the whole were 
then laid in succession and beaten in several additional sheets of 
moist stereotype paper. This plate was then smoothed and dried, 
when the copper coating with its backing of paper was stripped from 
the plate and was in condition to be used as a matrix, from which 
any number of stereotype plates were produced. 

Charles M. Gage of Massachusetts invented a rather novel mat 
in 1888. He destroyed the most essential property, the basic funda- 
mental of a paper mat, namely its elasticity. In accordance with his 
invention his matrix board was made of sheets of paper composed 
of vegetable fibre, preferably two or more of these sheets being 
heated with a solution composed of shellac, borax and water. The 
sheets of paper were dipped into this solution and thoroughly dried. 
Hereby the elasticity of the fibre was destroyed. Then there was 
pasted to this matrix board a finishing sheet of paper made of a 
strong long vegetable fibre, which had been coated with paraffine 
or wax. The non-elasticity of the matrix permitted, according to 
Gage, of maintaining a perfect impression for an indefinite period 
of time. 

W. Mears, 1883. His patent consists in the following: First, 
treating thick porous or bibulous paper with a solution of gun 

[18911 



cotton, not quite saturated, or collodion, applied either by a brush 
or by immersion, the latter being the preferable mode of treatment. 
The effect of this treatment is to impart to the paper the quality of 
being easily impressed upon the form to be reproduced in stereotype 
and of retaining the impressions received into it without change. 

Second. Backing up the paper so saturated with gun cotton, as 
above described, after placing it on the form preparatory to mak- 
ing the impression of the matter to be reproduced in stereotype, 
with a layer of paper saturated with shellac or any similar gum 
soluble in alcohol, to be thoroughly dried before using. 

The necessary pressure to fix into the prepared paper the form 
to be stereotyped being applied, it will be seen that the excess of 
alcohol and ether contained in the solution of gun cotton is forced 
thru to contact with the gum, thus combining with it and cementing 
the second layer of the paper to the matrix, the compound thus 
formed at the same time absorbing most of the moisture remaining 
in the matrix paper proper. The pressure being removed, after a 
few minutes exposure in the open air, or if great haste is required, 
drying in an oven, the matrix is ready for the casting box. 

Walter B. Carr and Augustus G. French of St. Louis invented 
certain new improvements in matrix boards in 1892. Their invention, 
made to dry a wet mat without heating the type, consisted in 
forming a matrix of semi-porous blanket, and forming an impression 
sheet on one of its faces. Their mat consisted in only one sheet of 
manila or other ligneoux fibre, one side of which was finished so 
as to give it the properties of woven paper, while the other side 
was left in its original semi-porous state, thus making the impression 
sheet a part of the blanket, which parts up to that time had been 
applied separately in use. No paste was necessary as the mat con- 
sisted of only one sheet. 

Louis G. Timroth of Brooklyn, N. Y., invented in 1896 a 
chemical paste which was to do away with one of the great draw- 
backs of the wet mat. He claimed that his mat could be rolled for 
mailing, be stored and kept for an indefinite length of time without 
liability of souring or otherwise deteriorating. He also claimed that 
no backing was necessary and that his mat permitted reproduction 
of the finest possible lines, such as were found in halftones, which 
could not be produced by methods hitherto employed. His paste con- 
sisted of water, alum, flour, ocher, rosin, ground cloves, sugar, starch, 
gum arabic and white glue. 

When during this period the dry mat cold stereotyping idea was 

C1903 



being discussed, the advantages claimed for the same led to many 
experiments in rapid drying of wet mats on the part of stereotypers 
who were opposed to the new cold process. 

It was tried to produce quickly drying paper matrices by means 
of easily volatile fluids, for instance alcohol, but this method had 
the drawback that the alcohol of the wet mat evaporated too soon, 
and consequently the mat became dry before it reached the steam 
table, whereby it lost its binding power and instead of forming a 
solid coherent mass it was loose and liable to be separated sheet 
layer for sheet layer. 

A number of experiments were made to shorten the stereotyping 
process, one of which was rather novel. In 1884 Charles A. Skene 
of Kansas invented a process to obtain stereotype plates for print- 
ing purposes directly from matrices made by telegraph or type- 
writing machines, and thus obviate the necessity of having to 
prepare type forms in order to obtain a cast, thereby saving the 
time, labor and expense of composition, distribution and makeup 
that are necessary prerequisites to the operation. In order to carry 
his process into operation Skene took a thin sheet of soft paper and 
coated it evenly on both sides with a brush that was dipped into a 
pasty mixture of glycerine and plumbago. When the paper had 
thoroughly absorbed the mixture it was passed between heated 
rollers until its surface became perfectly smooth. The paper so 
prepared was placed in a common typewriting machine and the 
writing proceeded with as upon ordinary paper. Skene expected the 
types to make impressions on the paper sufficiently deep to form a 
mold or matrix in which a stereotype plate could be cast in the 
ordinary manner for use on an ordinary printing press. He stated 
that "it will be obvious that a telegraph printing machine may be 
thus employed in preparing the mold or matrix, and operated from 
a distant point, which will be found of great practical utility." His 
hopes were not realized and no practical use was made of his inven- 
tion. 

This idea of typewriting and also of linotyping directly on a 
prepared paper matrix has been followed up by different inventors; 
as late as 1922 machines for this kind of work were invented and 
patented. It appears, however, that for many years to come such 
attempts will prove futile because of the many millions of dollars 
tied up in equipment which can hardly be scrapped before such new 
ideas have been tried out in practice a score of years and have 
proven beyond a shadow of doubt the claims made for them by their 

[191 3 



enthusiastic inventors. Machines have been invented to do away 
with the use of type altogether by punching the types on some sub- 
stance which acted like a matrix and became a mold from which 
stereotype plates could be cast, for instance punching upon teak 
wood. This process was impractical as it did not permit of correction. 

The invention of mats made of celluloid by Emile Janin of Paris 
has been described earlier in this book. These celluloid stereotype 
plates, made in accordance with the invention of Janin, were also 
introduced into the United States. In 1882 a stereotype foundry in 
New York City situated at the corner of Fulton and Gold Streets, 
started to make these very thin and black plates. In 1883 a company 
was organized in New York City with a capital of $50,000 under 
the name of Celluloid Stereotype Company of America. Thru pur- 
chase of all existing patents this company held a monopoly on the 
use of celluloid for celluloid stereotyping purposes. 

The low weight of the celluloid offered considerable mailing 
advantages; the material was heated up to 257° F., acquired plastic 
qualities, and was readily molded. Metal plates were easily im- 
bedded in the warm plastic celluloid, which acted very much like 
putty when cooled. The business of making these plates began 
promisingly but never did it become the great success the American 
company had envisaged and hoped for. After engaging for several 
years in this business the corporation dropped the manufacture of 
celluloid plates for the stereotype industry. 

A. N. Kellogg of the Western Newspaper Union invented a 
celluloid plate, the lightness of which further reduced transportation 
costs and for a short time gave it a world wide sale. 

It is interesting to follow the development of the dry mat method 
of stereotyping in America. In 1890 Ferdinand Wesel, Sr. of New 
York, paternal manufacturer of stereotype machinery, was in Lon- 
don where he found newspapers using a German made dry mat 
quite successfully. Wesel proceeded to Germany, visited the foremost 
manufacturers of these dry mats and secured the sales agency for 
these products for America. At first Wesel had but little success with 
them, principally on account of opposition on the part of the 
stereotypers. 

The mats were tried in New York with scant toleration — although 
they were used abroad with success. Wesel made a hand-power 
matrix roller for slow speed molding, hoping entree could be made 
thru book and job printing plants. Among those who experimented 

ET 192 3 




66. Brush Beating 



[193] 




67. Brush Beating Machine 



C1943 



at that time were the J. B. Lyon Co., Albany, N. Y. and Burke 
& Gregory, Norfolk, Va. 

Undaunted, Wesel still had faith and continued to import a 
few hundred sheets at a time, and later some thousands, because 
there were always a few venturesome souls in the West willing to try 
the mats. However, as a business proposition the matter might have 
died had it not been for the persistent faith of the late Colver who 
founded the NEA at Cleveland. He used them continuously wherever 
they would fit the subjects and where speed was needed. He also 
persuaded managers and editors of the Scripps-McRae League to 
use them for "starters" — keeping 25 to 50 sheets always on hand for 
emergencies. Their "beats on the streets" compelled opposition news- 
papers to lay in a supply for "starters," among whom were the 
"Cincinnati Times-Star", "Indianapolis News", etc. Thus, for a num- 
ber of years there was a flow and a use for dry mats in this country. 

The shrinkage of the early mats was but a trifle as a vexation. 
It was made a talking point to sustain a prejudice against the dry 
mats. The chief defect was the "pulp pattern" which appeared on 
the cast plates and which showed on the printed pages with a gray 
tone — not sharp and black as were the wet mat pages. Hence, 
some newspapers used the dry mats for "starters" to reach the street 
quickly and followed with wet mats to finish the rest of the run. 
Others finished the entire runs without change. 

At the time of the fight between Jeffries and Johnson at Reno, 
Nevada on July 4th, 1910, there was no steam drying table nor 
matrix roller in the whole state of Nevada. Colver of the NEA had 
to have mats to send out from Reno and here is where the dry mat 
served him for his "beats." A Wesel hand-power matrix roller was 
shipped from New York to Reno with express charges almost as high 
as the cost of the machine, but it saved the day. 

Later on the Wesel Company sold their agency to the "Pittsburgh 
Press." Here the stereotype foreman, Alfred Birdsall, started his ex- 
periments in dry mat making. The mats not being coated, the face 
was uneven. Birdsall attempted to remedy the drawback by pasting 
one or two tissues on the dry mat, but this method did not meet 
with success. In 1910 Birdsall invented his own coating, started a 
"Dry Mat Service Co. Ltd." in Pittsburgh, and in 1912 advertised 
that over 50 newspapers in the U. S. A. were purchasing the new 
dry mat. With the advent of imported coated dry mats no more 
was heard of the Pittsburgh mat. 

The American Type Founders also imported and sold mats for 

[195] 



a short time, the price asked for one dry mat of newspaper size 
being $1.00. 

In 1908 the mechanical superintendent of the "Daily Mail" in 
London, Charles F. Hart, until recently the mechanical superin- 
tendent of the "New York Times," advocated the use of dry mats 
for all newspaper work. "The Daily Mail" was the first daily news- 
paper in Great Britain to adopt dry mats exclusively, using the 
imported German "Padipp" mats made in Dippoldiswalde, Saxony. 
Indirectly, thru Mr. Hart's endeavor to have an English manu- 
facturer provide English products to an English newspaper, L. S. 
Dixon, paper maker of Liverpool, engaged in the manufacture of 
dry mats as a side line, marketing his product under the name 
"Dixotype" mats. 

In 1909 Henry A. Wise Wood of New York visited the plant of 
"The London Daily Mail" where the working of German dry mats 
was shown him. Wood decided to engage in the dry mat business in 
the United States, and some time later, in 1911, made an arrange- 
ment thru Gerald Wetherman, agent for the "Padipp" mat in Eng- 
land, for the sales agency of this German dry mat in America. 
Wood continued the sale of this dry mat until the World War 
made imports from Germany impossible. 

These facts have been challenged. An exchange of two letters, 
published a short time ago, one written by that veteran stereotyper 
of America, Bertel O. Henning, and the other by Oscar C. Roesen 
of the Wood Newspaper Machinery Corporation, shed light on this 
interesting controversy as to whom the credit is due for having first 
introduced, i.e. imported the original German dry mats into the 
United States. 

Henry A. Wise Wood, the renowned inventor of the Autoplate 
machines, stated in an interview that he was the first one to import 
the dry mat into this country. We give condensed reports of the 
two aforementioned letters. First B. O. Henning: "The first dry 
mats were imported to this country about 1900 by Ferdinand Wesel, 
or perhaps a little earlier. Messrs. Henry and Benjamin Wood came 
into the dry mat picture about 1911-1912 when Charles Hart was 
on the London Harmsworth papers. Hart, with his Western courage, 
tried and used successfully dry mats and at about this period the 
Woods began to import them. 

"Thereafter, there were more dry mats used and other importers 
engaged in the business of supplying. Little by little, small news- 
papers went on a sole dry mat basis. However, their printing showed 

IT 196 3 



the gray tones and occasional sinks which could be detected easily 
from the staid, dependable wet mat printing. As time went on, im- 
provement in the facing occurred and then ''as over night" (about 
1924) newspapers went on the dry mat basis very rapidly because 
the dry mat was able to meet the printing excellence required. 

"Whoever overcame the pulp pattern or mottled facing of the 
early dry mats deserves particular credit. But it might be reasonable 
to suppose that this one and that one contributed a little here and 
there over the period of years with the incredible support of the 
newspapers whose every plant was a working laboratory. 

"It is a significant fact that it required 12 years by Wesel and 
12 years by Wood and others before publishers felt safe in discard- 
ing steam tables. During the last 15 years intense concentration has 
been shown in the manufacture and use of the dry mat with con- 
siderable refinements during the last five years. 

"You can verify by research the dates of Wesel's introduction 
of the dry mat and his tenacious efforts to keep it from dying at 
birth. Consult his early catalogs and printed matter concerning it. 
Henry L. Bullen wrote most of it and had the engraving (wood 
cut) made of the mat roller referred to. No doubt the data is in 
the Typographic Museum at Columbia University in New York. 

"S. H. Horgan, the authority on photo-engraving and graphic 
arts history, might recall the facts as he was close to Bullen at this 
early period." 

Mr. O. C. Roesen: "I asked some of the older members of the 
Wood Newspaper Machinery Corporation as to the facts contained 
in the communication you received from Bertel O. Henning. They 
all agree that Mr. Henning's statements are substantially correct as 
to Mr. Wesel, Sr., being the first to import dry mats into this 
country, but in such quantities that they were only used in an 
experimental way and due to the many defects were many times 
followed-up by wet mats. 

"There is no question but that Henry A. Wise Wood and Ben- 
jamin Wood, his brother, were the first ones to import dry mats in 
large quantities into this country, and it was their foresight and 
tenacity that put the dry mat into practical operation in the various 
plants in the United States. The Wood Flong Corporation was the 
first company to erect a mill and manufacture dry mats in this 
country." 

In April, 1913, Carl Raid founded the Flexitype Company in 
Cleveland, Ohio, sole agents for the German "Flexitype" dry matrix 

[197] 



which was manufactured in Saxony. John Breuer, stereotyper and 
demonstrator of this new dry mat, invented the necessary equip- 
ment for handling these dry mats, namely a scorcher and a humidor. 
Within a year's time many newspapers taking three to five casts 
from a mat had been won over to these dry mats exclusively. 
The advent of the World War ended the contracts, and after dis- 
posing of its stock of mats the company went out of existence. 

The World War, having put an end to the business of importing 
German dry mats into America, Benjamin Wood, convinced of the 
fact that the dry mat was here to stay, decided to engage in the 
manufacture of this product. With the aid of American chemists, 
in whose experimental laboratories all makes of dry mats were 
analyzed, a dry mat manufacturing process was found, and in 1917 
Wood, as first in the United States, began producing dry mats on a 
commercial scale. His products are sold under different names such 
as Metropolitan, Marathon, Speedmat, Standard, etc. 

After several years spent in Europe learning thru actual practice 
all details of a number of dry mat manufacturing processes, and also 
studying dry mat stereotyping methods, Geo. A. Kubler of Akron, 
Ohio, founded in 1923 the Certified Dry Mat Corporation of New 
York City for the manufacture and sale of dry mats. The product 
this company put on the market is known as the "Certified" dry mat. 
The corporation and its chemists improved the ordinary dry mat 
thru eliminating the gray tones and blisters usually found in dry 
mats in the beginning of their manufacture, and by applying special 
raw stocks and facings overcame the great drawback of the mottled 
"elephant hide" screen marks on the mats. Upon the advent of these 
improved dry mats the metropolitan newspapers turned their atten- 
tion to experimenting with dry mats, and the first metropolitan 
newspaper, 'The New York Times," after conducting exhaustive 
tests with this Certified mat, went over from wet mats to dry 
mats entirely. From then on other large and small papers followed 
suit so that today practically all of the American stereotyped news- 
papers use dry mats exclusively. 

The Morley Button Manufacturing Company, manufacturers of 
pasteboard and plastic buttons, turned over a number of their idle 
machines for experiments in the making of dry mats. After thorough 
research work they developed a product adapted for newspaper and 
syndicate stereotyping work and placed it on the market under the 
denomination Morley dry mat. 

The Burgess Battery Company, making in their plant in Free- 

£19811 




68. Press for Stereotype Moulding 




69. Matrix Rolling Machine for Newspaper Work— Papier-mache 

Process 

C1993 




70. Stereotype Matrix Rolling Machine 




71. Wesel Improved Hand Matrix Rolling 
Machine 

C200] 



port, 111. pasteboard boxes for their well-known batteries, also 
turned their attention to developing a dry mat. They met with 
success and formed an affiliate company, the Burgess Cellulose Co. 
to manufacture and market their product. 

A number of other American manufacturers experimented in the 
making of dry mats; they encountered innumerable difficulties and 
after having sacrificed considerable sums of money abandoned dry 
mat manufacturing entirely. 

The new mat made friends and made adversaries. As soon as 
American stereotype foundries learned of the newly invented dry 
mat there arose, as is usual with a new and novel product, a 
wide divergency of opinions concerning the qualities of this novel 
innovation. For instance, in 1893 'The American Bookmaker" re- 
ported as follows: "From time to time during the past two years 
we have heard of the new method of stereotyping invented in 
England, and in which the matrix does not need to be dried off 
the type by heating the form but is removed while the type is still 
cold. The processes were kept secret, but they were understood 
to be the use of papier-mache not as wet as formerly, a different 
facing from any previously used and a current of cold air over the 
back. We hear that the results are by no means marked. The forms 
take as long to be finished properly as electrotyping would require, 
the pages stand no more impressions than before and the plates are 
brittle. The requirements here are such that the greatest speed must 
be attained, and if there is a difference of one minute to each 
page by different processes this would be sufficient to throw out 
that which is slow." 

Shortly after, it appears that samples of the new dry mats were 
received in the United States, tested in several foundries, and the 
following verdict arrived at in the same trade paper: 'The cold 
process of stereotyping from which much was hoped as a means of 
taking matrices for daily papers, does not seem to have yielded the 
results expected. The pages took a long time to make, were soggy 
and moist when the metal was to be poured in, and the generated 
steam beneath the hot fluid was often sufficient to injure the plate. 
It is to be hoped that some method will be devised by which the 
plate can be made quickly without involving the necessity of heating 
the type, which suffers thereby and becomes permanently lengthened, 
sometimes to the thickness of a cardboard. Otherwise the papier- 
mache (mashed paper or wet mat) process seems the perfection of 
simplicity." 

1:201 n 



I 

The new dry mat process of stereotyping met with an attitude of 
watchful waiting on the part of the newspapers in the United States. 
As stated before, samples of these different European-made dry mats 
were tested in American newspaper offices but without arousing any 
enthusiasm or desire on the part of the stereotypers to adopt same 
in place of the well proven wet mat method. 

In December, 1897 'The Inland Printer" reported on a new dry 
mat invention which later proved to be Schimansky's mat. It was 
described as a dry, spongy sheet of paper pulp with a prepared 
surface on one side. This mat was molded under a mangle, perfectly 
dry, and then without being dried in any way placed in the casting 
box and supposed to be good for eight or ten casts. In 1899 Mr. 
Partridge, head of the stereotype department of the A. N. Kellogg 
Newspaper Company of Chicago, offered to send samples of this 
dry mat to stereotypers who were willing to try same, provided 
they made reports of their tests. In September, 1899, a number of 
stereotypers reported on their tests and the general opinion was that 
the mat was not satisfactory. In the first place, it could not be run 
dry as it broke, and could only give a very shallow cast. Some 
stereotypers tried pasting tissues on this mat when facing it, and in 
that way got fairly good results but ran into trouble with shrink- 
age, etc., and found that these so-called dry mats showed no 
advantage over wet mats in labor or in saving of time. In 1899 
'The New York Tribune" experimented with these same mats, and 
while they were able to mold them they were not able to produce 
casts that they could use. 

In the same year it was reported from London that a "Dry- 
Stereotype Company" was formed which claimed to have regular 
customers in England, but none in London proper. They claimed to 
have a perfectly dry flong which was ready for the casting box 
immediately after being molded, without drying in any way. It was 
also claimed that these same mats had been used in Berlin for a 
year. Again a search showed that the mat in question was the 
Schimansky mat. 

Hardly was the new dry mat suitable for use in U. S. A. 
stereotype foundries than American inventive genius turned to the 
improvement of the product. As was the case with the wet mat 
we also offer a record of some of such improvements. 

Shortly after Eastwood had made his first invention, Friedrich 
Schneider and Arnold Schott of Philadelphia in 1888 invented 
certain new and useful improvements in stereotype matrices. The 

[2023 



invention was made to provide a mat from which an impression 
could be made at any time in a dry state, no drying or hardening 
being required, that would be so durable and strong as to resist the 
pressure of the quantity of metal on the blank spaces. To attain their 
purpose the inventors made a semi-dry mat. The invention con- 
sisted of a matrix composed of a sheet of fabric (cotton-batting, 
flannel, lint) coated and partly impregnated with a semi-dry plastic 
mass and provided with a backing of pulp. This plastic mass was 
made of glue, syrup, glycerine and a powder (alum, flour, chalk, 
asbestos powder). This plastic was coated on a sheet of fabric and 
on this sheet another of very thin fibrous paper, for example 
Japanese vegetable-fibre paper, was placed. This mat was pressed 
upon the matter to be stereotyped and a sharp, clear impression of 
the type in the fibre paper and plastic was produced. 

The matrix remains on the type and a sheet of wood pulp or any 
other pulp is placed upon the matrix, which sheet has been im- 
pregnated or saturated before being applied with a mixture of two 
parts of powdered dextrine, one part of starch and one part of 
asbestos powder mixed with cold water and boiled and stirred until 
it has the consistency of cream. By re-applying the pressure the 
pulp is caused to adhere firmly to the matrix and to stiffen the same, 
so that when the hot stereotype metal is applied it does not press 
down the matrix at the blank spaces. The matrix is removed and 
subjected for a few moments to a current of hot air for the purpose 
of hardening it. The improved matrix does not warp or shrink and 
the impressions are not injured or marred by hardening the matrix. 
The inventors claimed that "By means of our improved matrix, 
stereotypes can be made very rapidly, as the matrix need not be 
dried on the type and the type and matrix need not be heated as 
has been necessary heretofore when using composition or wet paper 
for stereotyping. There is no need of separately backing the spaces 
with plaster of Paris, or compositions, or cutting them out as has 
been necessary heretofore." 

"By using our improved matrix the type is not injured by heat 
as it is by the old method of stereotyping. As we do not heat the 
type no time is lost by waiting for the cooling of the type in order 
to procure a second or more moldings. A saving in time is effected, 
from 6-10 minutes." 

A dry mat method, which was supposed to do away with all 
auxiliary apparatus, was invented in 1898 by Jose W. Phoebus of 
Wheeling. Phoebus constructed a one sheet or one piece dry mat. 

[203;] 



The face surface of the mat was coated with a sizing of diluted glue 
by means of a high pressure spray and when dry was not more than 
1 /3000th of an inch thick. 

This dry mat was used in an absolutely dry state, no humidoring, 
no wetting, hence no steam table, no scorcher, no dryer, in short a 
total absence of heat or moisture at any stage of the making of the 
matrix. Furthermore, Phoebus' invention provided means of mold- 
ing the mat whereby the pressure upon the type was delivered evenly 
throughout the entire form, the pressure being direct and gradual 
(similar to the action of direct pressure molding presses), thereby 
avoiding such injuries to the type as were caused by ordinary brush 
beating or by the roller processes. Phoebus describes one of the 
apparatuses he uses for the molding of his bone dry matrices as a 
form of a press in which the pressure on the mat is secured by 
means of a suitable fluid under pressure, such as air or water. 
Phoebus uses as support for the chase with the tightly locked type 
form a flat table. In connection with this table he employs a 
stationary slab which is hollowed out at its inner side to form the 
fluid chamber, which lies immediately over the type form within the 
chase. The edge of the fluid chamber, formed at the inner side of 
the slab, rests directly on the edges of the mat, which overlaps the 
chase. The mat forms a gasket or packing between the contracting 
faces of the table and the slab, thereby preventing leakage of the 
pressure fluid at the points of contact. The type form is placed on 
the table, the mat placed thereover and the hollow slab is clamped 
to the table. The fluid is then introduced under pressure thru a 
fluid supply pipe fitted to the slab, communicating with the hollow 
fluid chamber, and when compressed air is employed for mat mold- 
ing it distributes itself throughout the fluid chamber, exerts an even 
pressure over the entire upper surface of the mat, causing the latter 
to be forced into the type faces, thereby producing the mold. When 
this impression has been secured a cut-off valve in the pipe is closed, 
the slab removed and the mat released for immediate use. The 
molding can also be effected by hydraulic pressure thru the pipe 
into the fluid chamber, but in this case a rubber sheet is placed over 
the mat to prevent it from becoming damp. 

In 1900 Friedrich Schreiner of Plainfield, N. J., offered matrix 
paper for "cold type stereotyping." To quote from his prospectus: 
"Our Patent Cold Process Matrix Paper consists of a Plastic Face 
Sheet and a gummed Back Sheet. In making a Matrix the back 
of the Face sheet should be rendered moist with a wet sponge and 

[204] 




72. Modern Mat Roller 



£205 3 




73. Modern Direct Pressure Molding Press 



C206] 



then as soon as the sheet feels soft it must be beaten in slightly with 
Brush, it may also be pressed in or rolled hi. Then the gummed side 
of the Back Sheet is rendered wet with a thin paste and with the 
coated side laid upon the already beaten Face sheet, and united to 
the same by beating, or pressing, or rolling in. Then the Matrix is 
lifted from the type form and dried upon a hot plate." This mat 
paper was designated a "cold type matrix paper." It was used by a 
few stereotypers for baseball starters, but with the advent of the 
German dry mat Schreiner's matrix disappeared from the market. 

A novel although commercially not applicable departure from 
the hitherto universally used method of making dry mats was in- 
vented in 1912 by Glenn S. Williamson of New York. In his speci- 
fications Williamson states that matrices have been heretofore 
molded from paper or other suitable fibrous material, previously 
impregnated with such condensation products of phenols and for- 
maldehyde as may be rendered infusible by heat, the condensa- 
tion product being transformed during or after the act of molding 
into hard and infusible condition. 

Williamson finds that matrices of the above general character 
may be rendered more resistant to the effects of molten stereotype 
metal at high temperatures by using in conjunction with the above 
named phenolic condensation productions, certain structureless salts 
or compounds (silicates of alkali metals and the corresponding 
aluminates), which although soluble in water are refractory at the 
casting temperature of stereotype metal, say 550° F. 

His procedure consisted in impregnating with the described 
liquid condensation product, then baking for an hour at about 
70° C. The sheet is then dipped in a 50% solution of sodium sili- 
cate, thoroughly dried at normal temperature and then baked for 
15 minutes at 70 degrees. The sheet is then faced with thin paper, 
as for example sizal paper, pasted on with sodium silicate solution, 
and is also backed with from one to three sheets of similar light, 
strong paper, also applied with sodium silicate solution. The com- 
pound sheet thus prepared is then dried and molded. Sample 
matrices prepared by the above methods withstood the action of 
type metal introduced under pressure and at temperatures of 
550° F. and upward without necessitating extensive so-called "back- 
ing up" which has for its purpose the reinforcement of the blank 
or projecting areas of the matrix. 

During all this period dry mat manufacturers experimented on 

[207 ] 



the simplification of manufacturing their product. The resultant 
methods have remained secrets of the individual factories. 

To make dry mats by hand instead of on a paper machine was 
tried and the procedure generally followed was to use a hand sieve, 
scoop up the pulp, shake same, thereby felting the pulp. The ma- 
terial was then mixed with an alkaline solution and thereupon the 
sieve holding the sheet was dipped into an acid. This freed a great 
amount of carbonic acid, which inflated the sheet which was dried 
in the open air or in lofts. This method was too slow and too costly 
to be commercially practiced. 

An experiment was a method of stereotyping designated as 
"Graphotyping," a process of coating a plate with a mineral sub- 
stance bound with glue, producing a film, and after this film was 
hardened it was coated with a fatty, resinous pigment, and the in- 
terstices deepened thru brushing same with water. For the printing 
of music, so-called "Pyrostereotyping" was practiced. The charac- 
ters were burnt into wooden plates with a heated steel tool and then 
stereotyped in the usual way; or a machine similar to the modern 
sewing machine with a heated needle was used. Other innovations 
that appeared in the course of time were known as Lottinography, 
Monotyping, Cellulotyping, Cellography, Ikonography, Tachytyp- 
ing, Gelationography, Photostereotyping, Gypsography, etc., etc. 

"The Inland Printer" reported in January, 1894, on a new cold 
process of stereotyping which was offered under the name "Multo- 
typing." The inventor, a stereotyper (the name is not given), instead 
of using ordinary matrix papers used asbestos paper, which he 
claimed could be molded in a dry state and placed in a casting box 
immediately after molding. However, all asbestos papers available 
had very rough surfaces so that plates cast from such mats were 
not very satisfactory. He therefore found it necessary to paste one 
or two tissues on the asbestos papers and to dry the prepared mat 
in a roaster. This stereotyper explained that it would no doubt be 
a very simple matter to find a manufacturer who made asbestos 
paper with a smooth face, and promised to report later on such 
sources of supply, but no further mention can be found of his 
process. 

In 1911 in an article entitled "Development of the Dry Matrix" 
a claim was put forward to the effect that America had priority in 
the invention of the dry mat. 

"Considerable discussion has occurred of late concerning the 
'dry' matrix method of stereotyping, the alleged lack of inventive 

1 208 ] 



genius of Americans in perfecting mechanical improvements of this 
kind, and of our newspapers not making the proper use of such a 
revolutionary invention as the 'dry' matrix when it has been so far 
completed as to have proven entirely practicable in the strictest of 
tests. 

"Among those taking part in the discussion have been eminent 
English and American authorities who have given credit for the de- 
velopment of the 'dry' matrix invention to Germany and England, 
leaving America only the satisfaction of knowing that Charles F. 
Hart, who they term 'the father of the dry matrix,' is an American, 
who before locating in London and assuming supervision of the 
mechanical plant of the Harmsworth newspaper was connected with 
the 'Brooklyn Eagle'. 

"Such experts as Alfred G. Hawkins, supervisor of the stereotyp- 
ing department of the 'London Mail'; Benjamin Wood of the Auto 
Plate Company, New York; and Mr. Hart himself have expressed 
opinions on the origin and development of the 'dry' matrix, and 
have marveled at the slowness of American newspapers to adapt it to 
their uses. 

"While it is readily agreed to by all who have looked into the 
merits of the 'dry' matrix that as a time saving device it deserves all 
the praise that has been given it, there is ground for exception to 
the assertion that the credit for its origin and its subsequent develop- 
ment belongs to either Germany or England. Investigation into this 
side-view of the matter will show that newspapers in forty of the 
largest cities of this country are using a 'dry' matrix process that 
has been developed under the direction of Colonel Oliver S. Hersh- 
man, publisher of the 'Pittsburgh Press', — the invention of Alfred 
W. Birdsall, mechanical expert of Mr. Hershman's paper. Attention 
was first drawn to this process when it was being tried out on the 
'Pittsburgh Press' in the issue of 'The Fourth Estate' of January 1, 
1910, and in the intervening time it has been put to every possible 
test and is declared an unqualified success. The Hershman-Birdsall 
success is the culmination of more than thirty years' work to 
eliminate the trouble and loss of time in the drying of matrices. 
The process was again detailed at some length in 'The Fourth Estate' 
of April 29, 1911. 

"Probably the most critical test to which the Hershman-Birdsall 
process has been put was during the recent world's championship 
baseball games in New York and Philadelphia, when every city in 
the countrv wanted the news and each move of the game at the 

[209] 



earliest possible moment. The Dry Mat Service Company served 
over forty clients and has received congratulations from every sec- 
tion of the country. 

"Papers which used the cold mat say they were enabled to beat 
their competitors on the street with baseball editions by from ten 
to fifteen minutes. One newspaper made a record of starting its 
presses in two minutes and fifteen seconds from the time the form 
was closed, the plates being cast in the Junior Autoplate. 

"Colonel Hershman has used the dry mat continuously in the 
past three years on all editions of his newspaper, daily and Sunday. 
However, only the last, or 'starter' pages, are put through by the 
cold process, on account of the dry mat being more expensive than 
the wet mat. 

"After perfecting the process the Dry Mat Service Company was 
organized to give other newspapers the advantage of Mr. Birdsall's 
discovery. The dry mat was discussed before the American News- 
paper Publishers' Convention in 1910 and a number of publishers, 
who had tried it out, at that time attested its efficiency. More than 
a hundred newspapers at once started to use the dry matrix paper, 
but as was to be expected, perhaps sixty per cent failed because 
the stereotyper had ideas of his own and would not follow the in- 
structions given by the inventors. 

"However, scores of papers have handled the cold process suc- 
cessfully. Many publishers sent their stereotypers, or went them- 
selves to the plant of the 'Press' in Pittsburgh and saw the dry mat 
being used successfully on all editions every day. 

"In addition to the interest in this revolutionary process for 
plate making, inquiries were received by the 'Pittsburgh Press' 
from the 'London Mail', from Stockholm, Sweden, and other con- 
tinental papers. 

"T. R. Williams, managing editor of the 'Pittsburgh Press,' to 
The Fourth Estate' says: 'There is no question in my mind but that 
the credit for the cold process matrix belongs to Colonel Hershman. 
The process has been used continuously for three years to secure 
quick press starts on all editions. Our customers have been steadily 
increasing in number, indicating that the merits of the proposition 
have gradually overcome the prejudices of stereotypers.' ' 

The disappointments and successes met with during the period 
of the introduction of dry mat stereotyping in the United States is 
best shown in the letters and reports written by the individuals and 
concerns who were for and against the new product. The writer 

[210] 




74. Old Model Hydraulic Molding Press 



C2ii 3 




75. Modern Direct Pressure Molding Press 



C2123 



has in his possession copies of a great number of communications of 
this nature; it would be of interest to the stereotypers of this country 
to learn of their contents. To embody all this material in this book 
would not be feasible, but in order to shed light upon the introduc- 
tion period the writer compiles the contents of a few letters. 

An engineer in England wrote to 'The Fourth Estate" on Feb- 
ruary 15th, 1913, as follows: 

"Your struggles with dry mats to us here in England are nothing 
short of ludicrous. We cannot for the life of us see how any one 
can run a newspaper without one. Stereotyping in our office is a lost 
art; new methods and modern machinery have wiped out all of the 
alleged secrets of stereotyping." The writer evidently is referring to 
the secret pastes developed by stereotype foremen and used in the 
making of the wet mat. 

In 1914 the chief stereotyper of "The North Star," Darlington, 
England, Mr. R. S. Johnson, wrote to The Fourth Estate' about the 
use of the dry flong, or mat, and stated that it had many advan- 
tages. Mr. Johnson writes as follows: 

"Dry flongs have become very popular during the last few years, 
and it is gratifying to note that some of the North of England news- 
papers were amongst the pioneers to introduce dry flongs in their 
foundries. 

"It is, in fact, some four or five years back that the 'Northern 
Daily Mail' and 'Sunderland Echo' proved to the publishing world 
of the North that dry flongs could be used with success, and now 
that reliable flongs are procurable, the dry process has come to stay. 

"The chief secret in the successful working of the dry flong lies 
in the employment of slow, but powerful pressure, and especially 
with picture work, in the use of clean elastic moulding blanketing. 
This flong does not allow of hand-beating, machine moulding being 
necessary, and as it is worked to gauge, it gives uniform results. 

"Dry flongs yield much better results even than wet moulds, 
with half-tones. The dry flong, which is tough, yet flexible, will, 
given good pressure in the mangle, cut right into the fine grain 
of the half-tone and retain every detail with continued casting, and 
again if the process blocks are in good condition, there is no cause 
for underlaying or overlaying the mould. 

"I may say here that many stereotypers are 'called to book' for 
bad printing of pictures, when it has not been their fault at all, the 
fault being entirely in the process department. For picture work with 

C213 3 



the dry moulds, it is essential to have the blocks a thick lead above 
type height, on metal mounts. 

"For moulding I have my mangle, which is of the latest type and 
electric driven, set to take the orthodox moulding blanket, with a 
machine rubber on top, and as it gives it a soft and heavy im- 
pression, I find it works admirably. 

"After I mould my page I pack it and put it on the hot press for 
a minute or so, with weights on to take any moisture out that may 
be in the flong. If you do not take this minute or two in drying, 
you are liable to lose many minutes in the casting of your plates. 

"After the mould is dry you put your tail end on. The reason 
why I dry it first is, because the mould generally being moist, it 
shrinks, and the stereo brown not being of a shrinkage nature, it 
draws the tail of the mould like furrows in a field, especially if you 
cast your plate broadways on, when you have trouble with a ven- 
geance. 

"It takes us two minutes to mould, pack and dry a press page 
ready for casting, the packing being nothing to what it is with the 
wet flong. In casting it is advisable not to use too hot metal. 

"In my present paper, where the dry flong was introduced a few 
months ago when our new machinery was installed under the new 
regimen, it has given complete satisfaction to all concerned, and it 
would be quite impossible to catch our early trains to Newcastle, 
etc., without it, now that our circulation is so greatly increased. 

"I would impress upon all stereotypers who use or are about to 
use this process always to keep their flongs in a zinc lined cupboard 
so as to keep them from becoming too dry. When the mould is too 
dry and hard it has a tendency to crease when going through the 
mangle and should your lino, metal be very soft, it destroys the face, 
and again when too damp it very often buckles when the metal is 
poured upon it. 

"Of course, a great deal depends upon the attitude of the 'man- 
agement' towards improvements of this kind, and in my case I am 
fortunate in having a manager who not only is in thorough sym- 
pathy with anything likely to facilitate business and reduce labor; 
but, having had experience of dry flongs in his previous office, knows 
their value." 

An article appearing in 1918 touched on the difficulties encoun- 
tered in American stereotype foundries in the use of dry mats. It 
states that "the dry mat is in successful use in a large number of 
plants, more having adopted it in the past year than in any year 

[214] 






since its introduction into this country. The leading distributor is 
selling 80,000 a month as against about 25,000 at the same time 
in 1917. The larger papers have not, with one or two exceptions, 
taken to it because they have reduced the time element of the wet 
mat process to an irreducible minimum, and because the dry mat 
is not quite so dependable when presses must start at a given minute. 
The liability of breaking in the casting boxes and of giving down 
under a large number of castings is greater than for wet mats. 
They are not willing to take such chances. All large papers use the 
dry mat in a limited way for starter forms and special purposes." 

''Some papers have introduced the dry-mat process successfully 
with the first day's usage. Most of them, however, have had a period 
of grief.' Few stereotypers are able to anticipate all of its problems, 
or to adapt their departments instantly to its peculiarities. The 
change is not automatic as a rule. The specifications, rules, advice, 
and injunctions of the dry mat makers do not entirely obviate diffi- 
culties. The new process is a more technical one than the old one. A 
dry mat stereotyper must be a more skilled and painstaking work- 
man. The entire crew, from the moulder to the finisher, must learn 
to be more exacting and thoughtful in its work. Slam-bang, devil- 
may-care workmanship will not do. Deficiency in this particular, due 
to the fact that the wet-mat process has become so well learned that 
experienced men can perform any part of it with their eyes closed, 
and their minds on the bar around the corner, more than the in- 
herent problems of the process itself, is responsible for most of the 
troubles publishers have experienced. There is prejudice against it 
in many places; workmen believing it will lessen the labor required 
are resentful of the greater care required of them, and many are 
constitutionally opposed to things new and unestablished." 

In 1917 an article appeared in 'The Editor & Publisher" con- 
cerning dry mats, and the outstanding points raised in the article 
were that the first successful dry mat was made in Germany and 
brought to this country by Henry A. Wise Wood in 1911. The 
first newspaper to use the dry mat process was the now deceased 
"Bergen News" of Hackensack, N. J. "The Bergen News" was the 
first newspaper to operate a stereotype plant without the use of 
steam tables, and it had no steam tables in its plant. 

"A few months later the dry mat was adopted by 'The Paterson 
Call' in New Jersey for exclusive use. 'The Call' was the first news- 
paper to combine the advantages of the dry mat with those of the 
Autoplate, and today operates one of the most efficient stereotype 

C2I5] 



foundries in New Jersey. The Call' had been using dry mats ex- 
clusively since May, 1911, and had not used a wet mat or operated 
a steam table during that time. The Call' originally paid 25 cents 
each for a dry mat. 

'The American-made Wood dry mat was perfected and placed 
on the market in January, 1916. At that time there were a handful 
of papers using dry mats, and the rapid growth of that process is 
evidenced by the fact that there are now upwards of 100 American 
and Canadian newspapers that use the process for all work and have 
abandoned steam tables." 

The American Newspaper Publishers Association on August 
11th, 1917, for example, had published diagrams showing how dry 
mats save print paper without necessitating mechanical changes to 
presses or reducing the width of margins. In this bulletin the Asso- 
ciation states that the average office not only saves enough annually 
in the cost of print paper to pay for all stereotype mats used, but 
earns a substantial cash bonus in addition thereto. 

Other features of the dry mat process are a distinct improvement 
in typography, particularly in the printing of halftones, a saving of 
all time consumed by steamtables, the cost of operating them, a sav- 
ing in labor, etc. 

Mr. Benjamin Wood, the general manager of the Wood Flong 
Corporation, made the following statement: 'The dry mat has met 
with considerable opposition from some misguided stereotypers and 
from manufacturers of steam tables and other antiquated news- 
paper equipment, but it is now a well demonstrated success and can be 
adopted by any newspaper with complete satisfaction and at a very 
trivial cost for equipment." 

'The wet mat is dried on the form and the impression it retains 
from the type is deep. The dry mat is removed from the form im- 
mediately after being pressed into it and dried in a scorcher. The 
mold inevitably springs back to a greater degree than if it were 
held against the form when drying. Some stereotypers think this is 
an insurmountable delinquency of the process. 

"The key to the success of the dry mat is humidification. Uni- 
formity of saturation is absolutely essential, but not easy to bring 
about despite the very definite formulas. Stereotypers who know the 
formulas have to learn by actual experience just how to do it per- 
fectly. They have to learn to know by the look and feel and action 
what the correct saturation point it. 

"The dry mat process is hard on type because the molding ma- 

C2163 " 




^SSS /.Y^TfrTV^SSSSSSVASy 5SSSS S 

Tj — • — \ I / ^ > / /' v- ^7 







76. Willbur Dryer (1867) 



C217] 




77. Johnson Dryer (1880) 



C218] 



chine pressure is very high. Italics with 'kerns,' delicate display type, 
and rules made from other than hard type metal suffer considerably. 
The amount of molding machine pressure necessary can be con- 
trolled considerably by proper humidification, as can most other 
like conditions. 

"The superiority of the dry mat for flat work is pretty well estab- 
lished. It is now used for a large portion of the advertising and news 
mats being sent out/' 

The dry mat can, in the opinion of the writer of the article in 
the "Editor & Publisher", be successfully used in any plant where the 
proper machinery is in use, but where it is correctly adjusted to the 
process and where intelligent, painstaking and sympathetic work- 
manship can be secured in the composing and stereotype depart- 
ments. In the absence of such conditions it will be only a partial 
success, if not a failure. If such a condition cannot be secured, how- 
ever, the plant needs reorganization more than it needs the dry mat. 
It is very nearly a 50-50 proposition as between the dry and the 
wet mat, leaving the paper saving out of consideration. With that in- 
cluded the preponderance of advantage is considerably in favor of 
the newer process. On a straight comparative basis as a reproduc- 
tive process, some of its advantages are discounted by disadvan- 
tage. But whatever the net result of such a comparison, the saving 
of $1.00 per ton of paper consumed, which is absolute, tips the 
scales in the but one obvious direction. 

In 1899 Henry Kahrs of New York City, who had established a 
stereotype shop in 1875, published a pamphlet bearing the title, "En- 
graving Made Easy and Stereotyping Simplified, Being a Detailed 
Description of the White-on-Black and Granotype Engraving 
Processes and the Papier-Mache and Simplex Stereotype Methods." 
The first edition of this pamphlet was printed about 50 years ago, 
in 1890. 

Kahrs' process consisted in writing or drawing on a sheet of 
bristol-board with a special ink made for the purpose, using an or- 
dinary soft pen, and then casting a plate of type metal directly upon 
the writing or drawing. Unlike other methods there were no inter- 
operations between the work of the artists and the casting of the 
plates, the casting being done in a stereotype casting box; in fact, 
the operation of casting these plates was the same as in ordinary 
stereotyping, the only point in which it differed being in the prepara- 
tion of the matrix. 

His Granotype method consisted in using a red engraving ink, 



and before the lines drawn with this ink were dry they were sifted 
over with a fine black powder of his own invention. If greater depth 
in the plate was desired a second application of the ink and the 
powder was made. 

Other inventions made by Henry Kahrs were the Cold Simplex 
Stereotyping Process, the Hot Simplex Stereotyping Process, the 
Acme Dry Stereotyping Process, the Reverse Stereotyping Process, 
the Stereo Halftone Engraving Process, and finally the Kalkotype 
Method of Stereotyping. 

The Kalkotype process is another way of making relief plates 
or line cuts by the use of a special form of papier-mache matrix 
board. The design to be printed is drawn in the mat with a lead 
pencil, then cut or engraved into the moist mat with chisel-like 
tools, one with a straight edge and one with a slanting edge, the 
latter making a sharp Y-shaped cut. After the design has been cut 
into the mat the open spaces are filled out with space packing as 
done when stereotyping. Then the matrix is placed face up upon an 
iron plate, and a thick pad of cloth blanket laid upon the matrix 
with a heavy weight on top of all. The iron plate is heated to dry 
the mat and the gummed packing: the mat must be kept very hot 
up to the moment it is put into the casting box. The plate casting 
operation is the same as in ordinary stereotyping. 

In closing this chapter, a letter on so-called "'cold" mats is re- 
corded, The following letter was written by Benjamin H. Anthony 
of the New Bedford (Mass. Standard Times' 5 to the American 
Newspaper Publishers Association on March 20th, 1918: 

"In reply to yours of the 19th. we never made a 'dry mat' but 
we were quite successful in the use of a cold type process, with a 
less wet mat than the ordinary one and one that did not require 
the use of any steam table. In fact, we did not own a steam table 
for a number of years but did put in one and now we have two be- 
cause we believe that we get rather better results for halftone work 
than with the cold type mat. 

"The history of our cold type mat is as follows: a man by the 
name of Schreiner, employed by the Potter Printing Press Co. of 
Plainfield, N. J., came on to install the process and was unsuccess- 
ful, but our stereotyper, named Riley, was fairly successful. He was 
never willing to divulge what he made the mat of but our pressman 
and his assistant finally evolved a formula that was so successful 
that they used to mix in their mats with the stereotyper's and the 

£220] 



latter did not know the difference. The stereotyper is not now liv- 
ing, and I think his formula died with him. 

"Our next stereotyper used the formula that our pressman gave 
him, and although I believe he modified it some I am not sure. 

"The following is the recipe given me by our pressman: 



Asbestos . 


2 lbs. 4 


Flour 


8 


Dextrine . 


11 


Gum Arabic 


7 


Starch 


6 



Stock for 50 Matrix 

"The mat is to be made less wet than the ordinary mat and the 
shrinkage will be found to be quite uniform but nevertheless there 
is a shrinkage. I am under the impression that the mat is too dry 
and stiff to use successfully with a brush. It requires a matrix roller 
and is then stripped off and dried in a roaster (gas oven)/' 

The facts contained in this letter are verified by I. C. Wagner, 
mechanical superintendent of "The Norwalk Hour," Norwalk, Conn. 
He recalls that George Clark, father of the George Clark who owns 
the American Publishers Supply, who had charge of stereotyping at 
the Lynn (Mass.) "Item," and Joseph Riley of the New Bedford 
(Mass.) "Standard," and he himself, then working on the Cape 
Ann "Breeze" in Gloucester, Mass., were using dry mats on their 
regular editions back in 1894. Clark and Riley were using a dry mat 
they made themselves, whereas Wagner used a mat made by 
Schreiner of Plainfield, N. J. This mat was dried on a flat dryer with a 
heavy cover, and sand was used on the back of the mat to prevent 
the heavy cover from causing buckles and flattening out the im- 
pression in the mat. Wagner on the "Breeze" used the dry mats until 
1898 when he left to work on the Manchester (N. H.) "News." 

The writer is indebted to A. F. Brown of Chicago for the follow- 
ing interesting reminiscences on early dry mat stereotyping in our 
country : 

"The success and general use of the Dry Mat and of the Junior 
Autoplate added greatly to stereotyping speed and, too, afforded a 
finer reproduction of halftones and the making of uniform plates 
and of a lighter weight. These enduring changes are in contrast to 
some earlier innovations brought in to meet the requirements of 
plate-making. 

"The A. N. Kellogg Newspaper Co., leaders in ready print and 

[2213 



job stereotype plate production and with branch houses in many 
Western cities, about 1888 introduced clay-process stereotyping at 
their Chicago 'Head House.' 

"In the plant of the Iowa Printing Company in Des Moines, 
Iowa, the process was in successful operation on book work. The 
plant foreman came to Chicago, installed a clay department for the 
Kellogg Co., and later his younger brother joined him as assistant. 
The molding and casting, done in a separate room, was a sort of 
semi-secret process and the stereotypers promptly dubbed it the 
'Mud Room,' the 'Mud Process/ and the operators came and went 
as 'Big' and 'Little Mud' — names that stemmed not so much from 
stature but rather from their forceful voices, overheard in frequent 
pow-wow. The plant of the Iowa Printing Company was one of the 
very earliest commercial stereotyping plants in the West. It was 
established in 1876 by Daniel Mills, as recorded by William C. 
Brinegar of Des Moines. The molding composition used, while suit- 
able for book work, was less well adapted to large newspaper forms 
and later the department was closed. 

"Thomas H. Jackson, employe of the American Press Associa- 
tion 'Head House' in New York City, reopened the 'Mud Room' 
and it continued in operation until the general use of fine screen 
halftones made the process obsolete. 'Mud' plates were out and the 
electro plate patterns returned to general use on the mat roller and 
the steam tables. The wear and tear on type fonts had made 'Mud 
Plates' a necessity and the metal used in casting was a specially 
hard alloy of stereotype metal which the operators smelted in their 
own metal pot." 

" 'Zylotype' was another of the early processes. A zylotype de- 
partment was also introduced in 1888 by the enterprising Kellogg 
Newspaper Co. to meet the needs of their mail order service. Thomas 
Hayes and William Breen came from New York City, installed the 
plant, and the process was in successful operation. It was an in- 
teresting and novel feature of the large Kellogg plant and received 
much attention. A thin sheet of dark, hard composition, Zylonite 
was placed upon a newspaper size form and, softened by heat, was 
by heavy hydraulic pressure forced into the type and a serviceable 
printing plate was produced. Mounted in column strips upon light, 
seasoned wood it met the requirements of the service. The process 
had large use on news-miscellany, on magazines and serial fiction 
matter. Later it was discontinued." 

In retrospect: An article appeared in 1870, entitled "The Press of 

C222 3 




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Today," in which the following statement was made: 'The latest 
improvement in the processes of stereotyping enables the printer to 
reproduce the pages of a daily paper in duplicate with the labor 
of one hour." The number of pages is not mentioned in this 
article, but it may be accepted that 12 pages constituted the average 
size of the metropolitan newspaper of that period. Twelve stereotype 
plates in an hour! Today's production from a single Automatic 
machine is approximately 200 stereotype plates per hour! 

While practically all of this chapter concerns newspaper stereo- 
typing in North America, the increased use of stereotypes in maga- 
zine and book printing warrants some mention of this renewed 
phase of the art. 

As stated previously, it was the stereotype that made possible 
wide dissemination of printed matter from almost the inception of 
printing. Yet, during the period from about 1860 to the early 
1920's, stereotypes were seldom used in the United States for job, 
magazine and book work, having been largely supplanted by elec- 
trotypes. 

In recent years, however, the combined efforts of the manufac- 
turers of stereotype equipment, metal and dry mats, aided by those 
printers who realized the potentialities for stereotyping, enabled the 
trade to turn out stereotype plates of a quality capable of almost 
any kind of letterpress work. 

Among the pioneers of stereotyping in magazine work is Mr. 
Arnold A. Schwartz of the Art Color Printing Company of Dun- 
ellen, N. J. He and many other printers and manufacturers perse- 
vered and experimented for years in order to develop stereotyping 
for printing of better than newspaper quality. 

Today, practically all of the moderate priced magazines and 
books and even many of the so-called quality magazines and books 
are successfully stereotyped. 



ET225 3 



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CHAPTER SEVEN 
MACHINES 



A history of stereotyping would not be complete unless it incor- 
porated data concerning the origin and development of the many 
machines and accessory equipment used in the making of stereotype 
plates, beginning with the birth of the art on through the centuries 
to our day. In order to make this report reasonably clear, a repeti- 
tion of some of the data already touched upon has proven un- 
avoidable; however, for more minute details the preceding chapters 
may be consulted. 

There have been four distinct phases in the art, namely the era 
of the macerated wet paper pulp, then the period of the plaster 
of Paris and clay processes. Following these the papier-mache or 
wet mat period, and finally the era of the dry mat. Each and every 
phase produced its special equipment and machines, and these will 
be described in the order referred to above. It must be remarked 
that a certain number of identical machines were and still are used 
in the operation of both wet mat and dry mat methods. To avoid 
confusion such machines will be dealt with where dry mat appliances 
are recorded. 

(1) The wet paper pulp process, which is the oldest stereotyping 
method known (1690), was practiced with the aid of the following 
equipment: A chase and a galley used in the preparation of the 
form. For the molding, a brush such as was used later in the wet mat 
process. The drying operation necessitated an iron pan containing 
the form, and an iron crucible in which the pan was placed. Hot 
type metal was used to pour over the crucible and thus dry the mold. 
For casting, two wooden boards or two tin plates and a tin funnel 
for pouring the metal on the mold were used. 

(2) Equipment and machines used in the plaster of Paris and 
clay processes: The preparation of the plates and ingredients used 
have been minutely described elsewhere in this book. The condi- 
tioning in the plaster method consisted of a special preparation of 
the composition, re-imposition of the pages, and locking up of the 
form. 

[227] 



The next step was the maiding operation. The type material was 
locked in a form; then it was filled up with plaster by packing it 
in about the consistency of paste onto the surface of the type form, 
and rubbing it in well by hand. Before the plaster had set the whole 
was well brushed off with a stiff brush, which removed the plaster 
from the bowls of the letters. Then olive oil was applied to the 
mold. 

The next step was the casting operation. A frame of brass or bell 
metal about J4" deep was placed over the form. Into this frame was 
poured the plaster of Paris which had been prepared in a special 
pot. The frame containing the molded plaster of Paris mat was then 
placed in the baking oven and roasted to a brown tinge. At the same 
time a dipping-pan and a floating-plate were placed in the same 
oven on a bottom shelf in order to have them acquire the same heat 
as the mold. The dipping-pan was placed into position, the floating- 
plate was placed inside the mold on the top and the lid fastened. 

The metal was dipped out of the dipping-pan and then poured on 
the mold. Later the mass was cooled in a cooling trough for about 
20 minutes. Then the pan was placed on a knock-out block and the 
plaster chiseled off the plate. Thus we find that the equipment used 
for the plaster of Paris operation were the following: 

A metal pot 

An oven 

A dipping-pan 

A floating-plate 

A crane 

A cooling trough 

A molding frame 

A block 

(All of these items are shown in illustrations No. 62, 63, 64.) 
The metal pot was square and deep, and large enough to permit 
the casting or dipping-pan to be immersed; it was placed near a 
wall in order to allow the fixing of a crane for lowering and raising 
the casting pans. The oven was installed adjacent to the metal pot 
and was furnished with several iron shelves to permit the taking of 
several molds at one time. This oven ordinarily had brick on three 
sides and on the top was a square opening bricked in, and the flue 
of the furnace was carried around the sides and back of the oven 
in order that the heat from the fire could be utilized. The whole 
of the front of the oven was used for the door so that the casts 

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could be placed in and removed easily. An iron shelf was placed in 
front of the oven on the same level as the bottom shelf to enable the 
stereotypers to slide the dipping-pans and floating-plates to the edge 
of the metal pot. The dipping-pans were wide at the top and tapering 
toward the base. On the sides were sockets to admit the clamps of 
the crane chain when it was swung. The floating-plate was of iron 
and fit loosely into the dipping-pan. 

To the crane was connected, at the end of a chain, a ratchet with 
a wheel having extended spokes. Thereby the dipping-pan when 
connected by the clamps could be raised or lowered. 

The cooling trough used for cooling the dipping-pan and its 
contents was placed at the side of the metal pot. It generally was 
about 4 feet long and 2 feet wide and stood slightly below the top 
of the metal pot. Four iron bars J4" thick and 2" wide were fixed 
across near enough to each other to allow two dipping-pans to be 
placed on them at one time. Two or three pieces of thick flannel 
were wrapped around these bars in order that the moisture could 
be gradually communicated to the hot pan. 

The molding frame in which the plaster matrix was first taken 
from the form was of the appearance of an ordinary chase, but the 
four sides facing the type were bevelled inwards so that when 
the plaster hardened, it had proper and equal separation on all 
sides. 

The block upon which the casting pan was placed upon cooling 
was about 4 feet high and 3 feet wide, somewhat similar to a 
butcher's block. Upon this block the mold was knocked out of the 
pan, the corners of the cast struck off with a mallet, and the plate 
released. 

(3) Machines used in the papier-mache or wet mat method: 
The wet mat is made of several thicknesses or layers of paper at- 
tached one to the other by means of a paste. Various wrapper and 
tissue papers are employed. For many years wet mats were made in 
the individual foundries by hand; later on machines were devised 
to achieve more uniform and speedier manufacture. One of these 
machines was devised by J. G. Rivett, mechanical superintendent of 
the Western Newspaper Union, who called his apparatus the Rivett 
Patent Flong Machine. This machine produces in a continuous auto- 
matic manner stereotype wet mats laminated in any number of 
sheets at one operation. It is capable of turning out from 300 to 400 
completed wet mats per hour. This machine was made in various 
numbers of units to produce wet mats in any number or combina- 

£231 3 



tions of laminations. However, the price, between $5,000 and $6,000, 
had so limited the sale of this machine that there are not more than 
five of them in use in the United States (See illustration). 

W. C. Handley, New York and Cleveland stereotyper, also in- 
vented a wet mat-making machine, and sold many of his machines 
at about $1,500. With this equipment the roll must be re-run for 
each additional tissue. However, it produces a very fine wet mat, 
and the price being comparatively low more of these machines were 
in use at one time. 

Zeb E. Aiken and Frank L. Rainer of Tulsa also invented a wet 
mat machine embodying a plurality of bed rollers. 

There are still a number of stereotyping plants in the United 
States using large quantities of wet mats, and in some of these 
foundries wet mats are still made by hand with the aid of simple 
practical contrivances devised in the individual plants. 

Conditioning: In the beginning, wet mats were placed separately 
between damp blankets with a board and weight on top. In this 
simple manner the finished wet mats were conditioned. Later on the 
practice of placing them in humidors was followed in order to con- 
serve the moisture in the mats and thus facilitate the molding opera- 
tion. If these mats were dry, the operator would not obtain proper 
depth in molding and the mat would be liable to crack when being 
dried in the heating apparatus before casting. The conditioning de- 
vices will be explained in the dry mat machinery section. 

Molding: In 1829, Genoux who in that year perfected the wet 
mat stereotyping process, used a brush for molding; then tried to 
obtain his molds by making impressions with the aid of sort of a 
roller, proceeding as in taking off a simple proof. However, the 
molds he made with his roller were so shallow and so poor that he 
quickly reverted to the brush beating method. 

From then on the molding of the wet mat was performed in all 
plants in the following manner: the wet mat was oiled to prevent 
the matrix from sticking to the type form. The mat was placed on 
the face of the type, the tissue downwards. It was then covered with 
a damp wrung cloth, and the molding was done by beating the mat 
with a hand brush. The operator began at one end of the form and 
advanced to the other in order to expel the air from the surface of 
the type. This beating operation was the most difficult process the 
stereotyper had to master. The handle of the brush had to be held 
in such a manner as to enable the bristles to fall positively flat on 
the back of the mat. One hundred and fifty mats per day was a 

C232] 



record performance. At first papier-mache mats of one column were 
beaten; later the mat was taken from the complete page in one 
operation. 

The brush beating method of molding mats by hand was tem- 
porarily displaced by brush beating machines. Mr. Derriez of Paris 
invented such a machine in 1899, and others appeared on the scene. 
However, the most practical machine of this kind was the one de- 
veloped by C. S. Partridge of Chicago, upon which he received a 
patent in 1889. 

A short resume of the text of this patent states that the inventor 
advocates replacing not only the brush beating by hand but also 
the roller or mangle. The patent reads in part as follows: 

"In making papier-mache matrices for use in the production of 
stereotype-plates it is customary to beat the soft matrix material, 
after it has been laid upon the form of type which is to be repro- 
duced, with a bristle brush until the material has been forced into 
the hollows, recesses and interstices of the type and into the 
blanks or open portions of the form and an accurate impres- 
sion of the type-form has been produced in the matrix. The 
beating is continued until the material has penetrated the inter- 
stices, &c, to the depth requisite to avoid shallowness of the 
sunken or non-printing portions of the type, it being desirable 
that such portions shall be so much below the printing por- 
tions in the stereotype as to avoid "smutting" in printing there- 
from. This beating operation requires considerable time, and is 
laborious work for the operator. Another method is to pass a pres- 
sure-roller over the matrix while it is on the type, a thick felt 
blanket or other cushion being interposed between the matrix and 
roller, so that the pressure of the roller will force the soft material 
of the matrix into the hollows and spaces of the type-form without 
uncovering the faces of the type. This method is quicker than the 
other and less laborious, but it is subject to serious objections. It is 
impossible by it to make a sufficiently deep mold without increas- 
ing the pressure to such a point as will injure the type, and to 
avoid this it is quite common to finish the mold by beating it with 
the hand-brush after it has been rolled. Where this is not done a 
shallow mold is produced, the stereotype-plates from which cannot 
be worked on printing-presses using very soft impression-blankets 
without smutting. 

"In this invention I have sought to produce a machine which will 
perform the operation of beating the papier-mache evenly and with 

[233] 



results approximately those obtained by hand, and which will avoid 
at the same time the evils found in the pressure-roller method of 
taking impressions from the type." 

With the advent of workable molding machines of the roller con- 
struction, brush beating fell into disuse. Molding by machine is 
carried out in identically the same manner where wet mats as well 
as dry mats are used. Hence these machines will be explained later 
on when dealing with dry mat stereotyping equipment. 

After molding, the wet mat is dried in order to drive out the 
moisture used in making and conditioning the mat. 

Drying: In 1829 when the new version of the wet mat press 
was brought out by Genoux, and this mat began to supersede the 
plaster of Paris and clay methods of stereotyping, the drying opera- 
tion was a simple one. The mat was placed on a hot iron plate and 
the moisture driven out. In due time less crude methods were 
thought out by individual stereotypers in the course of their daily 
work. An example is the so-called drying plate. This was con- 
structed of iron and resembled a long, thick iron slab, and was 
placed upon the smelting furnace. It was hollow to permit the 
smoke to pass from the flue of the smelting furnace to the chimney. 
At one place was fixed a press for drying the molds. The platen was 
adjusted by a strong upright screw having a wheel at the top. As 
time passed, the need for a better drying method became pressing. 
Stereotypers objected to the use of dry heat for the baking of the 
mat as it sometimes destroyed the type by rounding the bottom. In 
1856 a machine for drying the mats was invented by James Della- 
gana of London and installed in the plant of the London "Times." 
(It should be recalled that the firm of Dellagana Brothers were the 
most successful stereotypers of their day, and the proprietors of 
the mighty London "Times" handed to this firm the production of 
all the stereotype plates used at the "Times.") 

The procedure followed in drying wet mats on the table was to 
place a double thickness of blanket on the mat and screw the press 
firmly down. M. Rusaud of Lyons, France, in 1836 was the first 
to use woolen blankets on the mats in the drying operation. The 
steam was turned on and after 10 to 15 minutes the press was 
unscrewed, the blanket removed and the mat left to dry for about 
10 minutes. Then the mold was carefully separated from the form. 

Robert Hoe of New York visited the "Times" plant in London 
and examined these steamtables. Upon his return to the United 
States he promptly started manufacturing steamtables, and put the 

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first one made in this hemisphere on the market in 1867. The first 
steamtable, however, was imported from England and installed in 
the plant of the "New York Tribune" in 1861. In this plant Charles 
Craske and L. Collins were experimenting with the papier-mache 
mats. The story has it that the steamtable was installed in a room 
directly above Horace Greeley's office, and that due to a leak, hot 
water dripped down and scalded the famous editor's bald head. Mr. 
Greeley was so incensed that steamtable operations had to be sus- 
pended for several months. 

Mazall and Hartnet of Boston in 1874 invented a combined 
steamtable and steam jacketed drying oven to cut down drying 
time from 13 minutes to less. Pearce and Hughes of London in 1880 
invented a new method of drying a wet mat by removing the matrix 
from the face of the form while it was in a moist condition, and 
then confining the mat between a layer of heated plate and blankets 
with a perforated flat plate on top. 

A novel method of drying wet mats was thought out by an 
American, W. J. Johnson, in 1880. His patent shows that his im- 
provement relates principally "to drying the matrices employed in 
stereotyping the 'form' in newspaper offices. These matrices were 
composed of paper pulp and other similar materials, and after an 
impression of the type or form is taken, they are usually dried in 
the ovens or by steam-plates preparatory to casting the stereotype 
for use on the press." 

"In drying matrices of this kind in the usual manner it has 
been found that the depressed portions or parts between the types 
known as 'blanks' do not dry as rapidly as the raised portions or 
parts corresponding with the types, thus causing delay in preparing 
or casting the plates at a period in the process when time is of the 
utmost importance." 

To overcome this difficulty was the object of the above men- 
tioned invention, which consisted in applying a jet of flame or cur- 
rent of very hot air directly to such parts of the matrix as require 
to be more thoroughly dried after coming from the ovens or hot 
plates. 

In 1870, A. Chase patented an invention relating to the drying 
of stereotype matrices in a vacuum, and to the combination of a 
vacuum chamber and accompanying chambers above and below it, 
so arranged as to provide a vacuum, heat and condensation of 
vapor, for the purpose of drying the said matrices at a minimum ex- 
penditure of time, temperature and power as nearly as may be. It 

[2371] 



was especially adapted to the rapid and economical drying of papier 
mache stereotype matrices at a temperature which would not in- 
jure the type. 

In 1872 the same Alonzo Chase patented a method in which the 
matrix was removed from the form while still in a moist condition 
and laid, back downward upon an iron bed, its face being then 
covered with a layer of sand which filled up all the intaglio parts 
of the matrix, and served the same purpose as the type in pre- 
venting the face of the matrix from becoming distorted during the 
drying operation which followed. The use of sand in this manner 
proved to be objectionable because it always adhered, to a greater 
or lesser extent, to the face of the matrix so that its removal there- 
from after the mat was dried, required some time and labor and 
the element of time was then and is today of the greatest impor- 
tance in the operation of stereotyping. 

When steamtables were first put into use, gas was used for heat- 
ing. Later on the pneumatic steamtable was developed and certain 
makes used electricity for heating. 

In 1890 M. J. Hughes invented a combined furnace and hot 
water casting box. In his preamble he states that heretofore the most 
popular method of drying the molds on the face of the type or form 
was by the use of live steam, with its ever-leaking and expensive 
attachments used in connection with the chest of the drying table 
or casting box; and when steam was not accessible gas, gasoline or 
coal oil was generally substituted, and many seriously objected to 
the latter because the heat derived was what is termed "dry," and 
if not supplied with care would result in serious injury to the type 
by overheating in the drying process. Even steam with too great 
a head or heat would prove injurious. In every instance the two 
most important and expensive parts of a stereotype outfit — viz., the 
casting box and the furnace — were separated and used apart for their 
respective purposes. However, this last improvement — the combina- 
tion of the metal furnace and the casting box through the use of 
hot water — was undoubtedly a most excellent one, resulting in 
economy, simplicity and practicability to an extent never before 
obtained. 

The object of his invention was to dispense with these separate 
appliances by utilizing the casting box, which has a hollow bed or 
platen, for the reception of the water to be heated by the same 
furnace which melts the metal for general stereotyping purposes. 

T. Bradwell and S. K. White in 1883 invented a machine in 

C 238 ] 



which they combined the casting, sawing, shaving and drying opera- 
tions all in one. 

There exist a great number of different kinds of drying ma- 
chines; the illustrations Nos. 76 to 83 show different types. 

When the wet matrix has been completely dried, the casting and 
finishing operations take place. Since all of these operations are 
identical whether wet or dry mats are used in a plant, these ma- 
chines will be explained in the section dealing with dry mat ma- 
chinery. 

To sum up: It has been shown in the preceding text that the 
equipment employed in the wet mat stereotyping method are: 

A paste pot 

A sieve to strain the paste 

A beating or molding brush, or a roller 

A smelting pot or furnace 

A steamtable for drying the molded matrix 

A casting machine 

A plate trimming saw 

A planing machine 

A routing machine 

A beveling machine 

(4) Dry mat machinery: Dry mats are made of cellulose pulp 
often mixed with highly refined alpha pulps and treated with cer- 
tain chemicals and earths to insure resistance against intense heat 
and against many other influences encountered in their use in the 
stereotype foundry. They are integral, homogeneous units, not 
laminated nor pasted together as is the case with wet mats. 

Moistening: Just as is the case with wet mats, dry mats must be 
moistened with water and kept moistened to make them soft and 
more plastic in order that they take the type impression more readily 
and accurately and with greater depth. 

At the time the dry mats made their first appearance they were 
conditioned or moistened, in the same way as the stereotypers 
humidified their wet mats, that is they were placed between wet 
blankets and boards and weighted down. 

Following the universal practice of old time wet mat operators to 
invent and perfect individual, closely guarded paste formulas, each 
stereotyper thought out a special contrivance of his own to moisten, 
i. e., condition the mats delivered to his plant in a dry state. In 
most cases these dry mats were placed in boxes or closets contain- 

[239] 



ing pans filled with water; the moistening was affected through 
absorption of the evaporated water by the mats. 

The first and basic patent taken out on a humidor was granted 
to J. Fremont Frey of Indianapolis in 1913. This conditioner was, 
for many years, the most used of all conditioning apparatus, as it 
insured complete and uniform distribution of moisture. In this 
humidor the mats are held in a vertical position by a wire comb 
and tray which are removable from the box. The inner walls of the 
box hold eight clay pads, each one removable. These eight clay pads 
are the reservoirs which supply the moisture to the mats. After soak- 
ing the clay pads for 20 minutes in cold water and replacing the 
racks in the box, the Frey humidor is ready for operation. It is 
imperative that no running water is allowed to strike the pads as 
the clay is soft and disintegrates easily. It takes 24 hours to condi- 
tion mats that are soft; when mats are hard, owing to atmospheric 
conditions, they remain several days in the humidor, or until they 
are pliable. This humidor is made airtight through a tapered flange 
on the lid of the box, and it is necessary to moisten the pads but 
once a week. 

The John Breuer humidor is constructed of either galvanized iron 
or copper. From a receptacle on top of the humidor, water is fed to 
numerous slits or blanks which line the walls, by means of wicking 
enclosed in lead tubes. 

When the metropolitan newspapers adopted the dry mat in their 
plants there started a series of scientific moistening methods. Iso- 
lated rooms were constructed wherein hot water in the form of steam 
was circulated. These humidors were built by engineers who had 
solved similar moistening problems for the silk cloth and other in- 
dustries. The fact that the plans for the construction of an entire 
room, called the conditioning room, were drawn on the order of 
the New York "Times" shows to what lengths installation of special 
humidors was carried. Why this particular plan was abandoned at 
the last minute is explained by the next paragraph. 

About 1932, demands for delivery by the mat manufacturers of 
a perfectly finished mat began to become more and more insistent 
and by 1934 dry mats were no longer (except in very rare cases) 
conditioned in individual plants; this operation was performed di- 
rectly at the mat factories. 

The stereotyper who knows what moisture content is necessary in 
mats used under his particular climatic and plant conditions simply 
indicates the percentage of moisture he desires for his work, and 

[240] 




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mats are moistened as per his specifications. This certainly is a far 
cry from the hit and miss method of moistening mats by simply 
placing them between wet rags or in tin boxes. 

Roller Molding: The roller, or molding machine, displaced beat- 
ing by the brush, and since such rollers were practically in uni- 
versal use when dry mats appeared on the scene they were used 
from the very start of dry mat operations. 

The first roller was used by Claude Genoux, who improved the 
wet mat in 1829. His roller was a clumsy, hand-propelled contriv- 
ance equipped with wooden rollers, a kind of adaptation of the old- 
time proof press. This roller did not work at all satisfactorily and 
shortly afterwards Genoux abandoned it and reverted to the brush 
beating method. 

The next roller, of better construction, hand driven, equipped 
with soft wooden or iron rollers, was constructed by Rusaud in 
1836; it, too, was soon abandoned in favor of the brush method. 

The first practical roller, or molding machine (later known 
under the designation "calender"), was invented by James Della- 
gana in 1861. His English patent carried the number 1045, dated 
the 26th of April, 1861, and the roller was designated therein as an 
"apparatus for embossing and taking casts from matrices for 
stereotype or other purposes." It consisted of two heavy cast iron 
cylinders about 12 inches in diameter, mounted in a suitable frame, 
one above the other. The ends of the upper roll were provided with 
gear wheels which engaged the racks of a bed traveling between the 
rolls. The shaft of the upper roll extended beyond the frame of the 
machine and terminated in a worm wheel which was driven by a 
worm supported by brackets attached to the side of the frame. By 
means of tight and loose pulleys on the worm shaft, and suitable 
mechanism for shifting the belts, the roll could be made to revolve 
in either direction, thus moving the bed forward or back at the 
will of the operator. The purpose of the machine was to utilize 
steam power to perform the laborious work of molding. In operation 
the form was slid onto the bed of the machine and there made ready 
for molding in the usual manner. The flong was laid on and covered 
with a thick felt blanket, and the form passed through the rolls and 
back again. The depressions in the matrix were then packed and the 
form dried in the usual manner. The first Dellagana roller was used 
in the plant of the "London Times." 

The first molding machine of this make used in the U. S. A. 
was by the "New York Herald," being purchased in London and a 

[243] 



force of men accustomed to its use was engaged and brought to New 
York to run the roller. In 1906 this machine was still in use in the 
Herald stereotype foundry. Most of the men who came with it 
from England remained in America, becoming members of the New 
York Stereotypers Union No. 1. 

The first machines, all made for wet mat molding, were not en- 
tirely successful. The difficulty with the Dellagana machine molds, 
seemed always to have been either lack of depth, particularly in the 
bowls of the type, or lack of sharpness of impression. It was found 
that the mat as ordinarily made for the brush process was not 
suitable for the machine because there was so much water in the 
paste and paper that it was forced through the flong by pressure of 
the roller, making the surface of the matrix rough and uneven; and, 
to add to the vexation, the paste soaked into the paper making the 
wet mat hard and difficult to impress. To overcome these difficulties 
various compositions were tried, one of which had for one of its in- 
gredients an acid which acted on the paper as a solvent, reducing 
it to a semi-pulpous condition. In this state the mat was easily 
impressed but the depth so gained was largely at the expense of 
sharpness of impression. In other words, the paper was reduced by 
the solvent to a mushy condition. A better method of obtaining the 
necessary depth, and one which would not destroy or change the 
nature of the paper, was found in the use of a paste which, instead 
of soaking into the paper, would form a coating on its surface, 
thereby giving to the mat a somewhat wax-like quality which in- 
sured a sufficient depth of impression without subjecting the type to 
injurious pressure from the roller. There were various recipes for a 
paste which would fill the requirements noted, but the essential fea- 
ture of all was the employment of as large as possible a proportion 
of a mineral or chalk ingredient. 

The drawbacks inherent in the Dellagana roller did not deter 
others from making experiments on this new departure, and in due 
time others were constructed which definitely did away with the 
drudgery of the brush beating method of molding. A number of 
molders built on the same principle as the Dellagana roller were 
brought on the market in Europe and later on American manufac- 
turers took over at the point where the European inventors and 
manufacturers left off. The result was a large number of practical 
molding machines. 

With the invention of the cold dry mat process, however, diffi- 
culty was experienced with machines of the old design as the speed 

C 2441] 



at which they were usually operated was too great to give proper 
results when this method of molding dry mats was employed. Also, 
owing to the different texture of the dry mat from that of the wet 
mat and the fact that the gears and upper lock were thrown slightly 
out of pitch when in operation — thus causing the machine to de- 
velop lost motion — there was a tendency to break off letters where 
parts of the plates overhung the type body. 

The German dry mat makers, being the first to produce dry mats 
in quantity, were well aware that these detriments would hinder 
the rapid introduction of the use of dry mats, and brought the prob- 
lems to the attention of their machine manufacturers. Rollers per- 
fectly adapted to the molding of dry mats were the answer. The 
first heavy duty roller was built in Leipzig, Germany. 

As soon as it became apparent that the dry mat was about to 
duplicate its European success in America, American manufac- 
turers stopped importing European rollers and began the manu- 
facture of these machines in the United States. The first rollers were 
built by the F. Wesel Company, the Potter Printing Company 
(Rapid Matrix Roller), the Wood Newspaper Machinery Corpora- 
tion, and R. Hoe & Company. 

The first roller was a hand matrix molding machine. The claim 
for this new invention, made by Mr. F. Wesel, was that it embodied 
one exclusive feature, namely that heretofore the bed of a matrix 
roller had been supported by stationary weights, and the roller track 
by the bed. This created abnormal friction and distorted the mold 
in the mat. The bed of the Wesel roller was supported by rollers the 
same as on power driven machines. The gearing insured uniform 
travel of both bed and roller; therefore friction was eliminated and 
the pressure applied uniformly and vertically, doing away with the 
cause of all distortions. 

The final development in this kind of machine was the so-called 
heavy duty roller. These newest types of rollers are equipped with 
a variable speed motor which is instantly adjustable for rolling-in 
either wet or dry mats. The usual time of travel in one direction of 
the roller for wet mats is five seconds; for dry mats it is from 15 
to 40 seconds. Today there are on the market a great many makes of 
rollers, both in America and in Europe; in England: Knowles, 
others are imported from Germany and United States; in Germany: 
Vomay, Voeban, Frankenthal, M-A-N; in America: Duplex, Goss, 
Hoe, Ostrander, Scott and Wood. 

Direct Pressure Molding: in 1908 a description of a machine for 

C245] 



impressing and drying stereotype matrices appeared in a trade pe- 
riodical. It differs from the machines ordinarily employed, in that 
neither brush nor roller are used to produce the impression. The 
peculiarity of the invention is that the mold is made by direct pres- 
sure which is not exerted all over the form at the same time, but 
is brought to bear, first at the center of the form and then on the 
other portions, working from the center out to the edges, thus gradu- 
ally expelling the air under the mat. The platen of the machine is 
made of sections, the central platen being pressed first, then the 
sections immediately adjacent to the middle sections are depressed 
and the pressure gradually extended until a perfectly clear impres- 
sion of the entire body of the type has been obtained. After the 
several platen sections have all been brought into operation, the 
pressure therein is maintained by stopping the rotary movement 
of the cylinder of the platen until the impression has set, or until 
the mat is dried. The drying is accomplished by steam heat — the bed 
of the machine being cast hollow and heated in the same manner as 
an ordinary steam table. As the form is not moved until the matrix 
is dry, all danger of doubling the mat is eliminated. 

This was the first reference ever made to a direct pressure mold- 
ing press and such presses represent the latest innovation in stereo- 
type molding operations. 

One of the main arguments offered in favor of these presses is 
that they do away with the great drawback of rapid wear of costly 
type supposedly occasioned by matrix rollers. Furthermore, the 
makers of these presses guarantee die cast molds. 

At first vertical pressure was adopted by building toggle presses 
in order to obtain the enormous pressure necessary for molding 
halftone blocks. After such machines had been in use for some time 
stereotypers complained that toggle presses did not prevent wear of 
type nor defective molding, because the gap between the two platens 
was always the same and because the thickness of the packing always 
varied and could not possibly be accommodated in each instance as 
exactly as required. 

It was felt that only by introducing hydraulic pressure would it 
be possible to obtain uniform and exactly adjustable pressure inde- 
pendent of the thickness of packing. The result of this reasoning was 
the creation of the hydraulic matrix molding press. 

The first toggle press in the United States for stereotyping pur- 
poses was built by Ferdinand Wesel of New York. 

The first hydraulic press was built by Rockstroh and Schneider 

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C248] 



of Leipzig in 1911. It had, as have all subsequent presses, a flat 
platen equal to the full size of the sheet, which descends over the 
whole surface at once. 

A much improved hydraulic press was built by Koenig & Bauer 
in 1914 for 500 tons pressure, and was installed in a stereotyping 
plant in Copenhagen, Denmark. In the beginning the press head 
and frame were made of cast iron of a special alloy. Today all parts 
which are under stress are made of first class electro steel. Leather 
packing has been displaced by metal packing. The pillars between 
press cylinder and press head are today replaced by strong tie 
frames of full width, interlocked with each other. These presses may 
be used for hot or cold molding, and electrical heating is furnished. 

The best known presses on the market: 

In England: practically all presses used are imported from Ger- 
many and the United States; in Germany: Koebau, Vomag, Hy- 
drotyp, Frankenthal, Winkler, M-A-N; in America: Directomat, 
Hoe, Ostrander-Seymour, Stereotex. 

A few remarks about the use of these presses in the stereotyping 
industry are in order. The direct pressure molding press has, in 
Europe, displaced the heavy duty roller almost entirely. Rollers are 
used in small plants only. For instance, in Germany directly after 
the World War 118 direct pressure molding presses and 197 rollers 
were in use. Today about 80% of the molding machines used are 
hydraulic presses. 

About 1926 the first European made direct pressure molding 
presses of modern construction were introduced into the United 
States. At once a number of American manufacturers seized upon 
the idea and started making American presses. However, the in- 
troduction of this molding system has been very slow in the United 
States, but in those plants where the presses have been in practical 
use for some time the statement is made that work finished on the 
roller cannot begin to compare with molding done by these direct 
pressure presses. 

The late Major David Broderick was one of the country's fore- 
most experts in the direct pressure molding of stereotype mats. For 
many years he had revolving in his mind a rather unique method 
for molding stereotype mats which would employ the use of air 
pressure. The stereotype chase in which the form is composed would 
have to be built with a suitable locking device so that when the mat 
is set in position on the form, it would create an airtight seal. Air 
pressure would then be applied of sufficient strength to make the 

£249;] 



necessary impression in the mat. This would eliminate the necessity 
for the cork blankets and other packing now used under the regula- 
tion roller and also under direct pressure molding. 

Blanketing: In molding wet mats the standard practice in early 
days was to use a heavy woven felt blanket. When the impression 
was made, the felt molding blanket was removed and cotton drying 
blankets substituted under the steamtable. In some plants they used 
a cork blanket, which was coated with a pyroxilin substance, next 
to the mat and the felt on top of this. 

When dry mats began to come into vogue, stereotypers still used 
a felt next to the mat. Usually it was a thinner felt than had been 
used on wet mats, and a cork blanket on top of this. It soon be- 
came evident that felt next to the dry mat gave too soft a cushion- 
ing and the felts were gradually eliminated. 

The stereotypers began using cork next to the mat with a fibre 
or steel board on top and that is the general practice today. 

With one particular make of mat it has been found necessary to 
use a rubber creeper next to the mat and the cork and board on 
top of this. In some plants they place a sheet of newsprint approxi- 
mately .003" thick or a sheet of mailing wrapper approximately 
.004" thick next to the mat and the cork and board on top of this. 

Direct Pressure Molding: 

Cold molding: In the hydraulic presses for cold molding the 
standard practice is to have a rubber blanket or a combination rub- 
ber and fabric blanket attached to the head of the press. 

Hot molding: For hot molding, where the mat is to be dried on 
the form in the press in which it has been molded, the usual practice 
is to use three or four Molleton blankets on coarse screen work for 
both molding and drying, and for fine screen work to use a layer of 
felt papers. 

Hot molding for transfer: For transfer work, that is, where the 
mat is to be molded under direct pressure and dried under a steam- 
table, there is no standard practice. Each shop seems to have worked 
out a combination that gives them best results. For this kind of work 
Molletons are used, as well as cork blankets in conjunction with 
rubber blankets or in conjunction with felts. Usually the molding 
blankets are removed and the regulation drying blankets are sub- 
stituted when the mat is transferred to a steam table. 

The backing operation: After molding, the mat is backed, an 
operation indispensable with wet and dry mats alike. Gummed felt 
strips are placed on the back of the mat in particularly open spaces 

C250] 



in order that the mat can withstand the weight and force of the 
metal in casting the plates, as otherwise the mat would give way in 
these open spaces and cause smudges in the printed pages. At first 
backing came in large sheets of felt, which were cut into strips as 
needed and a specially prepared wet paste was spread by hand on 
the back of each strip. Later on the felt was delivered already cov- 
ered with paste, and then it became the practice to sell gummed strips 
cut to such lengths and sizes as desired. This backing operation is 
a tedious and sticky one; however, it is of great importance for the 
delivery of perfect printing plates and thus must be skillfully per- 
formed. 

A number of devices to perform this backing operation by ma- 
chine have been constructed. All of them involve the use of more 
or less complicated mechanisms, are expensive, and have so far 
not been able to compete with the accuracy of hand done backing. 

A device protected by a great number of different patents is one 
invented in 1916 by Adolph Reisser of Vienna. We show only one of 
these machines in this compilation in order to give the reader an 
idea of the construction of such a backing machine. 

In the preamble of his patent, Reisser states that the backing 
operation is bothersome, takes up a lot of time, which is of prime 
importance in the manufacture of plates. 

The method of operation of one of his machines to perform 
mechanized backing is carried through in this manner: Pieces of 
felt board of one or more sizes and thicknesses are mechanically cut 
off or are taken from a magazine containing this felt board. They 
are attached to the back of the mat according to the size and shape 
of the space to be backed. In case of larger areas, thicker strips are 
used. The machine operates as follows: Several strips of such dif- 
ferent widths and thicknesses as may be desired are brought into 
position so that with every stroke of the machine a piece of pre- 
determined length is cut off and shoved forward to a gripper 
mechanism which carries the strip over a paste cylinder which is 
situated under a stamping device, which in turn presses the strip 
upon a space in the mat. This space may be suitably indicated by 
some kind of mark. 

Another one of his machines works as follows: the strips to be 
pasted onto the mat are pre-cut to size and are deposited in maga- 
zines. Then with each stroke of the machine one or several sheets 
of backing are picked up, supplied with paste, and then pressed 
down onto the proper space in the mat. 



Many attempts have been made to manufacture dry mats so con- 
structed as to eliminate any need for backing. Such mats have been 
put on the market. However, inherent drawbacks such as losing cen- 
tral over the shrinkage and excessive hardness, deleterious to the 
type matter, and loss of necessary depth in molding, have prevented 
these p re-backed mats from being used in stereotype foundries. It 
would be useless to go so far as to explain how these mats are made. 
All of them are based on the addition of lithopon resins, astringent 
chemicals, filling earths and special adhesives. The old method of 
backing by hand still remains the one most employed and most 
efficient. 

Scorching: Since molded dry mats are still moist they must be 
thoroughly dried preparatory to casting, as otherwise the heat of 
the metal in casting the plates, generally from 600° F. to 650° F., 
would create steam which would repel the metal from the mats and 
cause imperfect printing plates. The drying of the mats is done in 
roasters or scorchers. These machines at the same time help shape 
the mats to conform to the curvature of the cylinders of the print- 
ing presses. 

The first dryers of dry mats to be invented were: The old Wesel 
flat dryers, the Pepe rotary dryer, the Davis matrix dryer of 1895; 
then followed the Wood semi-circular, the Cemer, the Clark, the 
Hoe, the Duplex tubular, the Centrifugal, and the latest type, 
the all automatic Sta-Hi vacuum dry mat former. The Sta-Hi 
takes the dry mat in its plastic state, vacuum shrinks it to minimum 
width, vacuum forms not only the solids of the types to uniform 
casting levels, but also vacuum forms perfect bolsters, and delivers 
the dry mat electrically baked at casting temperature in a minimum 
of time. A far cry from the primitive method of drying mats on iron 
plates placed over the metal pot. (See illustration No. 82.) 

In 1885 a dryer was invented by G. P. Pepe of the "London 
Telegraph", where he was stereotype foreman. This stereotyper took 
out the first patent on a rotary scorcher. He dried a number of 
wet mats at one time through a combination of hot air and steam 
in a rotating device. It took just as long to dry the mats by this 
method as it did drying them on the steamtable. The improvement 
made by Pepe is to be found in the fact that the type was not 
subjected to such heat and did not expand as when using steam- 
tables. Due to this novel process, a column of a newspaper shrank 
five lines in length and correspondingly in width. The form was set 
up longer to compensate for this. Pepe showed his paper extra profit 

C252 3 




95. Pouring (Showing Arrangement of Gas Jets) 

C253 3 




96. Adjusting the Casting Box Prior to Casting 

C2543 



in its five page ad section. The compositors had the advantage that 
their forms did not stick together. 

Pepe employed a hollow drum, upon the exterior surface of 
which he arranged a number of hinged clamping frames to hold 
the matrices in contact with the drum. The drum is made with 
projections or ribs to act in combination with hollows in the 
clamping frames or vice versa. The drum is mounted in a casing 
with capability of revolving upon a hollow axle, through which 
steam is introduced into the interior of the drum. 

At some convenient part or parts of the apparatus a fire is 
arranged and the products of combustion conducted therefrom 
through a flue carried partially or entirely around the exterior 
of the drum and near to the stereotype matrices clamped thereon. 
In the casing an outlet or outlets are employed for the escape of 
moisture driven out of the stereotype matrices. The fire or fires may 
be employed to melt the metal required to produce the stereotype, 
and with this object, one or more melting pots at some convenient 
part of the apparatus are arranged. In some cases Pepe dispenses 
with a special fire for the apparatus, and passes through the flue, 
around or partly around the drum, heated air or products of com- 
bustion obtained from other sources. Pepe claimed that by the use 
of his improved apparatus the production of stereotype matrices for 
newspaper and other printing was very greatly facilitated and 
cheapened, as the time employed in drying the same was greatly 
reduced, while by the peculiar form and action of the apparatus the 
buckling or unequal drying and shrinkage of the matrices was 
prevented. 

His invention also enabled him to retain in position in the 
matrices the pieces of cardboard employed to retain the form of 
the white spaces, so that when the matrices were dried they required 
only little finishing. This effect was obtained by clamping the 
matrices on to the revolving drum with their backs toward the 
drum, the pieces of cardboard in the white spaces being also in 
contact with the drum and thereby held in position during the 
drying operation. 

The technical superintendent of the "Daily News" in London in 
1890 dried the wet mats quicker by putting them on a gas heated 
iron plate upon which a small amount of white sand was strewn. 

Preheating: Preheating was done at first in a crude way; hold- 
ing the mat over the metal oven, placing on a hot plate, holding it 

C 255 3 



out of the window, etc. The importance of preheating emerged 
and devices were built. 

A number of devices known under the designation "preheaters" 
are in use in stereotype plants in America. A preheater is a special 
stereotype mat preheating box designed to maintain mats at suitable 
casting temperatures during the interval which occurs from the time 
the mats are removed from the dryer or scorcher and the actual 
casting operation. 

When a mat is taken out of the scorcher for even one minute, 
it begins to chill. It loses the high temperature to which it has been 
raised in the scorcher. As a result the first and sometimes as many as 
three casts taken from the mat must be discarded because of cold 
spots. To bring the mat back to the required temperature, to avoid 
cold spots in the plates, it is necessary for the casting machine 
operator to again place the mat in the scorcher to bring up the 
temperature of the mat. Even when this is done there is always the 
possibility that the temperature will not be just right when the 
mat finally is taken out of the scorcher for transfer to the casting 
machine. 

To present a typical example of such a preheater, the one devised 
by C. G. Hamblen of Pittsburgh, Pa., is selected. His preheater is 
made of yi" cold rolled steel. Over all it is 4y 2 " thick and 24^" 
long, with a 30 degree radius. It is divided into two compartments 
— storage in the front and heating in the rear. 

The storage compartment, which will hold up to six mats, is 
\y 2 " wide and 16" high. The heating chamber has an opening of 
y 2 " and is \7y 2 " high in the front and 20" high in the rear. In 
the center of the front section of the heating chamber there is a 
2" hand size cut-out so that mats may be placed in and withdrawn 
easily from the y 2 " opening of the heating chamber. 

The servicer is anchored to the outer rim of the metal pot, and 
because of its 30 degree radius, fits snugly against the pot. It is 
attached to the pot by two slotted, half-inch bolts, one vertical and 
one horizontal, making it possible to install or remove the servicer 
in a minute or two at the most. The servicer can be anchored at a 
position where it can be reached within arm's length by the 
operator of the casting machine. 

Shrinkage: During the drying, and later on in the casting opera- 
tion, the dry mat shrinks due to the loss of moisture; the greater 
the moisture in a mat the more it shrinks. When dry mats were 
first made in the United States of America they were a failure 

[2563 



because they shrank in all sorts of ways — lengthwise and sidewise 
of the page. No two mats shrank uniformly. We know that before 
mats were made here, imported German dry mats only were used 
in America, and in analyzing their shrinkage it was discovered that 
the mats cut at the German mills from the mat web, shrank more 
in one direction than the other. Some were cut crosswise to the 
making of the web and some lengthwise. No attempt was made in 
any European country to benefit from the shrinkage in the mat. 

After attempts at use by American newspapers the dry mat was 
condemned because of the undependable shrinkage. The German 
mat caused some pages to be longer and narrower resulting in pages 
of variable widths when cast in the plants. It seemed that no two 
pages could be cast of identical length. 

It was found that the dry mat shrunk in one way with respect 
to its method of making, and that the stereotyper could rely on 
that shrinkage if he knew which way the mats had been made. It 
occurred to the stereotypers that they could get %" shrinkage across 
the width, and that this shrinkage, properly controlled and used, 
would mean a saving in newsprint to the publishers. Due to this 
shrinkage it is today possible, without altering present makeup in 
any way, to print on narrower newsprint paper with uniform results. 
The margin of shrinkage is, when dry mats are properly manu- 
factured and moistened, constant and uniform, and is always under 
the control of the stereotyper. 

Shrinkages with dry mats may be had from l /^" to Y\" depend- 
ing upon the width of the rolls on which the papers are printed. 
The ratio of shrinkage in width to shrinkage in column length is 
2 to 1. Publishers can therefore obtain maximum shrinkage in width, 
which means maximum saving in cost of newsprint, and yet keep 
the extra work in the composing room down to a minimum. If the 
shrinkage in column width is 3% the shrinkage in column length 
will be approximately 1^%. For example, a newspaper composes 
its forms 301 lines in length and 8 columns, 12 ems with 6-point 
rules in width. Such a form will measure 16% 6 " in width and 
21 J^" in length. Taking it for granted that this assumed newspaper 
wants a printed page 16" in width and 301 lines in length, the 
shrfnkage in width is % 6 " ', which is 3%. The corresponding shrink- 
age in length with dry mats would therefore be U/2% of 30! lines, 
or Ay 2 lines. In order to print a column of 301 lines it would there- 
fore be necessary to compose the form 305^2 lines. Through the 

[257] 



shrinkage in the mat the actual printed page would measure 16" 
in width and 301 lines in length. 

Metal Pots: The metal used for making stereotypes has varied 
but little during more than 250 years. With the old (1690) wet 
paper pulp process it was made of antimony, tin and lead. The 
same metal combination is used in the plaster, clay, wet and dry 
mat stereotyping processes. There have been modifications in the 
quantities of these ingredients, the process of refining the metal 
has been greatly perfected, and the purity and cleansing of the metal 
has been greatly improved. The equipment and devices used in 
melting the metal and in pouring it upon the molds is the same 
as used in 1690, perfected however to a great extent. 

The first smelters were simple ovens and a common ladle was 
used for pouring the metal. The plaster or clay process employed 
a metal pot that had to be square and somewhat deep, also suffi- 
ciently large to permit the casting or dipping pans to be immersed; 
it was placed near a wall in order to allow the fixing of a crane 
for lowering or raising the casting pans. 

In the use of the wet mat process the metal pot was practically 
the same as heretofore, but was equipped with a large cover or 
bonnet made of sheet iron about three feet high, tapering at the 
top and having an outlet through an iron pipe into the flue. 

With all processes the metal was carefully skimmed of all im- 
purities, which floated to the surface, with a perforated scoop or 
skimmer. A few drops of oil or a piece of tallow was added to 
the metal as a cleansing agent. The proper heat of the metal was 
placed at 600° F., which is practically what it is today. 

The old metal scoop has since been supplanted in larger estab- 
lishments by metal pumps which were built into the metal pots, 
some holding up to 10,000 pounds of metal, or made in one piece 
with these pots. The heating was originally done with wood, later on 
with coal, and finally with high pressure gas or electricity. 

One gas-heated pot, controlled by a Partlow burner, with a 
capacity of 2,000 pounds of metal, takes care of the flat casting. 
Another pot, electrically heated with a capacity of 10,000 pounds, 
supplies metal to the casting boxes for curved work. An interest- 
ing feature of this pot is a small motor controlling an agitation 
blade in the bottom, which, moving very slowly, keeps the alloy 
constantly in good mixture. Thermostatic control allows careful 
check on the temperature at all times with the standard formula 

C2583 




97. Flat Stereotype Casting Box for Paper 

Process 







98. M. J. Hughes — Combined Furnace and 
Hot Water Casting Box 



[259^ 





99. Curved and Flat Casting Boxes 




100. Hand Casting Box 
[260] 



being kept constant through careful supervision of the office of the 
Technical Director. 

Casting: With the wet paper pulp method of 1690, the casting 
operation was performed in a very simple manner. A "flask" was 
constructed of two small wooden boards or of tin plates and the 
molded pulp matrix was locked between them. An opening was 
made between the two boards to provide a means of entry for 
the molten metal. A funnel was placed in this hole and the molten 
metal was poured in on the form. It was then immersed in a tank 
of cold water for cooling. 

With the plaster of Paris and clay methods casting pans were 
used. The following is a typical example, covering practically all 
plaster and clay process casting methods: In the baked mold, at 
the moment it is taken from the baking oven, a small nick called a 
gate is cut into each of its four corners. To admit the molten metal 
the mold is placed in the casting pan. This pan is an oblong, square 
vessel of cast iron about 4" deep, the sides of which slope outwards 
at a small angle. On the bottom of the pan rests a plate of iron, 
the upper surface of which is turned smooth and level and the four 
corners rather rounded off to allow the molten metal to flow under 
it. The pan has a flat iron cover, the corners of which are rounded 
off to admit the metal. (Illustration 62 shows this pan.) 

Many modifications of these casting pans for plaster and clay 
stereotyping were invented. However, the basic idea was always the 
use of a pan, and up to the advent of papier-mache wet stereo- 
typing pans only were used. 

One invention may be of interest: In 1867 J. M. Willbur of 
Ohio, patented an improvement in casting stereotypes by which he 
cast several plates at one time, using clay molds. He constructed a 
pan made up of different ledges, on which he placed a number of 
molds face downwards in the bottom of the pan. These molds have a 
sufficient number of creases in the sides to permit the molten metal 
to flow into and fill these molds. Then a plate or ledge is placed on 
these several molds, and on this plate again a number of creased 
molds are placed. Another ledge is inserted and several creased 
molds are placed on this plate, and so forth. Then the pan is closed 
with screws and the casting is performed (after heating the form 
to the temperature of the metal) by pouring the molten metal, 
sufficient to cover the topmost ledge. (See illustration 76.) 

With the advent of wet mat stereotyping in 1829 the use of 
casting pans was displaced by casting boxes. When the dry mat 

C261] 



was introduced in 1893 the same kind of boxes were adopted for 
that process. 

The construction of such a box was as follows: It consisted of 
two thick iron surfaces, the top one serving as a lid. They are 
hinged to one another; these hinges are made by two protruding 
pins at one end, fitting loosely into slots on either side of the bed. 
By this means, plates of any thickness could be cast, the height 
being regulated by iron gauges placed around the matrix. The box 
is supported in a low upright frame by two swivels in the center. 
The lid and bed are held firmly together by a movable bar, which 
works loosely over a pin on one side of the bed, and when the lid 
is closed down may be swung around and securely clamped by a 
center screw. The mouth of the box is slightly bevelled inwards 
to permit the metal to be poured without spilling. These boxes were 
called flat casting boxes. 

From 1829 on, many casting devices were invented but none 
of them succeeded in replacing these flat casting boxes. 

Up to the beginning of the 19th century stereotyping was prac- 
ticed almost solely for the printing of books. Newspapers did not 
print large editions. Therefore, stereotyping was not used in their 
plants. The forms were set up of cast type and the old fashioned 
flatbed presses printed from that type. When cylinder presses were 
invented (1813) stereotype plates made by the plaster method were 
curved to fit these press cylinders. 

When wet mat stereotyping was introduced in the printing of 
newspapers, it became necessary to make curved plate casting boxes, 
and when the dry mat method of stereotyping appeared on the scene 
such boxes were also used. 

The first intimation of using curved stereotype plates cast from 
a flexible paper matrix, i.e., the wet mat placed in a curved mold, 
is to be found in the patent which Jacob Warms of Paris obtained 
in France in 1849, who later protected his invention through 
DeWitte in England in 1850. This was the process that made web 
printing practicable. 

In 1854 Charles Craske of New York cast his first curved plate, 
which he called a semi-cylindrical plate, in the following manner: 
The mat was fastened in a casting mold or box curved to the 
circumference of the cylinder of the press, and molten stereotype 
metal poured upon it. During the process the box stood upright, 
but while the mat was being placed into position it lay horizontally, 
a swivel mounting enabling it to be readily turned. 

£2623 



In 1863 John C. Macdonald and Joseph Calvery, employees of 
the "London Times/' were granted a patent for "improvements in 
the manufacture and application of printing apparatus". The 
patentees employed the ordinary wet mat way of stereotyping, but 
they cast the plates in a tubular form, cylindrical on the external 
surface. In 1866 they were granted an additional patent on further 
improvements. From that time on, numerous curved plate casting 
boxes were constructed and placed on the market. 

In one of these curving processes after the impression has been 
taken from the flat plate the mold is bent to the full extent of the 
required curvature to make the curved plate, and then the metal cast 
or deposited on or in such curved mold. This method shortens the 
curved plate dependent upon the thickness of depth of the mold and 
degree or extent of its curvature. 

An improvement of these processes consisted in the "shell" being 
made flat in the usual way and then bent to the required extent of 
the curved plate. This more or less lengthens the shell according to 
the curvature and thickness of the shell and character of the surface, 
a smooth or plain surface not being so much affected as a deeply 
engraved one. In a third process the plate was made flat in the 
usual way and then bent to the full curve required. This also had 
the drawback of lengthening the plate to a degree dependent upon 
the curvature and thickness of the plate. 

As time passed by the newspapers became larger and larger 
and stressed the need for more speed in all operations. Time saving 
became increasingly essential in the highly competitive field of 
newspaper production, and thus the slowness of the hand casting box 
methods became a problem. Engineers realized the time had arrived 
to devise the mechanical casting of stereotype plates to supplant or 
to be used in conjunction with the hand boxes. The slow working 
hand casting boxes are still in widespread use in smaller newspaper 
foundries, but almost all newspapers with a circulation of 15,000 
copies or over have, in order to be able to compete, installed auto- 
matic casting machines. Of these latter there are two systems, the 
vertical and the horizontal machines. The vertical ones still retain 
the so-called tailpiece, whereas the horizontal ones have no tail- 
piece. These machines are either semi-automatic or entirely auto- 
matic. With the former the casting is done by hand, the subsequent 
treatment, however, is done automatically by means of different 
mechanical steps. The first machine of this kind was the "Citoplate" 
invented and manufactured by C. E. Hopkins and Ferdinand Wesel, 

C263] 



both of Brooklyn, N. Y. Then came the "Compleo" caster, made 
by Koenig and Bauer in Wurzburg, then followed the Hoe, Duplex, 
Scott, Goss and the Autoplate Junior casting machines. Another 
semi-automatic casting machine, now obsolete on account of the 
sensitivity of its mechanism, was the "Rotoplate" invented by Egli. 
The man to first invent an entirely automatic casting machine 
which proved to be successful in actual operation was Henry A. 
Wise Wood of New York. His first patent was taken out in the 
year 1900 and the machine was first used in the stereotype foundry 
of the ''New York Herald." For his invention the Franklin Institute 
awarded Mr. Wood the Elliott Cresson Gold Medal on June 3rd, 
1908. He designated his machine as the Standard Autoplate Caster. 
Since the time of the issuance of his first patent. Mr. Wood made a 
legion of improvements on his original machine. It is interesting 
to note that one of his first Autoplates is still in use in England. 
In order of their appearance on the market the Wood inventions 
comprised the Standard Autoplate, the Semi- Autoplate, the Junior 
Autoplate, single and double, the Senior Autoplate, and finally the 
latest of them all, the Automatic Autoplate. With Wood's machines 
the operation of casting is performed automatically from the time 
the mat is put into position until the finished plate is ready to be 
clamped onto the printing press. In lieu of the six and seven men 
hitherto employed, three or four men produce four plates per 
minute on a single Automatic. In the Standard Autoplate the casting 
is done against a horizontal cylinder or core, the interior of which 
is cooled by water. Below it is a frame or "back" carrying the mat. 
This back has an up and down movement of about six inches and 
when it is in its topmost position there is a semi-circular space 
between it and the core, equal in length, breadth and thickness to 
the plate which is to be cast. Molten metal having been injected 
into this space by a pump, there is a pause of a few seconds to 
permit of solidification, and then the back falls, bringing away 
the mat for another cast. Immediately afterwards the cylinder makes 
a half turn and presents what was previously its upper half to the 
mat for another cast. The first cast is taken with it as it turns, and 
is then pushed along from the top of the core against two rotating 
saws which trim its edges. Next it comes under a shaving arch, 
where it rests while its interior surface is smoothed to a proper 
thickness, and finally water is directed against its back to cool it 
without wetting its printing face. The Junior Autoplate is a semi- 
automatic plate casting machine. The casting is done against a 

C264-] 




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C266] 



vertical cylinder or core, whereas in the Standard Autoplate the 
casting is done against a horizontal core. The Junior Autoplate has 
been found more practical and has supplanted the Standard machine. 

The latest development in the Autoplate machine is the so-called 
"Automatic". This casts four plates in one minute and this is the 
fixed uniform speed of the machine. It has no other speed. The 
machine requires no attention other than the insertion or removal 
of mats or the removal of plates and tails. The operator inserts 
a mat, presses a button, and then removes plate and tail. (See 
illustration No. 102.) 

There are many other outstanding inventions in this field but 
our space is too limited to give due appreciation and mention to all 
of them. A few instances are as follows: 

Another completely automatic plate casting machine is the 
"Multiplate" invented by Annard and built in England. The caster 
has a pump which is similarly constructed as in the Autoplate 
Standard. The machine is also a horizontal one, but the core is so 
made that it contracts under pressure. It takes the plate out of the 
casting receptacle or bowl into the boring, which then takes the 
plate to the part of the shaving bowl by means of an endless belt 
and deposits it upon a table. 

A new development in the automatic casting machine field is 
the "Winkler" patent automatic plate casting machine. It is built 
in Switzerland and in Germany. A factory in the United States is 
now reported to be building the machine for the American trade. 
This machine embodies a number of patented features and new 
principles, which permit the production of perfectly true and solid 
stereotype plates without "tailpiece", without pumps, without sub- 
sequent shaving, without trimming or hand-finishing. In other words, 
after a short automatic operation, a perfectly finished stereotype 
plate is produced which is absolutely ready for the rotary press. 
The fundamental idea in designing the "Winkler" casting machine 
was to connect directly the casting box with the melting pot in 
such a way that the stereotype plate is cast without a tail but under 
the head of the whole contents of the metal pot by gravity, that is 
to say, at a pressure most suitable for obtaining a perfectly true 
and solid plate. The machine consists of (1) a melting furnace, 
(2) a hood with self-closing door, (3) one valve with automatic 
lubrication, (4) one pyrometer, (5) one enclosed driving gear with 
motor and starter, and one casting box comprising one casting shell, 
one core, one matrix clamping device, two rings and an automatic 

[267: 



water-cooling arrangement for shell and core. The operation: Only 
work done by hand is setting the matrix (once only), starting the 
machine by foot pedal, removing the finished plate, everything else 
being done automatically by the machine. Other claims for the 
machine are economy of metal, economy of fuel (50% saving), 
low casting temperature, higher output, less floor space required and 
the use of exceptionally hard metal. 

The same system is followed by Koenig & Bauer of Wurzburg 
and a number of other European machine factories. (See illustra- 
tions No. 99, 100, 103.) 

Vacuum Casting Boxes: This section on improved casting boxes 
would not be complete without some comment on vacuum casting. 
It is not our purpose to discuss the relative merits of the various 
boxes. Almost all the manufacturers of casting equipment supply 
their boxes either with or without vacuum, and vacuum can be 
obtained on both or one side of the box. The Westcott and Thomson 
Company of Philadelphia has contributed greatly to this field, par- 
ticularly in non-newspaper work. They supply only two-sided 
vacuum boxes for flat and curved casting. Other vacuum boxes are 
made by Duplex, Goss, Hoe, Ostrander, Scott and Wood. Some of 
the claims made for vacuum boxes are: Trapped air and gases are 
drawn through the mat, enabling the metal to set smoothly against 
the face of the mat, thereby giving better solids and sharper out- 
lines to type and halftones. Vacuum holds the mat in place causing 
it to conform to the exact contour of the box and also prevents the 
mat from slipping out of place, a feature particularly important 
in making color plates. 

Finishing: When the plates have been cast they are subjected to 
a number of finishing operations preparing them for their final 
destination, the printing press. These operations are performed by 
auxiliary machines: (1) a combination saw and trimmer or similar 
individual machines, used for sawing and trimming the plates. 
(2) Routers for removing any protruding areas of metal on the 
stereotype plate that might take ink and print. (3) Shavers, which 
smooth the interior surface of the plates. (4) Bevelers, which form 
the bevels by which the plates are clamped to the presses. 

To explain chronologically: With the plaster and clay processes 
the contraction of the metal on the face as well as on the back of 
the cast was always spread unequally, and for this reason the plate 
had to be flattened before finishing in the ordinary way. This meant 
trimming the superfluous metal on the inside and running a small 

[268IJ 



straight edge over the face, thus showing up the indentations. These 
plates were marked with a pair of calipers on the back, and they 
were knocked up to the required height with a planer or burnishing 
hammer. Then the back of the extremely uneven plate was planed 
to a uniform thickness on a specially constructed lathe. Then the 
plate was planed and beveled. 

With the wet mat, after the plates were cast they were separated 
and trimmed by use of a circular saw. In the beginning this saw 
was worked by a treadle. Then the plates were planed to reduce them 
to the proper thickness by a planing machine. The early planing 
machines were operated by hand, later on by steam or electricity. 
Finally the plates were beveled. Then with a sharp chisel or gauge 
any metal that appeared unnecessarily high in the whites was 
chipped away. This was formerly done by hand, today it is done by 
a routing machine. 

The dry mat process was introduced in 1894, long after the 
plaster, clay and wet mat processes had been in continuous use. 
The same operations as above described were performed for finish- 
ing the plates, but most of the old hand-worked devices had passed 
out of the picture and modern machines were used from the very 
start of the dry mat stereotyping process. 

Among the pioneers of precision printing and plate making 
machinery is the former Claybourn Process Corporation, now the 
Claybourn Division of C. B. Cottrell & Sons Co. This company is 
responsible for many outstanding achievements in the printing and 
plate making field. 

Out of their constant aim for better plates and better printing, 
they developed superior four and five color printing presses and 
multicolor proof presses. In order to make possible duplicate plates 
of quality and precision there was developed a 2,000 ton lead and 
mat moulding press, a combination flat rougher and shaver, a 
curved borer and shaver, a router, a proof press for curved plates, 
a gauging machine and many tools and accessories for finishing. 

Printing presses: Before closing this chapter, a few words about 
the evolution of the modern printing press may be of interest, not 
only to refresh the memories of the master stereotypers, but to 
afford information to the students enrolled in schools where stereo- 
typing and printing is taught, and also to the members of classes in 
schools of journalism. 

The first press: Johannes Gutenberg, the inventor of printing, 
constructed a press to carry out his invention. As a model, he took 

[269] 



a common wine press. Gutenberg's press was a wooden screw press 
made of different parts, all of which could be taken apart. It con- 
sisted of two upright timbers with connected crosspieces at top and 
bottom and with two intermediate cross timbers. The lower one 
was the support of the form of type. Through the upper passed a 
large wooden screw, the lower end of which rested on the end of a 
wooden platen. After the form of type was fastened to this page 
it was inked by hand ink-balls made of wool covered with soft 
leather. A sheet of paper, previously dampened, was then laid care- 
fully upon the type and the bed pushed to its place. A wooden 
lever was thrown into its socket and the platen screwed down, held 
for a moment and then raised. Then the bed was drawn out and the 
printed sheet removed and hung up to dry. 

The basic principles of the Gutenberg press were preserved in 
all presses used up to the end of the 18th century. With his first 
press Gutenberg could make 300 impressions a day working con- 
stantly. 

Later on in a period of universal revival a reforming hand 
entered on the scene. Today it appears incredible that with such 
primitive equipment in which carpenter work constituted the main 
element, so many splendid works, greatly admired still in our day, 
could have been produced. 

A Dutch printer named Jansson Blaeu, who at the same time was 
a well-known mathematician and astronomer, undertook in the year 
1699 the task of correcting the many faults existing in the old 
Gutenberg press. He performed his task with success, and after 
having constructed improved presses in accordance with his ideas, he 
installed nine of them in his own printing plant, baptising them 
in the names of the nine Muses. 

His improvements consisted in passing the spindle of the screw 
through the wooden block which was guided into wooden frame, 
and from which hung the platen. He also invented a device for 
rolling the page in and out under the platen and improved the 
hand lever for turning the screw. 

About 1650 W. Danner of Nuremberg replaced the customary 
wooden screw spindle with one made of brass. Later on both the 
foundation or the base plate, which was at first made of wood or 
of stone, and the mobile platen, were cast in iron. It was believed 
that owing to these improvements great strides in the art had been 
made. However, the platens were small and the impression could 
not be exercised at once over the whole area of the type form; only 

[270] 



one-half of the form could be placed under the platen and then the 
pulling-bar drawn. After a second placing of the other half of the 
form a second stroke of the pulling-bar and only then was the 
printing of the form completed. 

F. W. Haas of Basle, about the end of the 18th century, changed 
the existing presses to a great degree. He constructed almost all 
parts of iron and printed the type form in one stroke. The cele- 
brated French printer, F. Didot, also constructed such an improved 
press. 

The iron age of the printing press, i.e., construction entirely of 
iron, together with an improved stroke-mechanism, arrived at the 
beginning of the 19th century through the general adoption of Lord 
Stanhope's printing press. Stanhope's press was a hand press, giving 
its power by a combination of lever and screw, and was the first 
press made wholly of iron. 

During and after Stanhope's time a great many improvements 
in the hand press were made. America produced two new presses: 
The Ruthven which differed from presses previously made in having 
the bed stationary while the platen was moved to and fro. The 
Columbian press, invented by George Clymer of Philadelphia in 
1817. The crude and defective condition of the printing presses in 
use at the time, commanded his attention and the Columbian was 
the result. The strength of material and scientific combination of 
power of the press took off an amount of wear from the pressman 
never before achieved. Its elbowed pulling-bar, its diagonal connect- 
ing rod, which changed a horizontal movement into a perpendicular 
one and its main lever, applying its weight directly to the form, 
made it extremely popular at the time. The first press of this kind 
was constructed in London and was put up in 1818, and afterwards 
sent to Russia. 

The final development of the hand press came in 1827 when 
Samuel Rust of New York perfected the Washington press. The 
iron frame was lightened and strengthened, the toggle motion was 
improved, and a screw regulated the pressure. With this improved 
hand press came the substitution of composition inking rollers for 
the leather covered ink-balls previously employed. 

In 1822 steam was first used in America as the motive power to 
run a printing press; this was seven years before steam turned the 
wheels of the first locomotive in England. Daniel Treadwell of 
Boston built the pioneer power press. Its frame was constructed of 
wood, its mechanism was clumsy — but it worked. Another Yankee, 

C2713 



Isaac Adam, perfected the press, made it more practical, and in 1830 
he put his press on the market. Isaac Adam "automized" the print- 
ing press. Automatically his press inked the type; automatically it. 
drew the sheet between the type page and the platen for the im- 
pression; automatically it took the sheet now printed from the type 
page; automatically it "flirted", after registering, the sheet to a 
"pile" by a fly invented by Adam and still used on cylinder presses. 
About 1,000 sheets per hour was the maximum speed of this im- 
proved Adam press. 

The use of steam, however, was still in the experimental state. 
Hand power from "crank men" who turned the large wheel was 
sufficient to print the papers of even the daily journals. 

The Ramage press, a small hand press made of wood, was con- 
structed by Adam Ramage the most celebrated of the early press 
makers of the United States. Later it was constructed with an iron 
bed and platen, the first of its kind in the United States. 

Sir Rowland Hill of London, about 1825, first suggested the possi- 
bilities of a press which would print both sides of a sheet at once. 
Englishmen constructed the Cowper, Hopkins and Cogger-Hager 
presses, Germany produced the Dingier, Koch and Hoffman, and 
France the Marinoni and Alanzet presses. 

In 1790 William Nicholson of London took out a patent on a 
cylinder press, but this did not get beyond the drawing of plans. 
Suggestions rather than definite invention, but it helped other 
inventors. 

Invariably inventors paid most attention to the mechanism of 
the pressure of the platen. After the Stanhope presses, which were 
practically indestructible, constructors turned away from the em- 
ployment of screws and proceeded to other mechanical means. 

Although the number of copies one man could deliver daily 
were relatively quite considerable, still the printing industry would 
never have attained the degree of perfection we today enjoy had 
the art been restricted to the hand press. When the editions of 
daily newspapers assumed ever-increasing proportions, mechanical 
genius was forced to cope with the problem. The mechanical print- 
ing press became a reality and with it a new era opened for the 
printing world. 

The first inventor of the mechanical press is Friedrich Koenig of 
Eisleben, Germany. In 1810 he took out his first patent on a 
mechanically driven hand press, and in 1811 Koenig was granted a 

[272] 




103. German Automatic Casting Machine 



12731 




104. "Novoplate" Automatic Caster 



r274] 



patent on a cylinder press. The first machine of this kind was placed 
into operation in the printing plant of Thomas Bensley in London. 

John Walter, publisher of the "London Times," took a great 
interest in the invention and commanded Koenig and his assistant 
Bauer to build a steam-driven cylinder press for the "Times." 
Cognizant of the bad temper rife among the workmen in the 
printing plant, they secretly installed the press in a house adjoining 
the plant of the "Times." When, on the 29th of November 1814, 
the printers came to work, they were told to wait under the pretext 
that the foreign mail had not yet arrived. At six in the morning, 
the hour when the printing in the plant usually started, Walter 
carried the first copy of a paper that had been printed on the new 
press into the room where the workmen were assembled. He reported 
what had transpired, warning the workmen not to commit any acts 
of violence against the new press as he had police on hand for 
protection of his property. The workmen then received full pay and 
were detailed to other work. The press printed 1,100 copies an hour, 
so that the whole edition of the "Times" was printed in three hours 
as against ten hours before. 

Presses built for German newspapers by Koenig & Bauer fol- 
lowing their return to Germany were destroyed by the printers. 

This first mechanical printing press invented by Koenig and 
built in 1811 in London, was naturally a far cry from today's 
ultra-modern rotary presses. The form of type was placed on a 
flat bed which was carried under an impression cylinder that had 
a three-fold action. On the first part the sheet was fed at the bed 
upon the tympan and gripped. On the second part of the revolution 
the sheet received the impression and was removed by hand. On 
the third the empty tympan came up and received another sheet. 
Koenig also invented a most efficient device to roll the page, rolling 
the type to and fro in a reciprocating motion. 

A press, built by Applegath and Cowper for the "London Times" 
and operated in that plant for over 20 years, was equipped with 
eight cylinders, and delivered 10,000 sheets per hour, each sheet 
imprinted on one side only. The cylinders were placed into the axis 
vertically and the ink was applied by means of rollers. 

With the perfection of paper stereotyping the construction of 
newspaper presses pursued an entirely new course. By means of 
stereotyping it was made possible to take matrices of type forms, set 
by the compositors, to curve these mats and thereby obtain curved 

C 275 1 



printing plates, and (an idea that Koenig had already expressed) 
print on an endless roll of paper. 

The honor of taking the decisive step which brought the realiza- 
tion of this plan, belongs to the Americans. They built the first 
rotary printing press, and from that time on furnished the most 
important momentum and impetus which brought on all later im- 
provements. 

In America the first rotary presses were built in 1860; at the end 
of 1860 England followed and in 1870 Germany emulated these 
two countries. 

The rapid growth of newspapers and their problem of increasing 
printing speed served as an incentive to inventors and engineers to 
find ways of perfecting and increasing the productive power of the 
printing presses. Important daily newspapers with large production 
were forced to employ several presses in the manufacture of these 
newspapers in order adequately to serve their readers with these 
large editions. 

In 1832 Robert Hoe of New York sent his engineer, Sereno 
Newton, to London to inspect the Koenig presses, and on the return 
of his agent Hoe began the construction of cylinder presses on the 
same principle as Koenig but according to Hoe's own construction 
plans and his own new inventions. 

When speed and greater production became the slogan, Hoe in 
1847 built his first rotary press using stereotype plates, and desig- 
nated the press as the "Patent Type-Revolving Printing Machine". 
A contemporary of Hoe's expressed the following thought: "Various 
experiments had convinced Hoe of the feasibility of casting stereo- 
type plates with a curve. The process was brought to perfection by 
the use of flexible paper matrices, upon which the metal was cast 
in curved molds of any circle desired. Hoe placed these plates upon 
his type-revolving machine, upon pages adapted to receive them 
instead of the type forms. The newspaper publishers were thus 
enabled to duplicate the forms and run several machines at the 
same time with a view to turning out papers with greater rapidity." 

Such an improved "Patent Rotary Newspaper Perfecting Ma- 
chine" was constructed in 1863 for a London journal. A right to 
manufacture under his original patent was granted by R. Hoe & 
Company to M. Marinoni of Paris. 

These machines were equipped with four to eight feeders. (See 
illustrations No. 124, 125.) The press was designed exclusively for 
stereotype plates and printed both sides of the sheet in one opera- 

C2763 



tion. Two impression cylinders and two form cylinders were placed 
side by side in a horizontal frame, the impression cylinders occupy- 
ing the center with the form cylinders at each end. The two forms 
were secured to their cylinders and inked in much the same manner 
as on the type-revolving machine, the fountains and distributing 
cylinders being placed at the end of the press. A two-feeder machine 
printed from 4,000 to 5,000 perfected eight-page sheets of ordinary 
size per hour, or printed and cut from 8,000 to 10,000 perfected 
four-page sheets of ordinary size per hour. The machine occupied 
a space about 18 feet long, 8}^ feet wide and 6J4 feet high. 

From the Centennial year 1876 up to our day, a legion of im- 
provements in printing presses have been made in Europe and 
America. Important press manufacturers in the United States are 
Duplex, Goss, Hoe, Scott and Wood. In closing this chapter a short 
description of what a modern 1940 newspaper press performs is 
of interest. 

THE NEWSPAPER PRINTING PRESS (shown in illustration 
No. 127) WILL PRINT COMPLETE NEWSPAPERS AT 

THE FOLLOWING RUNNING SPEEDS:— 
840,000 newspapers of 4, 6, 8, 10 or 12 pages per hour, or 
600,000 newspapers of 14 or 16 pages per hour or 
420,000 newspapers of 18, 20, 22 or 24 pages per hour, or 
300,000 newspapers of 26, 28, 30 or 32 pages per hour. 

It should be with pride that stereotypers look at this modern 
giant, since paper stereotyping made possible such a miracle. 

Presses on Wheels: A Western newspaper, named "The Frontier 
Index" was published on the frontier and was literally a press on 
wheels. Published at 25 different places along the line of the 
Western advance, it was founded at old Kearney, south of Nebraska 
Territory in 1866 and was printed on an old time hand roller press. 
'The Frontier Index" in the fall of 1866 was taken by three ox teams, 
driven by Mexicans to a temporary terminus of the Union Pacific 
Construction Company at North Platte. As soon as the site was 
laid out for this mushroom terminal station some 4,000 adventurers 
flocked there to live in tents and portable houses, and the "Index" 
did a land office business printing circulars, for which it charged 
$20 for 100 words. The next move was to Julesburg in January 
1867. In 48 hours North Platte was depopulated after the exodus 
to the new terminus, and the "Index" was the first enterprise to reach 

C277 3 



that station. On one or two occasions when 'The Frontier Index" was 
being moved, its wagon train was held up by Indians, who took no 
pains to conceal their disgust when they found that the ox carts 
contained nothing except the printing outfit. 



£278 3 



CHAPTER EIGHT 
INVENTIONS FOR ELIMINATING STEREOTYPING 



There have appeared a number of inventions of this nature, but 
so far, judged from practical tests, each and every one of these 
inventions has failed to accomplish the elimination of stereotyping. 
No doubt many inventive minds at the present moment are work- 
ing on ideas to effect such elimination, and recalling the ultimate 
and lasting success of much opposed, and, during the time of their 
development, skeptically regarded machines, as for instance the 
typesetting machines, Linotype, Monotype and others, it would seem 
possible that stereotyping as practiced in our day will in some future 
time be entirely eliminated by better and cheaper methods. 

So far the primary object of all of these inventions is to produce 
better printing, but at the same time they all aspire to completely 
do away with stereotyping. It appears that it will be of interest to 
stereotypers to become acquainted with the nature of the outstand- 
ing inventions, and therefore such details should be included in the 
history of the stereotyping art. 

All of these inventions awakened considerable interest when they 
first appeared on the scene, and were given exhaustive tests in a 
number of the foremost newspaper stereotype plants. Practically all 
of these processes are based upon photostatic or offset printing 
methods, and all of the inventors claimed to be able to print with 
them finer screens on ordinary newsprint. Each and every one of 
these inventions is of a nature that calls for changes in present 
equipment; in fact, if they were to be adopted a great quantity of 
otherwise satisfactory machinery would have to be discarded en- 
tirely. The question that has instantly arisen has been: Are these 
new processes of such a transitional nature to warrant such a great 
sacrifice and such a great outlay of money? 

The following details are given to show that the saving in the 
cheapest bracket of the cost of producing a newspaper is so small 
that the immense expense necessary for changes for these processes 
that are supposed to eliminate stereotyping, would not warrant any 
existing newspaper office, and not even one about to be established, 

1 279 ] 



in spending large sums to make such changes and incurring great 
losses through immobilization and scrapping of already extant 
machinery. 

The mechanical cost of producing a newspaper is a relatively 
small part of the total cost of producing a paper. The cost of news- 
print alone generally represents 15 to 20% of the total cost of 
producing some papers. Salaries in the editorial department, of the 
columnists, features and feature writers, and distribution of the 
paper after it has been produced, undoubtedly take up at least 
another 50% of the total cost. There is also some doubt, based 
upon careful examinations, whether the cost of operating a compos- 
ing room, stereotype foundry and pressroom exceeds 25% of the 
total cost. This would mean that the total cost of the stereotype 
foundry in the average newspaper plant is certainly not over 10% 
of the total cost of producing the paper. If stereotyping were entirely 
abolished the saving would not be sufficiently great to make it 
attractive even to a new publisher who appears on the scene. In- 
cidentally, whatever process would take the place of stereotyping 
would cost something, so that abolishing stereotyping would not 
mean saving the total cost of operating the stereotype foundry. (It 
is interesting to note that the cost of mats is equal to y 12 of \% 



c 



of the total cost of producing a newspaper.) 

Among the processes that have been tested in America with a 
view toward eliminating stereotyping, the following are the out- 
standing ones: 

(1) The Lenzart Process: The object of the Lenzart process 
is to provide cheap and better fine screen printing with, or within, 
super-embossed or straight type matter, in combination with print- 
ing from standard stereotype plates on existing newspaper presses 
up to and including the highest printing speeds. The salient points 
of this invention are summed up in the following statement: 

The affinity of mercury (quicksilver) for some metals and non- 
affinity for others, and non-affinity for certain printing inks, make 
possible the printing of this plate. The nickel-plated printing area 
of the solid copper plate accepts the ink and refuses the mercury, 
while the copper non-printing area is amalgamated and accepts the 
mercury and not the ink. The amalgam area is constantly re- 
plenished on the press through mercury fed into the inking motion. 

Operations in the pressroom consist of attaching a portable 
mercury feeding device which extends the length of one of the inter- 
mediate rollers of the press and drops thereon a row of minute 

C28D3 




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C282] 



mercury globules. These are ground into the ink by the inking 
motion and transferred to the solid copper plates by the form 
rollers. The mercury feeding device is driven by the press and 
synchronized to permit control of the amount of repellent used. 

No press mechanism changes are required and the mercury feed- 
ing fountain is the only additional press device needed. No make- 
ready is used, and the change-over from stereotyping to Lenzart 
and back takes about the same time as change-over for color. Two 
or three minutes are required to clean and amalgam the plate after 
removal, over the enamel-resist by photo-engravers. Plates of solid 
copper conform in size and shape to standard stereotype plates and 
are locked on the press cylinders in an identical manner. 

(2) The Trist Process: This invention, made by an English- 
man, A. Ronald Trist, covers a process built on the principle that 
when mercury amalgamates with another metal the amalgam will 
repel printing ink. This characteristic dates back to Albert's "Mer- 
curography" of 1908. The inventor uses chromium surfaced steel 
plates from which he prints a rough surfaced paper with an ink 
containing a certain percentage of mercury. For such plates to work 
effectively on a fast running printing press the ideal ink must have 
an oil base with a free fatty acid content of 7.5%. 

The Pantone (this is the trade name for the Trist invention) 
screen has a graduation from the perfect blackness of the solids to 
the highlights of the interstices, instead of the clear definition of 
the black lines and white interstices of the usual halftone screen. 
The use of an emulsion coated copper plate in mercury, eliminating 
the process of preparation of printing on metal, is made possible by 
applying the silvery emulsion to support of the same construction as 
the Pantone plate, namely the copper plate with chromium plated 
surface, since under these conditions desensitizing of the emulsion 
by the copper is prevented. 

The inventor has exhibited specimens including many surfaces 
from strawboard and rough newsprint to fine silks and satins. He 
uses a halftone screen of 150 lines for all surfaces and declares that 
the speed of the press makes no apparent difference in the quality 
of the product. Newsprint reproductions run at 20,000 impressions 
an hour and at 1,000, impressions are similar in appearance. 

(3) The Renck Process: We quote from a letter by Ernest J. 
Smith, president and managing director of the Goss Printing Press 
Company of England, Ltd., written on March 5th, 1929: 

"The process consists of providing a brass shell of the thickness 

C283 3 



and shape of a curved stereo plate as now used on rotary presses. 
This brass shell is bored, turned, polished and nickeled. It is then 
put upon a plate cylinder which is part of a transfer press. 

"The transfer press that I saw in operation was just a matrix 
rolling machine with the roller covered with a rubber blanket and a 
type cylinder arranged in bearings (above this rubber covered 
cylinder) upon which the nickeled brass plate is fastened. This 
machine, of course, is only a makeshift and Mr. Sachs told me that 
the Messrs. Koenig and Bauer people are now making him a Pukka 
transfer press. 

"The form, consisting of lino slugs and pictures, is placed upon 
the bed of the transfer press, is rolled up with transfer ink and a 
transfer is made of this form — first to the rubber covered roller, then 
from that to the nickeled plate. 

"Having got the subject to be printed on the new plate, the plate 
is removed from the transfer press and the inked surface dusted in 
with wax asphalt and cleaned down with talcum. The plate is then 
placed in a muffle furnace for about half a minute. It is then taken 
out and all grease removed from the surface. It is then denickeled 
and, after being washed out, the surface is metallized with a solu- 
tion of mercury salts. It is again washed and is then ready for plac- 
ing upon the plate cylinder of the printing machine for printing, 

"The ink used was one of ordinary news class but while printing 
it is necessary to spray the inking rollers with mercury to build up 
the resist to the ink that was created by metallizing the surface of 
the plate. 

"This spraying with mercury is intermittent and it is proposed 
either to mix the mercury with the ink in the fountain or spray the 
ink as it is raised by the ink fountain roller so that the mercury will 
not be free but always sprayed into a closed vessel. 

"After printing an edition, the brass shells have to be denickeled 
to remove the subject matter from which the last edition was pro- 
duced." 

(4) The Alalgograph Process: This invention is based on the 
same principle as the above methods. In this process, mercury is 
used as a treatment of the plate, after which the plate is burnished 
with a piece of chamois. A copper plate is used, over which the de- 
sign is etched in the usual way. Control of the depth of the etching 
is the trick in making the plate. 

(5) The Alltone Process: This is admittedly not a new proc- 

H284H 



ess; it is simply the refinement of methods and practices pursued in 
stereotype foundries for the past 50 years. 

In essence the process is this: A zinc engraving % 6 " thick 
(.0625") is inserted into a suitable space left blank in the curved 
stereotype plate to accommodate the original engraving. Where such 
a procedure is to be followed, a mat of the page to be stereotyped is 
prepared as usual. However, before molding the mat is packed on 
the back in the area to be later occupied by the zinc engraving, with 
packing felt % 6 " thick. When the mat is molded this area is high 
on the face of the mat and consequently when the mat is cast in the 
curved box this area is low in the plate — low, that is, to the depth 
of % 6 " (.0625"), so that when the zinc plate is placed into position 
in this area the entire plate is of proper uniform height throughout. 

The zinc engraving is curved in an ordinary electrotype curver. 
Electrotype tape is applied over the back area of the engraving 
which is fitted snugly into the stereotype plate before it goes thru 
the shaver. The pressure of the shaver is enough to insure a tight 
bond between the curved zinc engraving and the stereotype plate 
into which it is set. 

While the inventors of the Alltone process and certain users of 
it claim that they are able to get better results in black and white, 
and particularly in color work, than are possible with regulation 
stereotyping means, these claims have not gone unchallenged. 

(6) The Schoop Process is an invention of Professor M. V. 
Schoop of Zurich, a noted Swiss metallurgist, who has been decor- 
ated by the Franklin Institute for his contributions to the metal- 
lurgical sciences. This process is designed to rapidly reproduce or 
duplicate existing electrotype engravings, type matter and halftones. 
It produces a harder and more durable printing surface on the cuts. 
The process is mechanical rather than electro-chemical, and for this 
reason Schoop has invented a machine (in form of a pistol) that 
sprays the metal into forms, matrices and so forth by means of 
compressed air after the metal has been instantaneously melted by 
an oxy-acetylene flame and pulverized by the compressor. 

Metals of various degrees of hardness, such as tin, lead, zinc, 
copper, brass, nickel, bronze and steel can be used in this process; 
and as this process is not of an electrolytical nature a wide range 
of matrix material is available. Besides the usual wax, celluloid, 
gutta-percha, etc., lead matrices which are made by the usual heavy 
matrix stamping presses are used. Without any further preparation 
these matrices are sprayed with any desired metal by means of the 

[285] 



above mentioned apparatus to any desired thickness, whether to type 
high or to full plate thickness. 

The size of the edition together with the kind of paper to be used 
determines the required hardness of the metal and the thickness of 
the coating. After a coating of hard metal has been applied a back- 
ing of soft metal may be sprayed on in the same manner, and 
furthermore, this backing can be carried on to produce any desired 
thickness of plate. 

In like manner brass and bronze may be sprayed to full plate 
strength in order to produce dies for embossing purposes. Steel and 
copper engravings for printing bank notes, stock certificates, etc., 
are reproduced by the new Schoop process. 

The planing and working of the back of the plates is done by 
the machines now in general use. 

Stereotype matrices, both rotary and flat, are coated with hard 
metal by the Schoop process, and then put into the stereotype cast- 
ing apparatus in order to add the necessary backing metal to pro- 
duce the required plate thickness. In this way such stereotype print- 
ing forms obtain an extraordinary tough printing surface. They 
differ from the usual nickel stereos in that the hardening of the 
printing surface takes place on the matrix before the casting and 
not after the casting by means of electrolysis which requires a pre- 
paratory coating of copper. This copper coating quite naturally 
tends to spread the halftone dot and the type matter slightly since 
the cast lead plate always has the full dot and type strength. 
Furthermore, in this spraying process the copper coating is omitted 
entirely since the nickel coating combines readily with the stereo- 
type metal without running the danger of peeling off the first coat- 
ing or of any of the other electrolytical disturbances. In any case 
there is promised for the new process a tremendous saving of time. 

This process has been used sporadically on a prominent Swiss 
newspaper but it has not yet been found in continuous operation in 
any other plants. 

Another interesting invention is that of a mat made of alternat- 
ing thin layers of lead and wax and matrix tissue, called the lead- 
wax mat. Although it is an ingenious process it is far too expensive 
in the manufacture. 

A further invention covers the making of graphite celluloid mats 

molded with very low pressure. Any cardboard may be used instead 

of a mat. Through embodying a metal net in the celluloid plate 

shrinkage is completely avoided. 

C286-] 



There was developed in Germany in 1935 a new synthetic gelatin 
film which is sensitized and exposed under a photo-composed nega- 
tive, then washed out with a spray of warm water, which has the 
effect of sinking the letters in the film as in a stereotype mat. It is 
then dried with alcohol and sprayed with molten metal by means of 
a spray pistol. Thus a thin shell or plate is obtained, which may be 
backed with lead like an electrotype plate and mounted type high. 
Thirty-five minutes from the time the photo-composed film is 
handed to the operator the plate is ready for the press. This method 
has not been used for the reproduction of halftones and line cuts; 
so far type matter only has been reproduced. 

Finally we record the invention of an electrolytical process per- 
mitting of the deposition of nickel directly on the wax mold and 
using the composite product as a printing plate. 

A well known contributor to trade papers on printing subjects 
envisaged future newspaper making in a manner that would en- 
tirely eliminate stereotyping. His idea of the newspaper production 
in the future is the following one: 

"A photo-composing department in which all type matter is set 
with a photo-typesetting machine, doing the work quicker and better 
than it is done today. Simultaneously with the typesetting the illus- 
trations will be photographed in the photo-engraving department 
and the negative stripped into position and combined with the type. 
The resultant product will be a photographic negative or positive 
of the entire page. This will be printed onto a sheet of metal; will 
be chemically treated; will be planographic or slightly intaglio or 
relief in character, and will be immediately ready for the press." 

A number of inventions that are seeking to make such a news- 
paper a reality have been made, and although they have not offered 
a practical solution of the problem they have received widespread 
attention and thorough examination in practical tests. We refer to 
such innovations as the Uhertype of Vienna, the Teletypesetter, 
Rutherford's inventions, further the Orotype of Max Ullman of 
Zwickau. Experts of excellent repute intensely at work on this 
problem, are, among others, Prozelt of Budapest, Arthur Dutton 
(Flickertype), Walton, Bawtree, Cornwall, August-Hunter, Bagge 
and Friedman-Bloom. 

"The Times" of Blackpool, England was printed with the help of 
a photographic composing machine; the films were made and the 
paper printed by the offset method. Of course no mats were used. 
This experiment, however, was discontinued because the corrections 

C287] 



caused too many difficulties and the insertions of last minute news 
entailed great loss of time. 

Before closing this chapter, the writer would like to include in 
this compilation an article which will no doubt prove interesting 
reading to not only stereotypers but all members of the newspaper 
production crafts. Although it mentions a mat in a cursory manner, 
its contents place it, in a round about way, in the category of ways 
and means to eliminate stereotyping. 

In 1874 an American printing craftsman, being of an inventive 
mind and also possessing a prophetic vein, envisaged the produc- 
tion of a daily newspaper in a way perhaps never before imagined 
by a printer. The genius in question proposed to show the world a 
method of printing a half million copies of a newspaper within a 
single second. Partly because the idea is even today of a novel 
nature, and also owing to the fact that this prophetic inventor men- 
tions the use of a special mat, we embody his description of the proc- 
ess in this compilation. His mat is not made of paper stock as are 
today's dry mats; it is made of a cement compound composed of 
soluble glass, a chemicalized gum of powerful adhesive properties 
and a third substance of a purely organic nature. The latter is 
known only to the inventor. 

The descriptive article carries the caption, 'The Mechanical 
versus the Scientific," and reads as follows: 

"Since Gutenberg, Faust and SchoefTer gave us the present art 
of printing, four and one-third centuries have passed away. The 
most enterprising of the newspapers of 1874 are composed and 
printed in the same manner and with the identical materials as were 
employed for the first Latin Bible of Mentz. Modifications have been 
made; of radical changes there have been none, though our demands 
for printed work have grown a million fold. While in other matters 
we have thrown aside the mechanical and adopted the scientific 
methods, in printing we have multiplied the old instead of creating 
the new. Yet we declare that while matter has its limit, the possibili- 
ties of science are illimitable. In printing, with its enormously pro- 
gressive wants, why should we continue to do by slow and painful 
processes what science might effect in a flash? Think of the in- 
numerable and expensive processes of printing, from the mining of 
metals for its type to the machinery for the finished newspaper. 
These alone prophecy a change. What is the nature of the change? 
If the printing of the future is to be done on scientific principles, 
what are they? What example can be given to convey the idea of a 

[288] 





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C289] 




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C290] 



possible radical improvement? It is the object of this paper to sug- 
gest the probable direction of such a movement. The change will 
certainly be no more wonderful nor more difficult than that which 
permits us to flash our ideas a thousand miles in a minute of time. 
It is to be brought about by force — force properly directed to its 
end. We do our writing by electricity; why not throw aside our 
ponderous machines and print our newspapers with it. With our 
present knowledge of the forces and of chemical changes and their 
results, we should be able today to print a half million of news- 
papers within a single second. The forces at our command do not 
stop to think whether they have one sheet or a million to contend 
with; they do the work. Nitroglycerine does not weigh resistance, it 
forces it. Steam power long since reached its zenith, and the struggles 
of the fast-machine manufacturers remind us that the limit of mere 
machine power is at hand. We can get more speed and more power 
for less weight, less room and less money and may, if we will, meet 
the requirements of the age, were they a thousand times greater than 
they ever will be. 

"How is this to be done? No one can dare to say in one age, 
exactly and in detail what the usages of the next will be. All will 
depend on the wants which always, sooner or later, effect new dis- 
coveries. But as one age is necessarily the father of the next, we 
may by analogy arrive at a fair guess. As the past was the age of 
steam — artificial or mechanical force — so the future will be the age 
of electricity — natural force. The precise way in which it may event- 
ually be used can only be suggested afar off. But the writer is satis- 
fied that with our present knowledge of science, we should print at 
least one hundred thousand papers in the time it now requires for 
the printing of a single paper. The sun prints our photographs, 
electricity carries our messages; the printing of paper is alone the 
work of the machine. 

'in suggesting a method, we have only to say that for our elec- 
trical effects and chemical changes we have selected forces and sub- 
stances in a manner purely arbitrary, and only analogous to such 
as may be produced in some similar process. We are suggesting those 
possibilities and probabilities we have full warrant to suppose 
within our reach. In electricity and chemical change we have our 
forces which are infinite in power; in nature we have material 
equally infinite in its variety and capacity for combination. What 
matter then, if for illustration we choose one substance or another; 
the right one will surely be found. Whether or not we have for the 

[2913 



moment substituted a plausible chemical combination, rather than 
given the exact result of our experiments, the reader may determine 
for himself. 

"We are to make an eight-page or quarto newspaper, like the 
'New York Times,' for instance. The paper is to be of good quality, 
but light and thin. The journal is to be made by the 'manifold' 
process. It will be printed therefore on one side only. The inside 
pages will be blank, which defect, if defect it be, will be more than 
compensated for by the other advantages of the system. All the 
co-operative papers in the country could be printed by it in one 
second. The reading matter will be very black and brilliant, sharply 
defined, indelible, and as cleanly as white paper. Smaller type than 
agate will be perfectly plain. The composition of the paper will not 
differ from that now in use. Type are not necessary to the process, 
for a written sheet will answer precisely the same purpose. It is only 
supposed that the uniformity and clearness of the present mode of 
composition will be considered preferable. The great feature of the 
process and the saving in it, will be, that whereas the morning paper 
of today must go to press at two o'clock, A.M., in order to get its 
edition off by six o'clock, the new paper will not go to press until 
two minutes before six o'clock, and will have the whole edition 
ready for delivery at six o'clock precisely. This is a saving of four 
hours, during which time all important news and telegrams may be 
set up, and the full and exact news of the world up to within ten 
minutes of six may, at farthest, be ready when the clock strikes. 
It was stated above that the paper 'would not go to press' until the 
time given. That was hardly accurate, for no press is used. The 
paper is set up in sticks placed on galleys and proved and cor- 
rected as usual. Any type now in use may be employed. A certain 
space is left on the plate for early morning news. The form being 
now as nearly ready as it can be made at present, let us go to the 
paper room. 

"The paper is manufactured to order. In the vats of paper pulp 
there is introduced a small quantity of a simple chemical substance, 
which, under given conditions, decomposes instantly. This, practi- 
cally, is the ink used in the process. It is white at this time, and is 
thrown 'in a lump' in vats of white paper pulp. With this excep- 
tion the paper is manufactured in the regular way, is cut into sheets 
of the proper size and taken to the newspaper establishment. Here it 
is piled one ream upon another, until the amount of paper needed 

[292] 



for the whole edition of the publication is in line. The paper rests 
upon a plain copper plate, coated with silver. 

'To return to the form. It is now necessary to complete the mak- 
ing up, to get in the latest news and to print the paper. The rest 
of the type is placed, the whole is thoroughly planed down, and then 
comes the making of the matrix, a short, easy and simple process. A 
copper plate is chosen, the full size of the form. The surface of the 
plate is covered to the depth of a sixteenth of an inch with a heavy, 
insulated cement compound, composed of soluble glass or silicate 
of soda, a chemicalized gum of powerful adhesive properties, and a 
third substance of a purely organic nature, which need not be made 
known here. The plate is placed over the types, and is pressed close 
to their surface, so that on removing the plate the matrix appears 
stamped out clearly to the bottom of the coating (i. e., to the copper 
surface), and showing the metal through the stamped places. The 
process need not take more than three minutes. The plate, when 
removed, dries almost instantly, and is then placed with the stamped 
side down, upon the pile of paper. It will be readily understood, 
that all parts of the matrix-plate being covered with insulated ma- 
terial, except the parts 'stamped out' by the types, there is really no 
impediment to electrical force wherever the type mould appears on 
the surface of the plate. If, therefore, we apply the galvanic battery 
to the upper surface of the metal plate, it will be received at once 
and transmitted as soon as charged, through the matrix impression, 
to the paper upon which the plate rests. All the rest of the under 
surface of the plate being insulated, electricity can touch the paper 
nowhere but where the matrix permits. It is precisely as though a 
stencil plate were laid over a substance, while another substance was 
laid over to blacken it, — only the one is a mechanical and the other 
a chemical force. It has been stated that the pile of paper rested 
upon a silvered plate; what is now the course of the electricity? It 
must pass from the top to the bottom of the paper. It will pass 
through the prepared substance of the paper, blackening it into let- 
ters in its course, and when it reaches the bottom plate the edition of 
the journal will be completed. The electricity would pass were the 
pile a mile high. The spark cannot choose, but keep upon its direct 
path; straight and sure as the lightning flash, it will go wherever 
the hand of man chooses to direct it. In this instance a proper use 
of decomposing and conducting substance in the paper effects the 
end. 

"This is all. If it is not simply enough explained, a little thought 

[2931 



will make it clear. Without cuts the explanation of the matrix is 
difficult. But nothing has been stated not warranted in electrical 
science and chemistry. It is well known that the point of a needle 
will hold millions of sparks enclosing the electric force. It is upon 
this quality that we rely in order to make an exact, purely cut, clear 
impression, where the electricity, through the open stamped figure 
of the matrix, strikes the paper and blackens it, as lightning does 
the oak in its downward course. 

"The ways in which the scientific printers of the future will em- 
ploy methods, of which the above is a mere crude suggestion, are 
almost illimitable. In book manufacture it will produce a library 
per minute. If it should be thought better, the printer may take a 
roll of chemicalized paper and run it between two matrixed cylinders, 
both charged with electricity. By this means both sides could be 
printed instantaneously, for the paper could be so prepared that 
its two surfaces alone contain the decomposing mixture. As this 
would be a press without ink, and with no danger from offset, it 
could be run to five times the speed of the fastest of our present 
presses. 

"In what way the new processes may be applied to colored print- 
ing, will also be an interesting subject for future printers. It is a 
vista almost too bright for realization, unless the mind be led to it 
step by step. For it is well known that the action of electricity can 
be made to seize and develop the most magnificent tints and colors 
within the bounds of natural things. The possibilities in this direc- 
tion of elevating printing to a science, will bring about wonders 
which might be difficult of belief to those who have not observed the 
daring, original tendency of modern thought, and the boldness of 
experimental science. The motto of the coming age will be 'all 
things are possible.' 

"It has been stated here that type were not necessary to the 
process under consideration any more than are presses or printing 
ink. It is simply that matrices may as easily or more easily be made 
without type. Why may not an editor write upon a plate prepared 
as described and use it just as the large matriced plate was em- 
ployed. He would be able to give autographic comments on the 
latest news, place his column plate under the large matriced plate 
and have his hundred thousand edition printed and delivered with 
news matter and editorial comments, all within a short half hour. 

"In commerce the matter might be largely utilized. The mer- 
chant may send out his autograph circular at an eighth part of the 

C2943 



present cost. He need only write it on a varnished plate, place it on 
his pile of prepared note paper, apply the battery and the thing 
is done. 

"Indeed the possibilities of the art of printing for the near future 
are illimitable. All that it needs is the practical, money-making, 
utilizing genius, of the sort that moves and generally rules the 
world, to get the process or analogous methods into practical shape 
for use. 

"We have but rudely outlined the kind of change which event- 
ually must take place. In its details no single method will become 
universal, but something at least as startling as the printing of half 
a million newspapers in an instant of time must come about, and it 
will come much sooner than most people imagine." 



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CHAPTER NINE 
RUBBER AND PLASTIC STEREOTYPING 



Before recording the historical development of such stereotypes, 
a few words pertaining to possible innovations in the domain of 
stereotype mats — a glance into the future as it were — might be of 
interest. 

Looking into the future, there is on the horizon a new possi- 
bility — as yet, however, not a concrete probability. I refer to the 
use of plastics in the making of mats; in other words, a dry mat 
made out of paper pulp but covered with some plastic material. (To 
avoid any confusion of ideas, the so-called "Plastic Mats" that are 
on the market at the present time are not made of plastics. They 
only carry the trade-mark name "Plastic") 

Definition of the term "plastic": A plastic is a synthetic poly- 
merized "substance." It is thus not to be confused with the synonyms 
of plastic — flexible, pliable, etc. 

The first forerunner of plastics we are today experimenting with 
appeared in 1868 when the supply of elephant ivory ran low and 
forced higher prices of billiard balls. An American manufacturer 
offered a prize of $10,000 to anyone who could find a substitute for 
ivory. A young New Jersey printer, named John Wesley Hyatt (of 
later ball bearing fame) spurred on by the prize, treated cotton 
celluloid, the first plastic. Twenty-two years of non-activity in the 
field — and then in 1890 Dr. Adolph Spittler of Hamburg, engaged in 
trying to find a white blackboard for schools, mixed some cow's 
milk with formaldehyde. He obtained a shiny horn-like substance 
and thus came the second plastic. Its base was casein. It was used 
to make buttons or buckles. Again all was quiet on the plastic front, 
when in 1899 Dr. Leo Baekland made the third plastic out of car- 
bolic acid and formaldehyde, and named it "bakelite." Since that 
day Dr. Baekland obtained over four hundred patents and an army 
of chemists throughout the country devoted their time and attention 
to the making of plastics. Today hundreds of articles made of this 
legion of plastics are as widely divergent as buttons, timing gears, 
radio cases, knobs, instrument dials, steering wheels, baby carriage 

1 299 n 



frames, scales, linings of beer cans, etc. And those articles, made of 
plastics, are sold in immense quantities. It will be far beyond the 
space allotted the writer to give even a partial list of the chemicals 
and materials used today to produce plastics. 

A word concerning quantities produced: Henry Ford manufac- 
tures a plastic of soy beans at the rate of one thousand pounds a day 
and the Bakelite Corporation produces many millions of pounds 
per annum. Of late new kinds of plastics have appeared in printing 
plants all over the United States. Plastics are moldable, many are 
composed in part of cellulose. Because of the fact that this quality 
and this raw material constitute part of dry mats, inventive minds 
in all parts of the world aware of these facts are increasingly oc- 
cupied in trying to make mats of plastics. Here in the United States 
we already have had three such mats, namely the Williamson, the 
Bakelite and the duPont mats. These products did not make the final 
grade, principally due to the fact that they could not withstand heat 
of 600° F. Otherwise they produced some really good results and 
have, therefore, encouraged experimenting in many factories. 

The plastic mat of the future will probably be very pliable when 
heated, mold easily and deeply, will be fusible and thus can be used 
over again. It probably will have no shrinkage and will resemble a 
sheet of wax which will be spread upon a paper base acting as 
carrier. 

An interesting sidelight on the supply question is contained in an 
article which appeared recently, and of which a short excerpt is 
cited : 

"A scientific solution to a surplus crop problem that has threat- 
ened the whole economy of Brazil will be put to its first real test in 
May. A five-story pilot plant, located in the center of a huge coffee 
warehouse in Sao Paulo, will begin the manufacture of plastics from 
unroasted coffee. The project is sponsored by the National Coffee 
Department of the Brazilian government. 

"The Product: Coffee plastic, dubbed 'cafelite,' is produced 
from green coffee beans by a process which involves the extraction 
of certain chemical constituents, a relatively simple chemical treat- 
ment of these substances, and their reintroduction into the resultant 
coffee bean flour. Because the complex chemistry of the coffee bean 
provides the entire range of compounds necessary to the formation 
of plastic materials, including bulk material, plasticizers, and dyes, 
no extraneous materials need be added in manufacture. 

"Cafelite is adaptable to a variety of uses, such as flooring ma- 

£300] 



terials, insulating and acoustical wallboard, roofing materials, and 
the whole wide range of molded products to which synthetic plastics 
have been adapted. 

"Effect of Plastics: Caf elite as a finished plastic product, either 
thermoplastic or thermosetting, probably won't compete with estab- 
lished plastics in the United States. Instead, it will come into the 
picture here as an ingredient in the manufacture of other plastics." 
In this recording details of a number of processes for rubber 
and plastic plate stereotyping will be given together with criticisms 
offered by actual users. 

Plates made of rubber appeared on the American scene in 1846. 
In that year the first American patent on rubber stereotyping plates 
was granted to Josiah Warren, who sought to protect by these letters 
patent: "First, the mixture of shellac, tar and sand as a substitute 
for type metal. Second, the use of shellac as a basis to form a sub- 
stitute for type metal, whether it be mixed with the substance I have 
mentioned or with other substances of a similar nature. Third, also 
the use of clay, clay mixed in sand in various preparations, also of 
gum arabic, beeswax, stearine, tallow and oil, for the purpose of 
engraving or forming matrices or molds in which to make casts for 
typographical purposes, of the material and in the manner sub- 
stantially as herein set forth. Fourth, the use of clay as a basis from 
which to form matrices or molds as aforesaid, whether it be mixed 
with the materials mentioned or whether the substances be used in- 
stead of them are substantially of the same nature." 

Several years later, in 1853, L. Westbrook was granted a patent 
on rubber stereotype plates. Westbrook invented a new and im- 
proved composition of matter as a substitute for type metal for the 
purposes of stereotyping. He explained not only his composition 
proper but also for the first time gave a description of a method of 
making such plates. 

"He first takes shellac and plumbago or graphite, of each three 
parts, to which he adds one part of asphaltum, melts and mixes 
them thoroughly together. He then takes 13 parts gutta-percha in its 
crude state and cuts it into fine shreds with a cutting machine con- 
structed for the purpose. He then puts the gutta-percha and the 
above described compound into a grinding apparatus constructed 
for the purpose. He then makes a solution of sulphate of copper in 
water in the proportions of one pound of sulphate of copper to one 
gallon of water. This solution, sufficient in quantity to cover the 
mass, is then heated to about 212° F. and passed through a tube or 

[30i;] 



siphon into the mass in a regular stream while the grinding appar- 
atus is set in motion and the whole passed through it, after which 
the new compound thus formed is passed between iron rollers that 
are immersed in the heated solution of sulphate of copper and water 
in the same proportions as described above. It is rolled out into thin 
sheets, and then, if found free from foreign substances, it is ready 
for use. The object of grinding and working the compound in the 
above described solution is to destroy its elasticity and ductility and 
to render it sufficiently and permanently hard and cohesive when 
formed into plates, casts, dies, molds or forms to withstand the 
necessary pressure or force requisite to produce the desired result. 
The new compound thus prepared, he immerses it in hot water, 
and when sufficiently soft he works it into the desired shape with 
his hands, being careful to keep a smooth and polished surface on 
one side by means of rubbing over it finely powdered ivory black 
or graphite. He then places the polished surface on the type, en- 
graving or other form from which a facsimile is desired to be taken. 
He then puts them into a press with a smooth and level bed plate 
and platen, between which and on each side of the form to be taken, 
are placed two bearers of solid material y%" thicker than the type 
or form. The platen of the press is then brought down until it presses 
firmly on the bearers, where it is retained until the composition be- 
comes cool and hardened, which requires from five to ten minutes, 
when it is then taken out of the press and the composition is re- 
moved from the form, and it is then an exact matrix or mold of the 
form on which it has been impressed. He then places this matrix or 
mold on a block of mahogany or other hard wood of the desired 
length and breadth and 34" thinner than the bearers; and after pre- 
paring another portion of his composition in the same manner as de- 
scribed above he places it on the mold, puts it in the press, and 
brings the platen down to the bearers, as before, and retains it there 
until it is cool. Then it is taken out, the mold removed, and the 
plate, being an exact facsimile of the original, is ready for printing." 
The next step was undertaken in 1864 by Alfred Leighton, a 
color printer of London. He claims in his patent that his modifica- 
tion of the stereotyping process in use at that time, consisted in the 
novelty that his plates were elastic, being made of India rubber com- 
pound. He also claimed that his discovery materially enlarged the 
capabilities of letterpress printing. Leighton's mold was formed from 
an ordinary font of type or engravings. A sunk copy was first made 
in gutta-percha, then a copy was made in plaster of Paris, and from 

C302] 







o 



C/i 

C/) 

PL 
C 






C303] 




C304] 



this the sunk matrix or mold in metal. The compound was pressed 
into the mold and at the back a plate was applied, formed with 
grooves and ridges on its surface. The effect of heat was to vulcanize 
the compound, and the ridges allowed the back of the surface to 
spread or give way with the pressure, and thus relieve and equalize 
the pressure on the face when the surface was in use. Leighton's in- 
vention was, after several minor improvements in the process of 
making these flexible stamps had been devised, quite a success in 
England, being very largely carried on in different parts of that 
country. The trade itself made various improvements, and it was 
universally claimed that an India rubber stereotype gave nearly as 
delicate an impression as ordinary type or a wood-block. However, 
it was not until quite recently that these so-called rubber stereo- 
types were improved to a degree that they were recognized by the 
trade as usable for certain printing work. 

In 1905 a circular of the Skandinavisk Exprestypi Company of 
Copenhagen announced the production of a perfected process of 
making cuts from all descriptions of types and plates. The claims 
were that the work could be done in a few minutes by the printer 
without recourse to the stereotyper or electrotyper. A plastic mass 
was prepared, apparently of celluloid, and from this the first cut was 
made in about 15 minutes and each succeeding cut in 5 minutes. 
The material of which the cuts were made being a chemical sub- 
stance, no planing or drilling was necessary, the edges only being 
required to be cut and they could then be fixed directly on the 
block by an adhesive substance the recipe for which was part of the 
process. 

Comparatively recent developments in this art are: The Para- 
mats. These are rubber stereos. A piece of mat is put on the form 
and beaten with a brush. The mat is dried and a sheet of uncured 
rubber is laid thereon. It is then pressed with a moderate application 
of heat, the rubber being dough-like. Then the cast is vulcanized. 
This paramat is praised as a substitute for plaster and lead molding. 

The Bakelite rubber stereotype, which is made with a special 
Bakelite material. It is claimed that matrices produced from this 
material reproduce every detail in the original and that it is there- 
fore possible to obtain rubber stereotypes which are exact replicas 
of the original. It is further claimed that such stereotypes are ser- 
viceable for much longer runs than those produced from a normal 
mat, as many as three quarter million copies having been printed 
from one rubber stereotype. Two grades of Bakelite rubber stereo- 

C305 3 



types are being produced, one of which is suitable for the reproduc- 
tion of stereotypes or any solid matter, and the other for the re- 
production of type. The Bakelite Corporation states that the time 
will come when this rubber can be used in general newspaper work. 

The Holite mats: Holite is made of a patented plastic material 
by the Holite Press in London. Raw Holite exposed to heat and 
pressure becomes hard and remains hard. The method of making a 
mat by raw Holite is performed in the same manner as with a paper 
mat. The original is first cleaned with a paste consisting of graphite 
and olive oil or vaseline, then shoved under the press into position 
on top of the matrix, and left standing for about 5 minutes under 
the influence of pressure and heat. The back of the mat thus ob- 
tained is smooth while the face shows the picture. The mat thus 
made can again be placed under the press without change of its 
form through heat or pressure. It is then covered with another 
Holite plate and subjected to a second molding process. The result 
is a new plate true to the original and which takes the qualities of 
the mat made of Holite. The use of these plates is made in the 
same manner as with any "Druckstock" in the flat form press. Thin 
Holite plates can be used for printing on rotary presses. A dry 
mat can be finished in 5 minutes. To complete a Holite plate takes 
9 minutes. A set of four-color plates can be made ready for use 
within 30 minutes and this shows, in comparison to electrotypes, a 
great saving in time. It is claimed that from one Holite plate mil- 
lions of impressions can be made without any great wear and tear 
or deterioration. Holite plates are uninflammable; acids, alkalis, 
heat, cold and moisture do not affect them, and climatic changes are 
without harmful influence. 

The finishing is done as with any other stereotype or electrotype 
plate. Holite plates withstand heat up to 302° F. It is maintained 
that in general the Holite, as soon as heat is applied, not only flows 
and requires little pressure, but that the resultant dot formation is 
excellent; in fact much better than in ordinary stereotype produc- 
tion. The point is stressed that complete newspaper pages with text, 
line and halftones, perfect in every detail, have been printed by 
the Holite stereotype plates, the latter having been curved for 
rotary newspaper printing. So much for the advantages claimed for 
Holite plates. 

The critics state that Holite plates will not stay flat, that mailing 
costs may be cheaper than for electrotypes or stereotypes, but not as 
cheap as for mats, that one can cast a stereotype in 2 to 3 minutes 

C306] 



whereas a Holite plate takes 15 minutes. In contrast to Holite ma- 
terial, stereotype metal is usable over and over again, and the price 
of paper mats is infinitesimal compared with that of Holite mats. 
Further, correcting and preparing presents a difficult job and Holite 
plates cannot be stored like stereotype mats as Holite bends and 
cracks. 

The Palaplates: This printing plate is an invention of the Pala- 
tine Engraving Company of Liverpool, and is manufactured from 
specially selected synthetic materials. 

For the duplication of color halftones, halftones, line blocks and 
type, the makers claim for the Palaplate perfect reproduction of the 
original. There is also the saving of wear on the inking rollers due 
to the smoothness of the plates. It is further claimed that being a 
pica in thickness these plates can be worked along with electrotypes 
and stereotypes if desired. 

The make-ready is nil. A saving in ink consumption of from 
15% to 20% is claimed for these plates. The peculiar warmth of 
the plate as against cold metal plates makes for better printing. 
Great wearing properties are claimed, and as Palaplates are about 
y 6 the weight of stereotypes there is a material saving in mailing 
costs. 

Indentically the same criticisms have been proffered concerning 
Palaplates as have been recorded in the paragraphs dealing with 
Holite stereotype plates. 

The Glacier Process. This is an English invention using a plastic 
compound for the manufacture of its plates. It is claimed that plates 
made by this process are identical with plates made by Holite and 
Palaplate stereotyping. As an especial advantage it is claimed that 
stereotypers have been looking for a molding medium which will 
give perfect dot formation without excessive pressure, and that this 
advantage is supplied by the Glazier method, because immediately 
heat is applied it flows and requires little pressure and the re- 
sultant dot formation is far in advance of that attained in ordinary 
stereotype production. The Glazier stereotype is transparent and 
especially produced for stereotyping by newspapers and for use by 
printers on exceptionally long runs. 

The criticisms levelled by stereotypers against the Glazier plate 
method are that corrections cannot be made, nor can the plates be 
pieced or made up; that after use they are valueless. Furthermore, 
that they are inflammable and irregular in thickness, that pressure 
produces defects, the plates wear, and that being resilient and non- 

[307] 



conductors of heat the plates recede from contact. Many experts 
state that Glazier plates, as well as all of these new introductions in 
plastic stereotyping offer great difficulties to newspaper stereotypers. 
Success in flat stereotyping was not duplicated in newspaper stereo- 
typing. With metal the paper mat casts down easily to the dot, 
which is not the case with all of these plastic stereotype plates. How- 
ever, all critics agree that plastic plates mold satisfactorily by the 
cold process. 

Cebotype Plastic Base Printing Plates: This new plate was in- 
vented by C. E. Boutwell of Birmingham, Ala. The plates are known 
as Cebotypes and are molded from a material known as Cebite. The 
plates are of an ivory color, slightly flexible and resistant to wear. 
For this process it is claimed that it attracts the ink film, is not 
porous, the same register is obtained as exists in the original forms, 
duplication of screens up to 150 line is effected, no squeeze is neces- 
sary to force the ink film out to the edges of the printing surface, no 
stretch occurs in curing, and that Cebotypes may be used for flat- 
bed or rotary color register work. It is further claimed that they are 
not subject to corrosion or defacement from atmospheric conditions, 
and that they keep indefinitely. 

The making of Cebotypes is as follows: These plates are dupli- 
cates of either type forms or photo-engravings, or a combination of 
both. The forms are locked with bearers. The form goes through a 
molding press and a mold is made in a period of 11-12 minutes. This 
mold may be used for making any number of duplicate Cebotype 
plates. 

"Cebite" Sheeting is placed upon the mold, and both are put into 
a heated hydraulic press which is closed and the plates formed under 
heat and pressure. They are cooled before removing from the press, 
stripped from the mold and the surplus material is trimmed off. 
Then follow the shaving, routing and mounting operations. 

A new plastic material called "Dermacell," made of a celluloid 
base, has been employed in the manufacture of a mat called "Vulka- 
mat" by the most important dry mat factory in Germany. The 
claims for the Vulkamat are: no raveling, fuzzing or peeling; also 
no need of packing since the back of the mat is entirely smooth. 
When once molded, the depth is retained, the product does not curl 
up and is unbreakable. It is molded on a heated direct pressure mold- 
ing press. This new mat has been used extensively in job shops and 
newspaper plants with signal success. 

C3083 




8. Columbia Press. Philadelphia 1813 
L3093 




119. Donkin Press 



C3I0] 



Machines for making plastic printing plates are manufactured 
by a number of European and American corporations. As examples: 
The American Evatype Corporation of Deerfield, 111., has placed the 
Evatype precision rotary printing plate vulcanizing press on the 
market. The platens of the press are heat-treated and ground for 
extreme precision. The press is used for the molding and making of 
flatbed as well as cylinder rubber plates. The Lake Erie Engineering 
Corporation of Buffalo, N. Y., the American Type Founders Co., 
Elizabeth, N. J., and the H. H. Heinrich Co. of New York City, 
manufacture an extensive line of everything needed to make rubber 
plates. These corporations place special stress on the fact that very 
little equipment is necessary in the production of rubber plates, 
and that one single piece of equipment — a vulcanizing press — is 
almost wholly responsible for the finished accuracy of the work. 

Geo. Washington, Jr., of Morristown, N. J., is the inventor of a 
photoelectric engraving device which he has adapted to making 
original cuts out of sheet celluloid. 

While the use of celluloid cuts is not new, the present method of 
engraving the sheet is distinctly so. The heated stylus vibrating or 
oscillating at the rate of 360 cycles per second is operated by means 
of a photo-electric cell. As the photograph to be reproduced is 
scanned by the photo cell, the proper tone values of the copy are 
transferred to the celluloid sheet which is .016" thick (%4"). This 
is approximately one-quarter as thick as the usual engraver's zinc. 

The oscillations of the engraving tool are controlled entirely by 
electricity so that the depth to which the stylus penetrates into the 
celluloid sheet as well as the spacing of the halftone dots is very 
accurately controlled. 

Examination with a magnifying glass shows that the dots in ad- 
jacent vertical rolls are staggered. This is done to simulate or dupli- 
cate the appearance of a halftone made with the conventional half- 
tone screen placed in the camera with the ruling at 45° to the 
vertical. 

Of special interest to stereotypers is the fact that these halftone 
dots cannot be "undercut." The pyramidal shape of the tool assures 
that the dots are also pyramids. The mat cannot stick. 

Tests have shown also that these celluloid cuts stand up well 
under the pressure required to mold dry mats. Whether mats can be 
dried on these celluloid cuts has not as yet been established. 

If a transparent negative instead of a transparent positive were 
used for copy, the machine would make a reverse cut. It has been 

C3I1 3 



suggested that it may, therefore, have some possibilities in the pro- 
duction of rotogravure cylinders. No experiments along this line 
have yet been made. 

Washington suggested that, inasmuch as the connection between 
the scanning system and the cutting tool is purely electrical, it is not 
necessary that they be mounted in proximity on the same machine. 
They might be separated by any distance. It appears, therefore, 
that it may be possible to adapt the machine to the long distance 
transmission of photographs and produce a celluloid cut at the 
receiving end instead of a negative. It would be necessary, of course, 
that the scanning cylinder and receiving cylinder be synchronized, 
but that problem has already been solved for picture transmission. 

Here in America controversies pro and con are being continually 
waged. Those experts who do not believe in any possible extended 
use of this kind of stereotyping agree on the following points : Start- 
ing with the beginning of the process, the first difficulty is that lead 
type cannot be molded in a plastic material with required heat from 
300 to 320 degrees Fahrenheit without injury to the type. Type 
metal does not melt at temperatures up to 320 degrees Fahrenheit, 
but in addition to heat, pressure must be applied and held for pe- 
riods of from six to twenty minutes. There are some operators who 
claim that they can mold regular type forms in the plastics used for 
matrices, but in most instances machine type is used and thrown 
into the hell box after serving for one mold, and no one is con- 
cerned over a few smashed characters. 

Zinc and copper originals at times present problems in molding 
as the hard thermo setting plastic mat is solidified in contact with 
the original, and the latter if the least bit undercut cannot be sep- 
arated from the mat without damage to the original. All originals 
must be removed from wood bases before molding, as wood will 
shrink and compress under heat and pressure required. Also every 
zinc and copper original must be examined carefully on the back, 
and precaution taken to fill up any acid holes as, at the pressure used 
in molding, these imperfections will be pushed through to the print- 
ing surface. 

In closing this chapter a quotation in part is taken from an 
article written by Harold H. Cadmus, to wit: "Rubber plates, both 
hand engraved and molded, have become so popular for certain 
kinds of printing that one leading press manufacturer recently dis- 
covered that 60 percent of his presses have been adapted to their 
use. They are most popular in the West, and in Chicago four trade 

C3123 



plants were kept busy making them. Approximately one-third less 
ink was required for rubber plates, and the cheaper analine inks can 
be used very satisfactorily with them. Other advantages of rubber 
plates are less time for make-ready, faster running, no need for im- 
pression beyond a "kiss," and their ability to print on materials often 
unsuitable for metal plates, such as glassine, glass, cloth, foil, etc. 
They are suitable for long runs on rule work and for the printing 
of tints on antique cover stock." 

Development of synthetic rubber plates is proceeding rapidly 
and when they are perfected their use will eliminate the swelling that 
now occurs after the vulcanized rubber plates have been running 
on the press for several hours. 

Rubber plates were unsuitable for the printing of halftones finer 
than 60 line, but for certain kinds of line and coarse screen printing, 
many printers had found them more satisfactory than either original 
line engravings (when hand engraved) or stereotypes and electro- 
types. 

Some paper bag and cellophane wrapper printers use these rub- 
ber and plastic plates because of the analine ink used, due to the 
high printing speed, necessitating rapid drying. Further, these plates 
have proven satisfactory in label and envelope work, on a number of 
paper box printing jobs, and also in the multigraph field. 



£3133 




tfmsm ■ 



■ i ' V .■ **/5 \ ■ :"'V : ■ ■ ..■..■■■■■,-. 



/ . -r« 



120. Friedrich Koenig (1774-1833) 
C315U 




[3163 



CHAPTER TEN 
AUXILIARY NEWSPAPER OR SYNDICATE SERVICES 



The invention and development of the so-called auxiliary news- 
paper or syndicate services increased the use of stereotyping to a 
vast extent and served as a most effective propaganda for the adop- 
tion of stereotype matrices. Although there is no direct evidence 
that the plants of these services produced any outstanding inven- 
tion in stereotyping methods, the annual production of millions of 
molded mats in these foundries have led to the discovery of a mass 
of improvements in wet and dry mat methods, and in these plants 
many defects and snags encountered not only in the primary stages 
of mat use, but also ever since mats were introduced, were overcome 
and in the end have made syndicate mat operations a routine mat- 
ter, thus benefitting every phase of practical stereotyping. 

This auxiliary service consisted in the making up of news matter 
in a central office, taking casts and shipping the plates thus made, 
known as "boiler plate" to various newspapers throughout the coun- 
try. As time passed by, molded mats instead of metal plates were 
shipped. 

This idea of composing news matter in some central office and 
taking casts to be sent to various newspapers who would thereby 
save the expense of the original typesetting, appeared first in Eng- 
land about 1850. In 1858 Isaac Heyes of Sheffield and Samuel Har- 
rison of the Sheffield "Times" started a partnership to conduct such 
a business on a fairly large scale, and soon this firm did an impor- 
tant business supplying stereotyped columns all over England. In 
1860 they formed a company known as the National Press Associa- 
tion of London, and further developed the system, sending out plates 
cast in single columns (not yet in full pages) type high and of 
metal. 

The newspaper syndicate business in the United States was a 
child of war. Conceived during an era of peace, its growth started 
through an exigency which arose at the outbreak of the American 
Civil War. The man who first syndicated newspaper material in the 
United States later became one of the founders of the first American 

C3173 



Press Association, formed to gather the news and distribute it. He 
was Moses Y. Beach, owner and publisher of the New York "Sun." 
In December, 1841, Beach arranged to have a special messenger 
from Washington bring to New York a copy of President John 
Tyler's annual message to Congress. Thereupon he printed extra edi- 
tions of one sheet containing it and sold them to a score of papers 
in the surrounding territory. He used the same type for the body 
of these editions, changing only the title head, so that it would be 
appropriate for the other papers. Their publishers were thus enabled 
to give their readers the whole text of the message without the delay 
and expense of setting it in type themselves. 

The second attempt at syndicating news was made by Andrew 
Jackson Aikens of Barnard, Vermont. When President Polk's an- 
nual message to Congress was released, Aikens wrote to a Boston 
daily which already had the message in type and ordered several 
hundred impressions on one side of a sheet and filled the other side 
with local news, advertisements and editorials. He sent out this in- 
sert with his paper, 'The Spirit of the Age." Meanwhile a new syn- 
dicated service was initiated in New York City by Moses Y. Beach 
and Alfred Eli Beach. One Staten Island paper began to buy printed 
"insides" from the Beaches. 

In 1853 Ansel Nash Kellogg bought his "insides" from David 
Atwood and Horace E. Rublee, proprietors of the "Wisconsin 
State Journal" in Madison, Wisconsin. The first independent syn- 
dicate run by Atwood and Rublee made its appearance in 1861 in 
the form of an auxiliary service, the by-product of a daily news- 
paper. By the year 1863 they had a list of 30 weekly papers as cus- 
tomers. Kellogg foresaw the possibilities of the syndicate service 
growing into a profitable and important business, independent of any 
parent newspaper affiliation. He started his service in Chicago and 
hired as his foreman, James J. Schock. Schock set the type by hand, 
thereupon locked up the type he had set in a pair of forms (two 7 
column pages) and carefully lowered them from the office on the 
second floor. Then he loaded them on a hand cart and trundled them 
through the dusty streets of Chicago to the customers' printing 
shops. There the forms were slid onto an old flatbed press, and on 
August 19th, 1865, the Kellogg Syndicate Service became the first 
to be printed from type set exclusively for country newspapers. 
Under such humble circumstances as these the first independent 
newspaper syndicate, the A. N. Kellogg Newspaper Company, began. 

In 1860 James Wood patented improvements in making stereo- 



type columns. Previously they had to be cast with a sort of bevel 
or shoulder at the sides. By the use of an improved casting box, 
Wood obviated this objection; the plates being flush with the type 
and ready for immediate use in a newspaper form alongside mov- 
able type matter. 

B. B. Blackwell of New York also engaged in the business of 
manufacturing stereotype plates for the country press and in August, 
1871, he invented a stereotype plate which could be made in two 
parts, consisting of a block or base and a thin surface plate, so ar- 
ranged that they could be readily separated or locked together in 
the form. The advantage of this plate was that the bases could be 
kept permanently in the offices of the publishers, and after the first 
shipment the surface plates only required transportation. The saving 
thus effected in freight charges and in the quantity of metal re- 
quired to conduct a business of this kind was very material. The 
utility of this form of plate was at once recognized, and other de- 
vices having the same object in view were patented in quick suc- 
cession. Blackwell continued his business but a few months and was 
followed by M. J. Hughes of New York, who manufactured a plate 
of his own invention. It was in 1874 that Hughes patented a method 
of supplying auxiliary material in a cast-block plate without using 
any bases, beds or complicated furniture. All plates before being sent 
out were pressed down by level power machinery and run under the 
planing knife set exactly type high. In 1875 Hughes invented a re- 
versible plate with different matter on each face. Inserted in each 
edge of the plate was a strong strip of combined paper and copper 
which held the plate firmly upon the wood base — which through 
being turned down or tacked in, threw the pressure of the quoins 
upon them. After one side had been used for printing the plate could 
be turned over and the matter on the other side printed. 

Later on Hughes sold his patent to Damon and Peets of New 
York, who developed a successful business which they carried on 
for several years. 

In 1875 Kellogg and Schock patented an important improvement 
in plates and their fastenings. Kellogg plates were drilled for screws 
or tacks with which to fasten them upon wood bases and could be 
cut to any desirable length by the publisher. When the publisher 
had printed from them and removed them from their bases which he 
kept for mounting other plates, he could ship them back to the 
supply house. The prime advantage of using these plates was the 
lower shipping charges since they were lighter than the old type- 

[319] 



high ready composition which had either solid metal bases or those 
with a thin core. Kellogg further improved his plates and fastenings 
in 1876 and 1878, and Schock perfected the "butterfly plate," one 
with a spring in the form of an "X" on the back. This spring was 
pinched together, inserted in a slot in the metal bases which were 
then being used, and upon expanding held the plate firmly to the 
base. 

Kellogg sent an employee named Partridge to England to learn 
the "cold process" of stereotyping (not to be confused with the cold 
dry mat process). Partridge returned full of enthusiasm for the new 
process and Kellogg invested heavily in the necessary equipment, 
but the experiment proved a costly failure and was quickly aban- 
doned. 

The introduction of stereotype plates into the auxiliary plan met 
with some of the prejudice encountered by the Ready Print at its 
inception. Publishers, who had been suspicious of the use of Ready 
Print, were also opposed to plate matter for no reason apparently 
except a sense of consistency in opposing all innovations in their 
craft. For those with the "all-home-print" fetish it meant adding 
another word to their vocabulary of scorn for the users of auxiliary 
service. "Boiler plate" they called it, with the same derogatory im- 
putation as they conveyed by the term "patent insides," and editors 
who filled their papers with plate matter cut to fit their needs were 
said to "edit their papers with a saw." Many years later the role 
played by this auxiliary service was eulogized with the statement: 
"It worked a revolution in the rural press of America, the far- 
reaching consequences of which defy measurement." 

On June 11th, 1880, George J. Joslyn founded the Western News- 
paper Union at Des Moines, Iowa. It was an amalgamation of the 
Omaha Newspaper Union, the Kansas City Newspaper Union and 
the Iowa Printing Company. (The term "Newspaper Union" was a 
misnomer in that it implied either some connection of ownership 
among the newspapers taking the service of these syndicate firms or 
a cooperative arrangement among those newspapers. In neither case 
was this true, but after 1870 most of the syndicates or auxiliary 
printing concerns called themselves "Newspaper Unions.") 

The first of the Hearst syndicates was also started in 1895, and 
in 1906 Hearst organized his International News Service but dis- 
posed of it shortly after. In 1913 the Hearst organization started a 
new company called the Newspaper Feature Service, launched the 

C3203 




122. First Cylinder Press Made in America 




123. The Bullock Press. First Machine to Print from a Continuous Web 

of Paper. R. Hoe & Co. 



[321] 




124, Patent Rotary Newspaper Perfecting Machine 




25. Patent Rotary Newspaper Perfecting Press with from 4 to 8 

Feeders 



[322] 



King Features Syndicate the next year, and soon afterwards the 
Premier Syndicate. All were merged with King Features Syndicate. 

The King Features Syndicate acquired the Central Press Associa- 
tion, its subsidiary, the North American Printing Syndicate and the 
Editors Feature Service. Thus all four became the property of the 
Hearst chain. In charge was Joseph V. Connolly, one of the young 
leaders in the Syndicate field. Connolly was a reporter on the "New 
Haven (Conn.) Union" for six years before joining the editorial 
staff of the "New York Sun" in 1919. After serving in the World 
War he went over to the Hearst combine and managed the King 
Features Syndicate as president. He also is at the head of the In- 
ternational News Service, Universal Service, Central Press Associa- 
tion and International News Photos. 

In 1909 the Scripps-McRae (later Scripps-Howard) chain of 
newspapers organized the NEA — "Newspaper Enterprise Associa- 
tion." It provides the large city dailies with everything they require 
except local and telegraph news. In 1910 the Central Press Associa- 
tion was founded by V. V. McNitt in Cleveland. This business was 
later taken over by the Hearst organization. 

Other important syndicates are the George Matthew Adams Ser- 
vice, Inc., Wheeler Syndicate, McNaught Syndicate, United Fea- 
tures, Bell Syndicate, and North American Newspaper Alliance. 
News syndicates are the Associated Press, United Press Association, 
Ledger Syndicate and International Syndicate. In short, we have 
today in active business over 140 different syndicates. 

Concerning the material sent out by these auxiliary services, at 
first it was confined to presidential messages. Shortly thereafter 
news items, feature material and advertisements were syndicated, 
and after a while non-political matter and some short stories fol- 
lowed. The services then enlarged their scope and included serial 
stories, agricultural information, children's reading, wit and humor, 
and general religious news. A momentous innovation was the syn- 
dicated sale of complete novels and stories from the "Century" and 
"St. Nicholas" magazines to country newspapers. In looking for 
further novel features to stereotype and sell to their customers, syn- 
dicates hit upon hiring special feature writers comparable to our 
present day columnists. Women's letters, travel letters were also in- 
cluded. Then comic strips for the Sunday editions followed, such 
as "Little Nemo." The Hearst combine presented articles by Dor- 
othy Dix, Beatrice Fairfax and the well known "Mr. Dooley" stories 
by Dunne. Finally, sports news syndicates came into being and as a 

E323 3 



culmination, a far cry from the one-sided page of yore, we have 
today 16 page weekly newspaper magazines of full color with great 
circulation, for example the "American Weekly" and 'This Week/' 

One of the most important developments in the auxiliary news 
service is to be found in the "News Syndicates" and "Press Associa- 
tions." Both furnish a newspaper with reading matter which mem- 
bers of its staff are enabled to supply. These associations sell state, 
national and international news. The foremost concerns in this 
particular field of supplying stereotype mats are the Associated Press 
and the United Press Association. 

To recapitulate, up to 1850 syndicated services had to be limited 
to one medium of delivery to the publisher, namely printed sheets. 
Improvements in the art of stereotyping which came into general 
use in the United States about 1850 caused stereotype plates to be 
added to the printed sheet. From 1883 on, the printed sheet began 
to lose ground when the plate service was furnished. In 1895 for the 
first time stereotype mats instead of plates were sent to the news- 
papers. Today practically no plates whatsoever are shipped by syn- 
dicate services. 



[324] 



CHAPTER ELEVEN 
PRESENT DAY DRY MATS 



These are integral, homogeneous units delivered in sheet form of 
standard size, 20" x 24". They are made in any thickness between 
the limits of .020" and .040" to meet the preferences and needs of 
stereotypers under varying conditions and for use in all kinds of 
equipment. They are not laminated or pasted together and hence do 
not blister or blow up; neither do they deteriorate either before or 
after molding. They are delivered in standard cases containing 500 
mats packed usually in water and air proof packages of 50 each. 

During the course of the last decade demands made by the 
stereotyping foundries on performance of dry mats have been of a 
nature destined to improve the product to a great degree. In fact, 
present day dry mats are being used for plate work never before 
attempted. The demands made have forced dry mat manufacturers 
to devote all their inventive skill toward attaining signal improve- 
ments, and today's experimental work is being carried on in the 
most modern laboratories by chemists of great ability and experi- 
ence. 

Because of the prevalent opinion that the deeper the mold the 
better the printing, mats have been adapted to much greater depth 
of impression. The trend to effect savings in newspaper plants has 
resulted in the production of dry mats giving hitherto unheard of 
shrinkages, thus permitting of great savings in newsprint. As time 
has gone by the number of newspapers using illustrations has in- 
creased manifold, and with them the number of pictures in individ- 
ual issues. The incessant demand for better halftones to produce 
better pictures has resulted in the making of so-called picture mats 
of supreme quality. 

As a result of better picture mats finer screen work is being done 
throughout the industry; in fact, the work done by stereotyping with 
these mats is comparable to the best done by electrotyping methods. 
There is not only a possibility but a probability that in the not too 
far future we here in the United States will follow the example of 
the European plants, namely use stereotype plates for 75% of all 

C325] 



letter press reproduction work, and the difference in cost between the 
electrotype and the stereotype has been found to be of paramount 
importance in the balance sheet of the purchasers and producers of 
printing. It may be confidently stated that no phase of the graphic 
art has developed more rapidly in recent years than stereotyping 
thru dry mats. 

Stereotyping today offers a means of duplicating type matter 
and engravings with utmost fidelity to the original, and with a print- 
ing quality that cannot be distinguished from that of the original. 
Stereotyping in America is largely and increasingly employed in 
magazines and books where production standards are high. It is 
used for catalogue and commercial printing, for displays, wrappers, 
labels, containers — in fact in every phase of letter-press printing. 
No other reproductive plate making process has the economy of 
stereotyping. If only shipping and storage expenses are taken into 
consideration one needs only to compare the light, durable paper 
product to the heavy electrotype plate, the latter weighing approxi- 
mately one ounce per square inch while it takes sixty square inches 
of dry mat to equal an ounce. The cost of packing electrotypes for 
shipping, including protection of the printing surface, is much 
greater than the equivalent steps in a stereotype mat. This should 
be borne in mind wherever the printed message is to be transported 
for publication elsewhere. 

With the advent of these new dry mats plants have started to 
stereotype printed matter that is subject to rapid press runs, such as 
standard text forms and books of instruction. 

But perhaps the most interesting evolution has taken place in 
the commercial job field. Originally all newspaper advertising mat- 
ter went out on electros or wet mats. The cold molded dry mat cut 
in between, so to speak. Far superior to wet mats, particularly on 
halftone work, and much less expensive than electros, the dry mat 
presented a new problem of shrinkage as compared with electros and 
wet mats. Obviously the situation demanded an improved medium 
for those advertisers to whom the shrinkage was objectionable or 
whose copy demanded the utmost in faithful reproduction. 

For such problems dry mats have been developed especially 
coated and processed, imparting to them all the necessary qualities 
for the work involved. By molding and baking such mats in a 
direct pressure machine, the resulting cast plate has the fidelity of 
the electro with the non-shrinking quality of the wet mat. Halftones 
sent out on such baked mats have proven themselves. They give 




C3273 




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C328] 



newspaper reproductions that are at least as good as any other 
reproductions in the same newspaper. This has been borne out by 
usage and is not merely a matter of opinion. 

The dry mat industry has indeed responded energetically to the 
new situation in the printing industry, as is evidenced by the manu- 
facture of these new products. This article will by no means give a 
complete coverage of what has been achieved in the last few years, 
but these new dry mats that have proven their merit in hundreds of 
plants in the last few years are the following: 

The Rapid Plastic Mat: This product is neither a wet nor a dry 
mat, as these two terms are generally understood today. It is de- 
livered to the trade dry, coated with a chemical compound or 
facing, probably of the nature of the English wet mat coatings. In 
use the mat is well moistened, the coating becomes pliable and acts 
as in plaster of Paris molding. The claims made for this product are 
that through the application of the coating the grain or texture of the 
rough papier-mache mat is eliminated. It is dried under applica- 
tion of heat, does not warp since it is held on the form under pres- 
sure while drying. 

The Blue Ribbon Mat: Blue Ribbon mats have been developed 
to meet the demand for a super-standard mat for newspaper adver- 
tising where conditions are unusually trying or the standards of 
excellence demanded are beyond the range of a standard price mat. 
Blue Ribbon mats have a specially treated surface which molds to 
unusual depth and retains the impression under all conditions. For 
large area solids, including halftone plates of unusual size, it molds 
uniformly throughout the whole area. Blue Ribbon mats are par- 
ticularly intended for baking on the form. 

The Electro Mat: It appears that this is a coated dry mat. The 
claims for this product are that it does away entirely with electro- 
types for newspaper work and costs less than the cost of packing 
and shipping an electrotype of the same size. 

The Silvertone Mat: Silvertones have been developed to bring 
out the ultimate possibilities of stereotyping in the finer fields of 
printing. They are invariably baked on the form. It is dependable 
in all the usual range of halftones from 110 to 150-line screens, and 
its rendering of type and line effects has a pleasing crispness. A 
distinctive quality of Silvertone mats is their dependable color 
register. Printing concerns specializing in color work are their stead- 
iest users. They have done much to extend the field of stereotyping 
and to win it recognition as a process suited to fine magazine and 

[329] 



commercial printing. The name "Silvertone" is derived from the 
peculiar sheen of the surface of plates cast from Silvertone mats. 

Further illustration mats on the market are the Tonetex and the 
Wood-Hill mat. There has been one important argument against 
the baked quality mat. Users say the length of time involved in 
molding mats this way makes the price to the advertiser prohibitive. 

However, this complaint calls for more effort on the part of the 
manufacturers. The solution of the problem may lay in developing 
a mat which would have the qualities of the baked mat, but the 
baking must be done in a separate steam table in order not to tie up 
the molding press. With such transfer mats one press could feed 
two or three steam tables, thus turning out a production which 
would enable advertisers to buy baked mats at a price they are 
more willing to pay. 

The transfer mat may solve many problems of quality plus 
production. The quality will not be quite as high as that attained in 
direct pressure drying, but for some work will suffice. This entire 
phase of dry mat work is subject to rapid change in accordance 
with the demands of the trade. 

An interesting fact: Although the mats are one of the most 
important and indispensable parts in the making of a newspaper, 
the cost of mats is approximately one-twelfth of one per cent of the 
total cost of operating a newspaper plant. 

A contrast: The stereotype department of the United States 
Government Printing Office 50 years ago occupied two rooms and em- 
ployed a superintendent, assistant, two experienced stereotypers and 
four laborers, who furnished all the stereotype plates required for 
the use of the office, and produced annually plates to the value of 
about $20,000. This department saved the Government annually 
more than $10,000, to say nothing of its marked convenience. 

Today, bearing in mind that the Congressional Record, laws, 
many Congressional Reports and speeches are stereotyped, and elec- 
trotyped, it can be readily seen that a fairly good sized force is 
necessary and that a clean line has had to be established between 
the two processes and the work sent to each. 

As a result of many years' experience definite rules have been 
established covering the length of time mats are to be held in storage 
in anticipation of recasting for reprints, although there are some 
classes of mats which are held indefinitely. For example, in the Plate 
Vault there are sections devoted to storage of large, tightly sealed 
metal boxes in which are kept stereotype mats of old laws. Very 

[330 3 



frequently there are compilations of these old laws. In that case a 
cast is made, folios and signatures are changed, and then new mats 
made from the corrected plates, the plates being then sent to press, 
the mats filed for future use. 

Some of these old mats are over thirty years old and are still 
good for additional casts. 

The stereotype work in the Government Printing Office can be 
divided into three classes: first, those jobs which are definitely 
assigned for plates; second, the jobs on which partial deliveries of 
printed copies are made from type, the forms being then sent to the 
foundry for plating; and third, jobs which have had short runs 
from type and the forms then sent to the foundry for what is called 
"Mat Only," the mats being stored for future use and the type 
destroyed. 

All of this requires a filing system through which mats are 
available as needed, the value of which is difficult to estimate since 
very frequently calls are made for reprints which would require 
resetting of type were no mats in storage. 

A recent survey showed that there are approximately 260,000 
mats in the vaults of the Government Printing Office. 

In answer to a frequent query by stereotypers : The question 
posed is whether used mats are of any value to mat manufacturers 
for re-pulping purposes, and what uses, if any, are made of old 
mats. The answer is that used mats are entirely unsuitable for 
re-pulping. Newspaper offices and job shops sell used mats to waste 
paper dealers, and they in turn dispose of them to paper mills to 
be utilized in the manufacture of low grade box paper and similar 
products. 

Despite the fact that used mats are regarded as waste material 
by paper dealers, a number of uses are made of this material, such 
as for underlaying carpets, nailing on walls and ceilings for insula- 
tion against noise, for lining hen coops, for use instead of mulch 
paper for covering plants, and for one rather novel use as the 
following news item will show: 

"A tomato grower in Australia found that old used mats made 
excellent protective collars for his plants against the depredations of 
cutworms. Other growers in the neighborhood immediately copied 
the idea." 



C33I3 





David Atwood 



Andrew Jackson Aikens 



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Ansel Nash Kellogg 




Moses Yale Beach 




128. 
C333 3 



James J. Schock 




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V. V. McNitt 



George A. Joslyn 




Joseph V. Connolly 





George Matthew Adams 



H. H. Fish 



129. 
[334H 



CHAPTER TWELVE 
HISTORY OF STEREOTYPERS' UNIONS 



In starting the compilation of historical data concerning stereo- 
types' unions, a definition of the term "union" appears to be in 
order. 

A union is a permanent alliance of employees for the protection 
and advancement of their rights and interests as peers or equals in 
rank, particularly with regard to working conditions. Unions in the 
present sense of the word were first formed under the designation of 
trade unions in England toward the end of the 18th century as a 
consequence of the enormous growth of the great industries, to 
protect the hitherto existing legal and customary working conditions, 
and particularly through the exploitation of juvenile and female 
workers which harmed the workmen who had learned their trade 
from the ground up. 

Although the history of unions has been recorded since the 
beginning of the 17th century, and although this compilation 
covers only the origin and subsequent improvement of the art 
of stereotyping proper, yet undeniably the chapels, or unions, through 
the medium of their regular meetings and the exchange of experi- 
ences that doubtlessly took place at each such gathering of kindred 
spirits, have played a role in the development of stereotyping. 

The designation "Chapel/' given to the internal regulations of 
a printing office, originated in the great English printer, William 
Caxton who exercised the profession in 1474 in one of the Chapels 
in Westminster Abbey. 

It is most probable that Caxton, after the manner observed in 
other monasteries, erected his press in one of the chapels attached 
to the aisles of the Abbey. His Printing Office might have super- 
seded the use of what was called the Scriptorium of the Abbey. 

Eusebius, in his "Ecclesiastic History," relates that in every 
great Abbey, an apartment, called the Scriptorium, was expressly 
fitted up as a writing room, and here the Monks discharged their 
duty by copying manuscripts. Estates and legacies were often be- 

C335] 



queathed for the support of the Scriptorium, and tithes appropriated 
for the express purpose of copying books. 

The transcription of the Service books for the Choir was en- 
trusted to boys and novices; but the missals and the Bible were 
ordered to be written by Monks of mature age and discretion. 
Persons qualified by experience and superior learning were appointed 
to revise every manuscript that came from the Scriptorium. The 
Monks of some monasteries were bitterly reproached for the extrava- 
gant sums they expended on their libraries. 

The Monks, in these convential writing rooms, were enjoined to 
pursue their occupation in silence and cautiously to avoid mistakes 
in grammar, and spelling, and in certain instances authors prefixed 
to their works a solemn adjuration to the transcribers to copy them 
correctly. The following ancient one by Drenaeus has been preserved: 

"I adjure thee, who shalt transcribe this book, by our Lord 
Jesus Christ, and by His glorious coming to judge the quick and 
the dead, that thou compare what thou transcribest, and correct it 
carefully, according to the copy from which thou transcribest; and 
that thou also annex a copy of this adjuration to what thou hast 
written." 

In 1686 Joseph Maxon, an English letter cutter and mathematical 
instrument maker, Fellow of the Royal Society and Hydrographer 
to King Charles II, wrote a very interesting typographical work, 
entitled "Mechanical Exercises." At that time the demand for knowl- 
edge, and therefore for books, had become so general that in London 
twenty printers and four founders were quite inadequate for the 
supply. 

A decree issued by Charles II restrained the number of master 
printers to twenty, and by this same act, the number of type 
founders to four. This decree was absurd and oppressive; the condi- 
tions imposed thereby were circumvented by dividing typography 
into the several trades of the master printer — the letter cutter, the 
letter caster, the letter dresser, the compositor, the corrector, the 
pressman, the ink-maker, besides several other trades which they 
took for their assistance, such as the smith, the joiner, etc. 

In his "Mechanical Exercises" Maxon enumerates the following 
"Ancient Customs Used in a Printing House in 1650," and hands 
down the peculiar customs formerly observed with respect to that 
curious tribunal termed a "Chapel," as well as some other singular- 
ities in practice among the members of the art at this early period. 
We quote from Maxon: 

[336] 



"Every printing house is by the custom of times immemorial 
called a Chapel, and all the workmen that belong to it are members 
of the Chapel; and the oldest freeman is father of the Chapel. I 
suppose the style was originally conferred upon it by the courtesy 
of some great churchman, or men (doubtless when Chapels were in 
more veneration than of late years they have been here in England), 
who for the books of divinity that proceeded from the printing 
house, gave it the reverend title of Chapel. 

"There have been formal customs and by-laws made and in- 
tended for the well and good government of the Chapel, and for 
the more civil and orderly deportment of all its members while in 
the Chapel; and the penalty for the breach of any of these laws and 
customs is, in printers' language, called a solace. The judges of 
these solaces and other controversies relating to the Chapel, or any 
of its members, were pluralities of votes in the Chapel, it being 
asserted as a maxim that the 'Chapel cannot err.' But when any 
controversy is thus decided, it always ends in the good of the 
Chapel. 

"1. Swearing in the Chapel — a solace. 

"2. Fighting in the Chapel — a solace. 

"3. Abusive language, or giving the lie in the Chapel — a solace. 

"4. To be drunk in the Chapel — a solace. 

"5. For any of the workmen to leave his candle burning at night 
— a solace. 

"6. If a compositor let fall his composing stick, and another take 
it up — a solace. 

"7. Three letters and a space to lie under the compositor's case — 
a solace. 

"8. If a pressman let fall his ball, or balls,* and another take it 
or them up — a solace." (* Ink daubers.) 

These solaces were to be bought off, for the good of the Chapel; 
nor were the prices alike, for some were twelvepence, sixpence, four- 
pence, twopence, and one penny, according to the nature and quality 
of the solace. But if the delinquent proved obstinate or refractory 
and would not pay his solace at the price of the Chapel, they solaced 
him thus: "The workmen take him by force and lay him on his belly 
athwart the correcting stone, and hold him there, while another of 
the workmen, with a paperboard, gives him 10 pounds and a purse, 
viz., eleven blows on his buttocks, which he lays on according to his 
own mercy." 

These nine solaces were all the solaces usually and generally 

[337:1 



accepted; yet in some particular Chapels the workmen did, by 
consent, make other solaces, viz: 

'That it should be a solace for any of the workmen to mention 
joining their penny, or more, a price, to send for drink. 

"To mention spending Chapel money till Saturday night, or any 
other before agreed time. 

"To play at quadrats, or excite any of the Chapel to play at 
quadrats, either for money or drink. (This game was termed 
'Jeffing,' and is always played with nine m quadrats, called 'Gods.') 

'This solace is generally purchased by the master printer, as 
well because it hinders the workmen's works, as because it batters 
and spoils the quadrats, for the manner how they play with them 
is thus: They take five, or seven, or more m quadrats (generally 
of the English body) and holding their hand below the surface of 
the correcting stone, shake them in their hand and toss them upon the 
stone, and then count how many 'nicks' upwards each man throws 
in three times, or any number of times agreed upon; and he that 
throws most wins the bet of all the rest, and stands out free, till 
the rest have tried who throws fewest nicks upwards in so many 
throws, for all the rest are free, and he pays the bet. 

"For any to take up a sheet, if he received copy-money; or if 
he received no copy-money, and did take up a sheet, and carried 
that sheet or sheets out of the printing house before the whole book 
was printed off and published. 

"Any of the workmen may purchase a solace for any trivial 
matter, if the rest of the Chapel consents to it. As if any of the 
workmen sing in the Chapel, he that is offended at it may, with 
the Chapel's consent, purchase a penny or two-penny solace for 
any workman's singing after the solace is made. Or if a workman or 
a stranger salute a woman in the Chapel, after the making of the 
solace, it is a solace of such a value as is agreed upon. 

"The price of all solaces to be purchased is wholly arbitrary 
in the chapel; and a penny solace may perhaps cost the purchaser 
six-pence, twelve-pence, or more, for the good of the Chapel. 

"Yet sometimes solaces may cost double the purchase, or more; 
as if some compositor have (to affront a pressman) put a wisp of 
hay in the pressman's ball-racks; if the pressman cannot brook this 
affront, he will lay six-pence down on a correcting stone, to purchase 
of solace of twelve-pence upon him that did it; and the Chapel 
cannot in justice refuse to grant it, because it tends to the good 
of the Chapel; and being granted, it becomes every member's duty 

[338] 




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THE 



C hicago N ewspaper U nion 



SUPPLIES 



BEADY -PRINTED SHEETS 

AT 

Prices According to the Quantity Used ! 

SHEETS MADE NEUTRAL OR POLITICAL, AND 

WITH OR WITHOUT NEWS SUMMARY. 

BAYS OF PRINTING TO SUIT 

CUSTOMERS. 

CIRCULATION OF ALL PAPERS KEPT STRICTLY CONFIDENTIAL 



Lottery, Gift Concert, and other illegal or immoral advertise- 
ments not admitted to our columns. 

Only ONE HMDRED INCHES space reserved for Advertising purposes. The 
AVERAGE space occupied is SEVENTY-FIVE INCHES. 

We use BETTER PAPER and give LATER NEWS 
than any other house in the business. 

. — ♦ ■ 

OIBE? Pi Hiy Q HVFQ one-Jhalf the necessary capital; 
U U K iTUAm M¥ S^ one-half the editorial labor ; one- 
half the cost of tyne-setting ; one-half the press-work ; one-half the 
bad debts of advertisers ; over one thousand dollars a year. 

OUR PLAN SECURES jg^JZJffZ 

Legislative Reports; a full summary of General News; Late and 
Correct Market Quotations ; an Agricultural Department ; a Depart- 
ment for Young Folks; a Good Story for Everybody; the Best 
Quality of ALL RAO Print Paper; a LARGE Paper instead of a 
small one ; TIME to COLLECT BILLS CLOSELY ; TIME to MAKE 
BETTER LOCAL REPORTS and DO MORE JOB WORK. 



The largest, most influential, and longest-established local papers are now among the 

warmest advocates of our sheets. lit'e are now supph/ing a large 

number of papers OVER TWENTY years old. 

We print ANY NUMBER -of Pages from ONE to EIGHT. 

P?y Write for prices and full particulars, and when writing state the NUMBER of 
quires and SIZE desired. 

All communications promptly answered. 

THE NEWSPAPER UNION, 

114 Monroe St., Chicago 

131. Advertisement. 1875 
[340] 



to make what discovery he can, because it tends to the further good 
of the Chapel; and by this means it seldom happens but the aggres- 
sor is found out." 

Nor did solaces reach only the members of the Chapel, but also 
strangers that came into the Chapel and offered affronts or indig- 
nities to the Chapel, or any of its members; the Chapel would 
determine the solace: Example — it was a solace "for any to come 
to the King's Printing-house and ask for a ballad; 

"For any to come and inquire of a compositor whether he had 
news of such a galley at sea; 

"For any to bring a wisp of hay, directed to any of the pressmen." 

And strangers were commonly sent by some who knew the cus- 
toms of the Chapel, and had a mind to put a trick upon the stranger. 

Other customs were used in the Chapel, which were not solaces, 
viz., "every new workman to pay half-a-crown, which is called his 
"bienvenue," or welcome. This being so constant a custom, is still 
looked upon by all workmen as the undoubted right of the Chapel, 
and therefore never disputed; he who has not paid his bienvenue 
is no member of the Chapel, nor enjoys any benefit of the Chapel 
money. If a journeyman wrought formerly in the same printing- 
house, and comes again to work in it, he pays but half a bienvenue. 
If a journeyman "smout" more or less in another printing-house, 
and any of the Chapel can prove it, he pays half a bienvenue. 

"Using abusive language or giving the lie was a solace; but in 
discourse, when any of the workmen affirm anything that is not 
believed, the compositor knocks with the back corner of his com- 
posing-stick against the lower edge of his lower-case; and the press- 
man knocks the handles of his ball-stocks together, thereby signifying 
the discredit they give to his story. 

"It is customary for all the journeymen to make every year new 
Paper- Windows, whether the old will serve again or no; because 
that day they make them, the master-printer gives them a "way- 
goose," that is, he makes them a good feast, and not only entertains 
them at his own house, but besides gives them money to spend at 
the ale-house, or tavern, at night; and to this feast they invite the 
corrector, founder, smith, joiner and ink-maker who all of them 
severally (except the corrector in his own civility) open their purse 
strings and add their benevolence (which workmen account their 
duty, because they generally choose these workmen) to the master- 
printers; but from the corrector they expect nothing, because the 
master-printer choosing him, the workmen can do him no kindness. 

C3413 



These "way-gooses" are always kept about Bartholomew-tide; and 
till the master-printer have given this "way-goose," the journeymen 
do not use to work by candle-light. 

"If a journeyman marries he pays half-a-crown to the Chapel. 

"When a wife comes to the Chapel, she pays six-pence, and then 
all the journeymen join their two-pence apiece to welcome her. 

"If a journeyman have a son born, he pays one shilling; if a 
daughter, six-pence. 

"The father of the Chapel drinks first of Chapel drink, except 
some other journeyman have a 'token,' viz., some agreed piece of 
coin or metal, marked by consent of the Chapel, for them, producing 
that token, he drinks first; this token is always given to him who in 
the round should have drank, had the last Chapel drink held out; 
therefore, when the Chapel drink comes in, they generally say, who 
has the token? 

"Though these customs are no solaces, yet the Chapel excom- 
municates the delinquent; and he shall have no benefit of Chapel- 
money till he have paid. 

"It is also customary in some printing-houses that if the com- 
positor or pressman make either the other stand still through neglect 
of their contracted task, then that he who neglected shall pay him 
that stands still as much as if he had wrought. 

"The compositors are jocosely called galley-slaves, because allu- 
sively they are, as it were, bound to their galleys; and the pressmen 
are jocosely called horses, because of the hard labour they go 
through all day long. 

"An apprentice, when he is bound, pays half-a-crown to the 
Chapel, and when he is made free, another half-a-crown, but is yet 
no member of the Chapel; and if he continues to work journey-work 
in the same house, he pays another half-crown, and is then a member 
of the Chapel." 

These were the Chapel customs of the year 1650 Anno Domine! 

Almost two centuries later, in 1830, in important printing houses, 
where manly workmen were employed, the "calling of a Chapel" 
was a matter of great importance and generally it took place when 
a member of the plant had a complaint to prefer against any of his 
fellow-workmen. He made the first intimation of his grievance to 
the Father of the Chapel, usually the oldest printer in the printing- 
house, who, when he found the charge could be substantiated, and 
that the injury supposed to have been received was of such magni- 
tude as to call for the interference of the law, summoned the 

[3421] 



members of the Chapel before him at the "imposing stone." There 
he received the allegations and the defense in solemn assembly, and 
dispensed justice with typographical rigor and impartiality. 

The punishment generally consisted in the criminal providing 
a libation by which the offended workmen might wash away the 
stain that his misconduct left on the body at large. When the 
plaintiff was not able to substantiate his charge the fine then fell 
upon himself for having maliciously arraigned his companion, a 
practice which was marked with the features of sound policy, as it 
never loses sight of the "good of the Chapel." 

This precise plan of a chapel was copied by members of the 
printing craft throughout Europe, and brought to America by immi- 
grant printers. The preceding pages show that the "chapel" col- 
lected funds which were administered and used for the benefit of the 
chapel members. This basic idea of reciprocity and co-operation has 
been one of the most important objectives of all unions up to the 
present day. It should be noted that in the United States of America 
the International Typographical Union presents, with some modifi- 
cations, the nearest approach to the English chapel. The designation 
"chapel" has been adopted to denote individual branches of Ameri- 
can printing craft unions. 

The earliest instance of co-operation among printers took place 
shortly before the outbreak of the Revolutionary War. Times were 
hard, especially for printers. Prices of provisions were high and 
steadily advancing; on account of the blockade the supply of fire- 
wood, the only fuel of the time, was greatly reduced and the price 
was beyond the reach of the printers. Taxes and rents were also 
increasing. The printers called a meeting for the express purpose of 
insisting upon an advance in their wages. They fixed what they 
considered a fair pay for their work and presented their demands 
to the newspapers of which they were employees. The papers con- 
sented to the increases except "The New York Gazette," owned by 
James Rivington. Upon his refusal to grant the increase the printers 
of his paper refused to work any longer at the old wage. Finding 
himself unable to print his newspaper Rivington yielded. The print- 
ers who had been receiving a wage of less than a dollar per day 
returned to their work. 

The next instance of co-operation among printers in America 
occurred in Boston in 1786. The General Court of Massachusetts 
at its winter session of 1785 passed an act levying a duty of two- 
thirds of a penny on each copy of every newspaper and almanac 

C 343 ] 



printed within the state, to apply only to advertisements. Even in 
its altered form the law was not acceptable. In the issue dated July 
27th, 1786 of 'The Exchange Advertiser," published by Peter Edes 
in Boston, there appeared a notice signed by twelve Boston printers 
and their partners, as follows: 

'To The Public" 

"Monday next, the 31st instant, will complete one year since the 
Tax on News-Papers commenced. We have severely felt the injurious 
Restraint; and, respecting the size, in imitation of the diminutive 
Gazettes of Spain and other arbitrary governments in Europe, we 
must now reduce ours. Accordingly, after the last day of the present 
month, we shall be obliged to print our respective Gazettes on a 
smaller scale, excepting those published twice in the week, the prices 
of which will be enhanced proportionately. As Necessity alone is 
the cause, we hope for the sympathetick acquiesence of our good 
Customers. Those of them who are citizens of the neighbouring 
States, while they are enjoying the full exercise of the darling 
privilege of a free Press, will, it is humbly hoped, not suddenly 
withdraw the aid which their custom has hitherto afforded us. We 
are preparing, and shall soon publish, a respectful address to our 
fellow citizens, which will contain such observations on the act in 
question, and such a narration of the doings of the Legislature, as, 
we doubt not, will prove satisfactory to every honest friend of the 
revolution." 

"BENJAMIN EDES & SON PETER EDES JAMES D. GRIFFITH 

SAMUEL HALL JOHN W. FOLSOM BENJAMIN RUSSEL 

JOHN MYCALL ADAMS & NOURSE STEBBINS & RUSSEL 

EDWARD E. POWARS THOMAS B. WAIT ALLEN & CUSHING 

"Boston, July, 1786." 

Whether the signers of the protest were organized or whether 
they co-operated only when emergencies arose is not known. They 
probably remained in some sort of association in this particular 
instance until 1788, for it was not until that year that the objec- 
tionable stamp tax was repealed. 

In 1788 the printers and booksellers of Philadelphia met to 
form regulations for the benefit of the trade. Isaiah Thomas of 
Worcester, Mass., attended, which indicates that the movement was 
national. Benjamin Franklin, although 82 years of age and not 
actively in business, was interested as always in matters connected 

H344;| 



with printing, and one of the meetings was held in his house. Thomas 
recorded the event, but neglected to give further particulars. Six 
years later, in 1794, the Company of Printers of Philadelphia was 
organized. 

David Bruce and George Bruce were vice president and secretary 
respectively of the Franklin Typographical Association, formed in 
New York in 1799, the first printers' union in America. The first 
work of the union was to demand an increase in wages. Compositors 
and pressmen were getting $6.00 a week for 71 hours' work; they 
demanded $7.00 and obtained it. 

The book publishers of that time were also printers and book- 
sellers. In December, 1801 Mathew Carey of Philadelphia sent a 
circular to the leading booksellers throughout the country suggesting 
the formation of a co-operative association. The following March 
a committee of the booksellers of Baltimore issued a circular recom- 
mending a memorial to Congress requesting it to lay a duty on 
imported books. As a result of these two and probably other cir- 
culars there was held in New York in June, 1802 the first American 
Literary Fair, at which an association of booksellers and printers 
was formed, with Hugh Gains of New York as president and Mathew 
Carey as secretary. 

The Society of Printers of Boston and Vicinity was formed in 
1805 with Benjamin Russel as its first president. Its name was 
changed in 1808 to the Faustus Association. The New York Society 
of Printers was also formed in 1805. 

Today there exists in the United States of America the Inter- 
national Stereotypers and Electrotypers Union. It comprises local 
unions spread all over the country. To record the historical develop- 
ment of each of these unions would, in so far as the essential facts 
are concerned, constitute a constant repetition. To afford a typical 
example of the arduous work encountered in the formation of such a 
union, and since it is the oldest union of the stereotyping craft in 
this country, a short historical sketch of New York Stereotypers 
Union No. 1 is offered on the following pages. 

[It is to be greatly deplored that the men who were active in 
union work from the very inception of co-operative endeavor up 
to a few decades ago, failed almost entirely to keep a continuous 
record of events concerning proceedings of the union, events that 
today would constitute a history of great import. As it is, reference 
to meetings and minutes of such gatherings and many other vital 
matters are almost non-existent, or to say the least, exceedingly 

£34511 



sparse and intermittent. Two descriptive articles have been written, 
one by James Pettiner and the other by M. A. Matthews, both of 
which shed light on the early history and proceedings of the New 
York Stereotypers Union, and of this material a restricted use has 
been made.] 

It was between the years 1861 and 1862 that two finishers sitting 
next to each other discussing the signs of the times, concluded that 
the prospects of the trade were not very encouraging. There were 
only about half a dozen shops at that time, all using the plaster 
process of molding, and all but two independent in not being 
attached and belonging to any printing firm. Newspaper stereotyp- 
ing had not been started, consequently the business required but a 
limited number of finishers. They became convinced that if the 
prevailing conditions continued, in a few years there would be a 
surplus of finishers and a consequent reduction in wages, for there 
were no restrictions of any kind on the employers, and as the shop 
in which they worked planned to take on as many boys, as appren- 
tices, as they could use, and discharge them when they reached their 
majority, it was evident that that shop alone would in a few years 
duplicate the number of finishers employed at the trade. 

This appeared to them to be a very serious matter, especially as 
the Civil War, then waging, the suspension of specie payment by 
the banks and the increasing premium on gold and silver lowered 
the purchasing power of the current money, increasing the cost of 
living, caused them to consider what prospect there would be to 
obtain an increase in wages, then $10 per week. A grave question 
was whether the finishers in the different shops would co-operate, 
especially as quite a number of them were of middle age and 
wedded to the old manner so long established. There was also very 
little intimacy between the different shops. 

However, they concluded to write a request to the other shops 
to consider the condition of the trade and the advisability of 
endeavoring to obtain an increase in their wages from $10 to $12 per 
week. Having no authority, and also due to a subconscious fear of 
reprisal on the part of their employer, they signed the request "The 
Committee." The recipients of these letters were curious to know the 
object of such a meeting, and who were responsible for calling them 
together. 

So on June 6th, 1863 a number of these artisans met in Tammany 
Hall, then located at the southwest corner of Park Row and 
Frankfort Street in New York City, and in that meeting there was 

[3461 




132. James Rivington 



C347] 




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133. Reproduction of a Page from the Issue of the "Exchange Ad- 
vertiser" of Boston, dated July 27, 1786. At the Top of the Fourth 
Column Appears a Notice of the Earliest Known Co-operative Action 

of American Printers 



[348] 



laid the foundation upon which the first stereotypers' union in the 
United States was reared. 

In those days it took courage for workers to meet and discuss 
together their problems. The prevailing social system admitted little 
consideration for the workers of any class, and even less than that 
for those employed manually. Based primarily upon the theory that 
the less the wage the more amenable the worker, was rule with a 
rigid discipline, the effect of which manifested itself in many forms 
of injustices. Organizations of working men met with stern dis- 
approval when they were allowed at all, and even the civil laws 
denied them the rights which are today firmly established and 
commonly enjoyed. 

In this first meeting the finishers decided to make a request on 
their employers for an advance to $12 and to report at a future 
meeting. This meeting, the second, was held on June 13th, 1863, and 
it was reported that the workers of the largest shops, whose assist- 
ance was necessary, had accepted a compromise offer of $11 made 
to them by their employers. However, in this meeting a temporary 
chairman and a secretary were selected and a committee of three 
appointed to negotiate an increase in the wage scale to become 
effective three days later! The small attendance at the second meet- 
ing raised a doubt as to whether all the stereotype finishers would 
co-operate, and before the third meeting convened a written request 
was sent to each shop asking that conditions in the industry be 
studied with a view to eliminating some if not all of the hardships 
under which they worked, and appealing for support in the matter 
of the wage increase. 

As a result of this wise action the third meeting, held on June 
15th in the "Putter Mug" located on Frankfort Street, was attended 
by a majority of the finishers from all shops. Some were moved with 
a real desire to co-operate while others were moved more by 
curiosity to ascertain just who comprised the committee responsible 
for such an unprecedented step. However, a real organization was 
perfected, and before the assembly adjourned the action of the 
previous meeting in appointing a committee to negotiate a wage 
increase was approved. Thus was born the first scale committee. 
At that time the prevailing wage was $10 per week of 60 hours, 
and the demand was for a $2 increase. After a period of negotia- 
tion the committee reported back at a subsequent meeting that they 
had accepted a compromise of $1. This advantage was obtained 
before a formal organization existed; the men were eager to make 



use of this knowledge and meetings were held in July and August, 
1863 for the purpose of creating a formal organization and con- 
solidating the gains which had been procured. 

It was at this time that stereotyping was begun on the news- 
papers, and those employed on them were inclined to form an 
organization independent of the finishers. For a time a confused 
situation existed because of this feeling, but the matter was finally 
settled to the satisfaction of all concerned. The two branches met 
on September 1st, 1863 and formally organized with a membership 
of 49 men. The president, vice president and secretary-treasurer 
were elected and the name "The Stereotypers Association" officially 
adopted. The constitution provided an initiation fee of $1 and dues 
of 25 cents per month. Admission to the union required "A candi- 
date for membership must be a stereotype finisher or molder by the 
papier-mache method." 

The new association had hardly begun to function when a new 
problem arose in the form of the electrotype. While this process 
was known as an adjunct to plate making, at that time it had a 
limited use. At the meeting of the "Stereotypers Association" on July 
2nd, 1867 a communication was received from "The Electrotypers 
Union" proposing an amalgamation. A committee was appointed 
to pass upon the qualifications of electrotypers, as all of the latter 
except the molders were looked upon as unskilled laborers. There 
was a debate but no mention is made as to how the case was dis- 
posed of. This proves again what a regrettable circumstance it is 
that only very incomplete and desultory records of proceedings were 
kept in those historical years. In the years following many meetings 
and conferences in re wage adjustments were held, and such adjust- 
ments were effected, all accruing to the benefit of the stereotypers. 

It was on June 6th, 1876 that the employers petitioned the 
association for a reduction of wages, omitting mention as to just 
how much this reduction was to be. Conferences were arranged and 
finally in October the representative of the employers declared that 
a reduction in the wage scale was an absolute necessity. He made 
the statement, repeated by employers many times since, that "the 
high wage rate was causing work to leave the city." He then asked 
for a $3 reduction in the scale, and in December the association 
acceded to the demand. 

The benevolent activities of the union had for long been one 
of its outstanding characteristics, begun within five years of its 
organization. The first death recorded was in 1867, the entire union 

[35011 



attending the funeral in addition to defraying the expenses. In the 
same year a donation was voted to the family of another deceased 
member, and in 1871 a permanent death benefit of $75 was estab- 
lished and made part of the constitution. 

There is evidence that organizations of the stereotyping craft 
existed in Boston, Cincinnati and Philadelphia in 1863, as the 
minutes of the New York association record instructions to the 
secretary to notify the craft in those cities of its actions. Even 
though these organizations were active prior to the formation of the 
New York union there remains no record of their continuous exist- 
ence. To the present New York Stereotypers Union No. 1 belongs the 
distinction of being the oldest in the stereotyping craft. 

It was during the early '60's that the electrotype entered the 
field as an important factor in the printing industry. The electro- 
typing process was rapidly changing and reaching a stage of refine- 
ment that challenged the use of the stereotype for superior printing 
results. 

The invention of the plating dynamo greatly reduced the time 
necessary for the deposition of the copper shell. Other improvements 
followed, and within a short time the electrotype displaced the 
stereotype in the commercial printing offices. The electrotypers and 
finishers became more conscious of their power now that their 
services were in greater demand, and at this opportune period "The 
Knights of Labor" appeared upon the scene. They first approached 
the Stereotypers Association in 1885, and a deputy of the Knights 
of Labor at that time proposed that the association make applica- 
tion for a charter. This demand was refused, whereupon the Knights 
of Labor issued a charter to the stereotype and electrotype finishers 
under the name of "The Good-Will Lodge" No. 4053. As an answer 
the old association joined the Central Labor Union and sent dele- 
gates in May, 1886 to the Trades Union Conference (this eventu- 
ally became the American Federation of Labor) at Philadelphia. 
Meanwhile the members of the Good-Will Lodge of the Knights of 
Labor had not been idle. They applied for and received a charter 
from the International Typographical Union, adopting the name 
"Electrotypers and Stereotypers Union No. 1." The action of the 
International Typographical Union was bitterly assailed and enmity 
was rife until in 1888 delegates of the Good- Will Lodge and the 
Stereotypers Association met and, under a plan proposed two years 
before by James J. Freel, they combined and named the union 
"The New York Stereotypers Union;" however, the foundry men 

C351] 



formed themselves into a separate unit. In 1889 the union was 
granted a charter by the International Typographical Union. 

In 1893 an organization was formed within the International 
Typographical Union known as 'The Trades District Union." Thru 
the extended power conferred upon the delegates by the stereotypers' 
and electrotypers' unions they were able to correct conditions which 
had in truth fostered many abuses, and eventually led to the 
formation of an international union. While the Trades District 
Union had been fairly successful in its meetings during the years 
of its existence, the idea of an international union had been con- 
tinually discussed, but until 1900 no concerted action had been 
taken. In that year the resolution advocating withdrawal was first 
presented; it failed to pass because of lack of cohesive action. The 
following year, 1901, at the convention of the International Typo- 
graphical Union held in Birmingham, Ala., the legislation was 
finally enacted and the stereotypers legally withdrew from the par- 
ent body, forming in 1902 'The International Stereotypers Union." 
With its organization the New York Stereotypers Union became the 
New York Stereotypers Union No. 1 of the International Stereo- 
typers and Electrotypers Union of North America. 

The further history of the union is a matter of record and 
concerns mainly, up to this date, decisions made to ameliorate the 
working conditions and to abolish abuses threatening those condi- 
tions. The first president of the New York Stereotypers Union was 
Edward Mills and the present incumbent is Michael J. P. Hogan. 

Affiliated with the International Stereotypers and Electrotypers 
Union are 167 local unions, comprising in total 9,022 members. 
In all unions there exist Women's Auxiliaries, whose purpose is to 
further the purchasing of articles and goods American-made and 
Union-made. Also they render mutual aid and assistance to those 
members who are less fortunate. 

From the time of the first strike in the office of Rivington's 
"Gazette" in the Revolutionary period to as late as 1850, labor 
conditions in newspaper offices were far from satisfactory. Most of 
the trouble was due to the fact that the compositors were paid for 
the amount of work they did and not for the amount of time they 
spent in the composing room. 

The men who worked on the morning newspapers complained 
about the irregularity of their time. Local news and items clipped 
from the exchanges were usually in type by midnight. Sometimes 
ships bringing important news from abroad might dock at a wharf 

C352] 





34. Edward Mills, First President of the New York 
Stereotypers Union 



[353] 




[354] 



late in the evening, and newspapers had to be prepared to meet 
just such an emergency. Printers could either hang around the office 
or they could go home, only to be aroused from their slumbers 
by the office devil who came with orders to hasten to the office in 
order that the latest news be put in the morning issue. 

There was no uniformity in the price which individual papers 
paid their printers. These conditions were remedied thru the unions 
that were organized, and by the middle of the 19th century they 
did much to improve the conditions of the printers employed on 
city papers. 

At the start editors were not debarred from membership in these 
unions. Horace Greeley was the first president of "The New York 
Printers Union" established in 1850, and he actively engaged in 
using his pen and his influence to improve working conditions 
among New York printers. When certain New York papers criticized 
the attempt to establish a union scale of wages throughout the city, 
it was Greeley who defended the cause of the printers to obtain "a 
fair day's pay for a fair day's work." 

Other strikes of momentous importance to the newspaper press- 
men, compositors and stereotypers were, first, the one instituted by 
the Typographical Union in 1883. The union started a weekly paper 
called "The Boycotter," to induce other trade unions to take up 
their strike against certain newspaper owners. This strike was not 
adjusted until 1892. Another important strike was the one fought 
out in the plant of "The New York Sun" in 1899. Hostilities did not 
cease until 1902 when a mutual agreement was reached. 

A few remarks concerning schools and research work: A steadily 
increasing number of institutions and schools are performing the 
very commendable work of teaching practical stereotyping, and re- 
search work in the art is steadily increasing. In Europe there exist 
organizations associated with affiliates all through the different coun- 
tries, which are engaged solely in the work of improving present 
printing methods, devoting special attention to newspaper problems. 
It is beyond the scope of this compilation to make mention of all 
centers of these activities. 

Outstanding institutions of such a character abroad are: in 
England, the London School of Printing, which is an old established 
institution with day and evening classes for a five year training 
period in the art of stereotyping. At this school the rudiments of 
salesmanship applicable to the stereotyping industry also are taught. 
The Printing and Allied Trades Research Association (known as 

[355 J 



Patra), in London, devotes a number of its monthly meetings to 
the study and advancement of stereotyping. For instance, one of 
its recent plenary meetings dealt solely with stereotyping problems. 
These meetings are attended by delegates from practically every im- 
portant stereotype plant in England. The Liverpool School of Art 
has an important stereotype division. In the English colonies the 
Sydney Technical School in New South Wales has a practical stereo- 
type department and conducts extensive research work. 

The German Master Printers formed a research bureau in con- 
nection with the Technical High School in Charlottenburg. There 
also exist in that country a number of research laboratories and 
schools located throughout the country and run by the German 
Stereotypers Union, subsidized by the government. 

The Association Generate Typographique of France is the head 
of all printing unions in that country. It maintains schools and 
research bureaus, located in different cities in France. 

In France, the Printing Union subsidizes a number of schools of 
stereotyping and research is carried on in the polytechnical colleges. 

In North America, the first cooperative research work on printing 
problems was undertaken in 1922 when George H. Carter established 
a testing section in the Government Printing Office in Washington. 
This department has been steadily developed and at present the 
testing section undertakes scientific research on problems which affect 
the whole of the printing trade, and naturally includes stereotyping. 
The American electrotypers conduct their research at the Bureau 
of Standards in Washington, and the American Lithographers have 
research laboratories in the University of Cincinnati. In the United 
States there also exist a large number of schools of journalism, 
and many trade schools in which theoretical and practical stereo- 
typing is taught. Furthermore, the mechanical department of the 
American Newspaper Publishers Association publishes regularly ex- 
ceedingly interesting bulletins covering every phase of the printing 
industry, and at their annual meetings which are attended by stereo- 
typers from all over the country they have special stereotype sym- 
posia. There are also the Crafts Clubs with their research divisions 
located all over the United States; furthermore, the technical meet- 
ings of the International Stereotypers and Electrotypers Union with 
its school for stereotype apprentices. Finally the curriculum con- 
ducted yearly by the New York Times with its classes and exhibi- 
tions. 

C356] 



The Canadian printers have a research department for all 
branches of the printing art at the Government Library in Toronto. 



In closing this compilation of historical data on stereotyping, 
the writer would like to repeat his often made statement that printers 
in America are more stereotype minded today than ever before. 
Present business conditions, increased competition, have forced pro- 
ducers and purchasers of printing work to look for substantial 
economies without sacrifice of quality. Of all reproducing mediums 
stereotyping is still the most economical. The ever increasing im- 
provement and refinement of work done by stereotyping is attract- 
ing the purchasers of fine printing to that method. Letter-press 
printing has met all attacks and still maintains its predominant 
position in the printing art. 

The wet paper pulp, clay and plaster of Paris methods of stereo- 
typing dominated the field for over hundreds of years. The wet mat 
stereotyping process which celebrated its centenary in 1929, is still 
used in isolated cases. The infant among the matrices, the dry mat, 
is firmly implanted and has rapidly superseded its parent and grand- 
parents. 

The master stereotyper is well aware of the fact that stereotyping 
is an art as worthy of consideration and esteem as are the many 
other arts of the graphic industry, and he knows that the sum 
total of all of the above recited laborious experiments and the 
brilliant success achieved by his ancestors in the craft, have given 
to the art of printing an indispensable link without which a modern 
printing establishment cannot be imagined. 



C3573 



INDEX 



Adam, Isaac, 272 
Aiken and Rainer, 232 
Alalgograph process, 284 
Allan, Thomas, 70 
Alltone process, 284 
Apian, Philip, 30, 33, 61, 62, 67 
Applegath, Augustus, 70 
Automatic casting boxes, 264 

B 

Backing, 250 

Bakelite, 299 

Baskerville, John, 21 

Beach, M. S., 184 

Beach, Moses Y., 318, 333 

Bendixen, Niels, 89 

Binney and Ronaldson, 149, 156 

Birdsall, Alfred, 195, 209 

Blackwell, B. B., 319 

Blanchard, William, 183 

Blanketing, 250 

Block printing, 15, 38 

Blue Ribbon mat, 329 

Bodoni, Giambattista, 21 

Boudier, 57 

Bradford, Andrew, 100 

Bradford, William, 101 

Breuer, John, 198 

Brightly, Charles, 69 

Broderick, Major David, 249 

Bruce, David and George, 149, 

158 
Brunei, Sir Marc Isambard, 70 
Brush beating, 193, 194 
Bullock press, 321 
Butter Bros., 89 



Cafelite, 300 
Campbell, John, 99, 130 



Camus, Armand Gaston, 91 

Carey, Matthew, 154, 156, 345 

Carez, Joseph, 51 

Carr and French, 190 

Carter, George H., 356 

Casting, 261 

Casting boxes, 248, 254, 259, 260, 273, 

274 
Casting box manufacturers, 264 
Caxton, William, 21, 335 
Cebotype plates, 308 
Celluloid, 84, 192 
Chase, Alonzo, 237 
Clay process, 45 
Claybourn process, 269 
Colden, Cadwallader D., 152, 155 
Collins, T. K., 154, 163 
Columbia press, 309 
Conditioning dry mats, 239 
Congreve, Sir William, 70 
Conner, James, 159, 161, 164 
Connolly, Joseph V., 323, 333 
Cook, Hobart P., 183 
Cosfeldt and Pears, 184 
Cowper, Edward, 70 
Craske, Charles, 174, 176, 262 
Curved newspaper plates, 263 

D 

Damon and Peets, 189 
Darcet, Jean P. J., 57 
1 57 Daule, M., 69 

Davison, Clement, 183 
Dearborn, Benjamin, 130 
Deficiencies of the wet mat, 136 
Dellagana, James, 39, 78, 234, 243 
Didot, Firmin, 23, 39, 53 
Dinckmuth, Conrad, 28 
Direct pressure machine, 206, 211, 212 
Direct pressure machine manufactur- 
ers, 249 

[359] 



Direct pressure molding, 245, 250 

Dobson, Thomas, 150 

Donkin press, 310 

Dry mat manufacturers, American, 

197, 198 
Dry mat manufacturers, German, 144 
Dry pulp for mats, 137 



Eastwood, George, 137 
Elias, Leopold, 89 
Elzevir, Louis, 21 



Ferguson, James, 70 

Finishing machines, 268 

First commercial shop, 53 

Foulis, Andrew, 47, 59 

Foulis, Robert, 60 

Franklin, Benjamin, 100 

Franklin Typographical Association, 

150, 345 
Freel, James J., 351 
Frey, J. Fremont, 236, 240 
Funckter, J. Michel, 46 



Gage, Charles M., 189 

Galley, M., 185 

Ged, William, 41, 59 

Genoux, Claude, 34, 39, 75, 234, 243 

Gessner, Christian Friedrich, 29 

Glazier process, 307 

Glover, Rev. Jesse, 21, 129, 148 

Government Printing Office, 179, 330 

Gutenberg, Johannes, 16, 19, 20, 21, 

31 
Gutenberg press, 37, 269 



H 

Hamblen, C. G., 256 
Handley, W, C, 232 
Hansard, 65 
Harris, Benjamin, 99 
Hart, Charles F., 196 
Herhan, Louis Etienne, 53, 88 
Hershman, Col. Oliver S., 209 
Hobbs, Charles, 183 



Hoe press, 276 
Hoffmann, Franz I. J., 48 
Hogan, Michael J. P., 352 
Hogg, James, 83 
Holite mats, 306 
Howe, Jedediah, 155 
Hughes, M. J., 238, 319 
Huntoon, Benjamin B., 186 



Isermann, A., 88 



I 



J 



Janin, Emil, 87, 192 
Johnson, Henry, 48 
Johnson, Lawrence, 156, 162 
Joslyn, George J., 320, 333 
Joyeuze, Pierre de, 58 

K 

Kahrs, Henry, 219 

Kellogg, Ansel Nash, 192, 318, 333 

Kempe, Karl, 144 

Kingsley, John L., 183 

Koberger, Antonius, 21 

Koenig, Friedrich, 272, 315 

Koenig and Bauer press, 275, 316 

Krafft, Robert, 89 

Kunst and Werck Schul, 68, 73, 74 



Leighton, Alfred, 84 
Lenzart process, 280 
Logography, 47 
Lothian, George Baxter, 159 

M 



MacKellar, Thomas, 164, 166 
Mame Bros., 54, 88 
Manchin and Morel, 83 
Mazall and Hartnet, 237 
McLean, J. D., 184 
McNitt, V. V., 323, 333 
Mears, W., 189 
Mecom, Benjamin, 102, 148 
Metal, 258 

Metal pots, 241, 242, 258 
Mills, Edward, 352 
Mix, Simon H., 184 

[360] 






Moistening dry mats, 239 

Mud process, 222 

Mueller, Johann Jacob, 39, 53, 79 

Muir, 82 

Multiplate casting box, 267 

N 

Napier, John, 83 
Nelson, M., 185 
Newspaper press, 328 
Newton, Alfred Vincent, 84 







Oldest matrix, 27 



Packing, 250 

Palaplates, 307 

Paper, 7, 8 

Papyrus, 3, 4, 11 

Paramats, 305' 

Parchment, 4, 6, 17 

Paroy, Count de, 57 

Partridge, C. S., 233 

Patents on stereotyping, 180 

Pepe, G. P., 252 

Perkins, Jacob, 148, 160, 163 

Phoebus, Jose W., 203 

Pingeron, 51 

Pi-Sheng, 24 

Plantin, Christopher, 21 

Plaster of Paris stereotyping, 58, 168, 

227 
Plastic plate equipment, 311 
Polytyping, 47 
Poole, Moses, 69, 75, 78 
Poteral, 66 

Potter stereotyping outfit, 142 
Preheating, 255 
Printing presses, 269 
Printing press improvements, 269 



R 

Raid, Carl, 197 
Ramage, David, 149 
Ramage press, 272 
Rapid Plastic mat, 329 
Renaudot, Theophraste, 95, 127 
Renck process, 283 



Rivett mat machine, 188, 231 
Rivington, James, 343, 347 
Rollers, 199, 200, 205 
Roller manufacturers, 245 
Rubber plates, 301, 312 
Rubber plate equipment, 311 
Rusaud, M., 76, 234 



Sauer, Christian, 129 

Schimansky, Hermann, 138, 142 

Schneider and Schott, 202 

Schock, James J., 318, 333 

SchoefTer, 19 

Schoop process, 285 

Schreiner, Friedrich, 204 

Schwartz, Arnold A., 225 

Scorchers, 229, 230, 252 

Scorching, 252 

Shaving stereotypes, 172 

Shean, Michael, 179 

Shield, Francis, 149, 165 

Shrinkage, 257 

Silvertone mat, 329 

Skene, Charles A., 191 

Stanhope, Charles Mahon, Earl of, 

58, 63, 92 
Stanhope press, 165, 271, 304 
Starr and Sturdevant, 166 



Thomas, Isaiah, 148, 151 
Tilloch, Alexander, 46, 59 
Timroth, Louis G., 190 
Todd, George, 81 
Trist process, 283 



Vacuum casting boxes, 268 
Valleyre, Gabriel, 45, 86 
Van der Mey, 40, 53 
Vanoni, 75 

W 



Washington, George, Jr., 311 
Washington press, 271 
Watts, John, 148, 153 
Weigl, Johann E., 143 
Wesel, Ferdinand, 192, 246 



Wet mat process, 231 Wood, Benjamin, 196 

Wet paper pulp process, 227 Wood, Henry A. W., 196 

White, Elihu, 165 

Whitmore, Willard S„ 186 X 

Willbur, J. M., 261 Xylonite, 88 

Williamson, Glenn S„ 207 

Wilson, Andrew, 63 Z 

Winkler casting box, 267 Zenger, John Peter, 101 



[362]